Key to Cladina and Cladonia on the
Queen Charlotte Islands and neighboring areas

by Irwin M. Brodo and Teuvo Ahti

Prepared in 1995

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Species in bold occur in the area. Species in brackets have not yet been found in the area.

key to Cladonia

CLADINA

1.    Thallus PD+ red, fumarprotocetraric acid present     2

1.    Thallus PD-, or PD+ yellow, fumarprotocetraric acid absent     5

 

2.    Podetia greenish yellow, podetial surface smooth, thallus K-, atranorin absent, branching divergent.     3

2.    Podetia grey, podetial surface webby, or verruculose, thallus K+ pale yellow, atranorin present, branching falcate.    4

 

3.    Branching mainly in dichotomies, pycnidial jelly red        [Cladina ciliata]

3.    Branching mainly in trichotomies, pycnidial jelly hyaline    Cladina arbuscula subsp. beringiana

 

4.    Colour of medulla at podetial base strongly blackened (melanotic), apothecia rare, pycnidial jelly red              Cladina stygia

4.    Colour of podetial base more or less the same as upper portions, apothecia common, pycnidial jelly hyaline          Cladina rangiferina

 

5.    Branching equal (isotomic), branching mainly in tetrachotomies    6

5.    Branching unequal (anisotomic), branching mainly in dichotomies, or mainly in trichotomies    7

 

6.    Podetial tips PD+ yellow, psoromic acid present    Cladina stellaris (chemotype 2)

6.    Podetial tips PD-, psoromic acid absent    [Cladina stellaris (chemotype 1)]

 

7.    Podetia brown or grey, usnic acid absent, thallus KC-     8

7.    Podetia yellow-green or greenish yellow, usnic acid present, thallus KC+ yellow    9

 

8.    Surface of podetia composed of thin, smooth, irregular areoles; main branches often over 1.5 mm thick; thallus K+ yellow; merochlorophaeic acid and atranorin present, perlatolic acid absent      Cladonia wainioi

8.    Surface of podetia composed of tiny, flocculent, rounded areoles; main branches rarely over 1.5 mm thick; thallus K-; merochlorophaeic acid and atranorin absent, perlatolic acid present    Cladina portentosa subsp. pacifica f. decolorans

 

9.    Surface of podetia composed of tiny, flocculent areoles distributed over a transluscent stereome; branching mainly in di- and trichotomies; upper part of podetia often becoming brown; thallus UV+ bright blue-white, perlatolic acid present     Cladina portentosa subsp. pacifica f. pacifica

9.    Surface of podetia more or less continuous, sometimes verruculose; branching mainly in tri- and tetrachotomies, dichotomies sometimes frequent; upper part of podetia more or less uniform in colour; thallus UV- or dull grey, perlatolic acid absent      [Cladina mitis]

 

key to Cladina

CLADONIA

Synopsis:

1.    Podetia absent    2
1.    Podetia present    5

5.    Thallus much branched to richly branched    6
5.    Thallus unbranched, or once or twice branched    18

18.   Scyphi (cups) present on at least some podetia    19
18.   Scyphi absent    71

19.   Scyphi opening by a gaping hole    20
19.   Scyphi closed (or irregularly perforate)    22

22.   Thallus with yellowish tint (usnic acid present)     23
22.   Thallus not distinctly yellowish (usnic acid absent)    34

23.   Soredia or corticate granules present on podetia    24
23.   Soredia or corticate granules absent, although microsquamules and peltate areoles may be present    33

34.   Soredia present    35
34.   Soredia absent    56

35.   Thallus PD-    36
35.   Thallus PD+ orange or red    38

38.   Apothecia red; thallus PD+ orange (thamnolic acid)    32
38.   Apothecia brown; thallus PD+ red (fumarprotocetraric acid)     39

39.   Soredia farinose    40
39.   Soredia granular    47

56.   At least some scyphi with central proliferations    57
56.   Scyphi with only marginal or no proliferations     60

60.   Primary squamules more than 20 mm long    61
60.   Primary squamules less than 20 mm long    62

62.   Podetial base melanotic (blackening)    63
62.   Podetial base not melanotic    65

71.    Podetia with soredia or corticate granules    72
71.    Podetia without soredia or corticate granules    88

 

Key to Cladonia Species:

1.    Podetia absent    2

1.    Podetia present    5

 

2.    Squamules PD- or PD+ yellow (atranorin)    C. symphycarpa

2.    Squamules PD+ red (fumarprotocetraric acid)    3

 

3.    Primary squamules brown, mainly horizontal, thick, subfoliose    [C. pocillum]

3.    Primary squamules yellowish- to greyish green, mainly ascending, relatively thin    4

 

4.    Squamules usually pure white below, sometimes browned in part, rarely with corticate patches, not becoming markedly strap-shaped, always K+ yellow (atranorin)        [C. macrophyllodes]

4.    Squamules white to brown below, usually with corticate areoles or patches, becoming strap-shaped and branched, usually K- (atranorin rare)    C. schofieldii

 

5.    Thallus much branched to richly branched    6

5.    Thallus unbranched, or once or twice branched    18

 

6.    Thallus with a distinct yellowish tint (usnic acid present)    7

6.    Thallus without a distinct yellowish tint (usnic acid absent)    12

 

7.    Stereome (inner medulla) fibrous    8

7.    Stereome smooth, not fibrous    9

 

8.    Podetial tips PD+ yellow (psoromic acid)    [C. nipponica]

8.    Podetia entirely PD- (usnic acid alone)    C. kanewskii

 

9.    Thallus lacking a cortex, surface dull, webby     (see key to Cladina)

9.    Thallus corticate, surface often shiny, smooth to webby    10

 

10.   Cups occasionally produced at branch tips; contains barbatic acid    [C. amaurocraea]

10.   Cups absent; lacking barbatic acid    11

 

11.   Containing squamatic acid    C. uncialis (chemotype 1)

11.   Containing hypothamnolic acid    C. uncialis (chemotype 2)

 

12.   Thallus PD-    13

12.   Thallus PD+ red or PD+ yellow    14

 

13.   Containing merochlorophaeic acid    C. wainioi

13.   Lacking merochlorophaeic acid    (see key to Cladina)

 

14.   Thallus PD+ yellow-orange, K+ yellow (thamnolic acid)    [C. poroscypha]

14.   Thallus PD+ red, K- or brownish (fumarprotocetraric acid)    15

 

15.   Podetia entirely lacking squamules    (see key to Cladina)

15.   Podetia sparingly or abundantly squamulose    16

 

16.   Medulla K+ pale yellow, containing atranorin; podetia short and thick, under 40 mm tall and up to 3.5 mm wide; primary squamules, when present, up to 12 mm long, conspicuous    [C. turgida]

16.   Medulla K-, lacking atranorin; podetia tall and slender, usually over 40 mm tall and 2 mm wide; primary squamules rarely present, up to 5 mm long, inconspicuous    17

 

17.   Granular soredia and microsquamules produced at the podetial tips     C. scabriuscula

17.   Lacking soredia, although eroded cortex sometimes resembles soredia      C. furcata

 

18.   Scyphi (cups) present on at least some podetia    19

18.   Scyphi absent    71

 

19.   Scyphi opening by a gaping hole    20

19.   Scyphi closed (or irregularly perforate)    22

 

20.   Podetia farinose sorediate; cups involute    [C. cenotea]

20.   Podetia without soredia    21

 

21.   Podetia abundantly squamulose (micro- or macrosquamules), largely decorticate     C. squamosa

21.   Podetia with squamules, if present, largely restricted to bases; cortex mostly continuous    C. crispata

 

22.   Thallus with yellowish tint (usnic acid present)     23

22.   Thallus not distinctly yellowish (usnic acid absent)    34

 

23.   Soredia or corticate granules present on podetia    24

23.   Soredia or corticate granules absent, although microsquamules and peltate areoles may be present    33

 

24.   Thallus PD-    25

24.   Thallus PD+ yellow-orange (thamnolic acid)    32

 

25.   Podetia with farinose soredia    26

25.   Podetia with granulose soredia or corticate granules    29

 

26.   Thallus containing squamatic acid, lacking zeorin    27

26.   Thallus containing zeorin, lacking squamatic acid    28

 

27.   Scyphi relatively broad, 2-12 mm across; podetia 15-65 mm tall, often split or torn and/or perforated, especially in upper half    [C. sulphurina]

27.   Scyphi relatively narrow, 1-2.5 mm across; podetia 10-27 mm tall, not split or perforated    C. umbricola

 

28.   Apothecia and pycnidia red; sterile podetia with more or less even cup margins; barbatic acid very rarely present    [C. deformis]

28.   Apothecia and pycnidia pale brown; sterile podetia with more or less dentate margins; barbatic acid usually present in QCI material    C. carneola

 

29.   Squamatic acid present, zeorin absent    30

29.   Squamatic acid absent, zeorin present    31

 

30.   Podetia with corticate granules, lacking true soredia; containing didymic acid     C. metacorallifera

30.   Podetia with granular (usually with some farinose) soredia; lacking didymic acid     C. umbricola

 

31.   Apothecia red; soredia tend to be more granular than farinose, and are usually confined to the upper third of the podetia    C. pleurota

31.   Apothecia pale brown; soredia tend to be more farinose than granular, and usually are dispersed over the entire podetium    C. carneola

 

32.   Podetia with farinose soredia, podetial squamules lacking or confined to base     C. umbricola

32.   Podetia with granular soredia (often sparse); podetial squamules usually abundant     C. transcendens

 

33.   Podetia short, 7-20 mm tall, scyphi relatively broad and goblet-shaped, podetial squamules absent or restricted to the base; contains barbatic acid    C. borealis

33.   Podetia relatively tall, 10-40 mm high; scyphi relatively narrow; podetia usually abundantly squamulose; contains squamatic or thamnolic acid    C. bellidiflora

 

34.   Soredia present    35

34.   Soredia absent    56

 

35.   Thallus PD-    36

35.   Thallus PD+ orange or red    38

 

36.   Scyphi broad, goblet-shaped; containing merochlorophaeic acid     [C. merochlorophaea]

36.   Scyphi narrow; lacking merochlorophaeic acid    37

 

37.   Soredia largely farinose; containing squamatic acid    C. umbricola

37.   Soredia granular; containing homosekikaic acid    [C. rei]

 

38.   Apothecia red; thallus PD+ orange (thamnolic acid)    32

38.   Apothecia brown; thallus PD+ red (fumarprotocetraric acid)     39

 

39.   Soredia farinose    40

39.   Soredia granular    47

 

40.   Containing homosekikaic acid; podetia 10-45 mm tall; scyphi 3-5 mm across; very rare    [C. homosekikaica]

40.   Lacking homosekikaic acid    41

 

41.   Soredia produced in discrete soralia or patches    42

41.   Soredia diffuse, not in discrete patches or soralia    43

 

42.   Thallus with brown tones predominating, inner medulla usually relatively thin      C. cornuta subsp. groenlandica

42.   Thallus with grey-green tones predominating; inner medulla usually relatively thick and tough    C. ochrochlora

 

43.   Scyphi mostly more than 3 mm across    44

43.   Scyphi mostly less than 3 mm across    45

 

44.   Corticate granules present, especially on lower half of podetia; fatty acid usually present    C. asahinae

44.   Corticate granules absent, soredia mostly farinose; fatty acids absent     C. fimbriata

 

45.   Podetia corticate at base and up to 3/4 the length of the podetia; soredia partly granulose, usually in patches    C. ochrochlora

45.   Podetia ecorticate except at very base; not at all granulose sorediate    46

 

46.   Podetia very rarely branched, mostly under 30 mm tall, dark green to olivaceous; primary squamules always present, up to 6 mm long and broad    C. coniocraea

46.   Podetia commonly branched once or twice, 20-100 mm tall, often greyish; primary squamules often disappearing, up to 3 mm long and broad    [C. subulata]

 

47.   Podetial bases melanotic (blackening); cups often with central proliferations    48

47.   Podetial bases not melanotic; cups without central proliferations    49

 

48.   Podetia 20-70 mm tall; cups very narrow compared to podetial length, 1-4 mm across; apothecia common    C. verruculosa

48.   Podetia 10-47 mm tall; cups broad compared to podetial length, 2-8 mm across; apothecia rare    C. albonigra

 

49.   Containing homosekikaic acid    50

49.   Lacking homosekikaic acid    51

 

50.   Podetia slender, 0.8-1.5 mm thick; upper part of podetia mottled; rarely with well-formed scyphi    [C. rei]

50.   Podetia thick, 1-4 mm; upper part of podetia more or less uniform; usually with well-formed scyphi    [C. homosekikaica]

 

51.   Soredia produced in soralia or patches    42

51.   Soredia more or less diffuse    52

 

52.   Width of scyphi mostly less than 3 mm    C. ochrochlora

52.   Width of scyphi mostly greater than 3 mm    53

 

53.   Merochlorophaeic acid present    [C. merochlorophaea]

53.   Merochlorophaeic acid absent    54

 

54.   Soredia largely covering podetia    C. fimbriata

54.   Soredia confined to upper half of podetia    55

 

55.   Fatty acids usually present; at least some farinose soredia present    C. asahinae

55.   Fatty acids absent; entirely lacking farinose soredia    C. chlorophaea

 

56.   At least some scyphi with central proliferations    57

56.   Scyphi with only marginal or no proliferations    60

 

57.   Atranorin present    58

57.   Atranorin absent    59

 

58.   Base of podetia strongly melanotic (blackening); primary squamules small, up to 4 mm long and broad; podetia 20-60 mm tall    [C. stricta]

58.   Base of podetia scarcely melanotic but sometimes yellowish; primary squamules large, up to 12 mm long, 15 mm broad; podetia 7-15 mm tall    [C. macrophyllodes]

 

59.   Primary squamules ligulate, conspicuous, up to 12 mm long and 6 mm broad; podetia short, up to 25 mm tall     C. cervicornis subsp. cervicornis

59.     Primary squamules rounded, small, up to 4 mm long and broad; podetia well-developed, up to 50 mm tall    [C. cervicornis subsp. verticillata]

 

60.   Primary squamules more than 20 mm long    61

60.   Primary squamules less than 20 mm long, or absent    62

 

61.   Primary squamules brown, mainly horizontal, thick, radiating, subfoliose, not melanotic at base        [C. pocillum]

61.   Primary squamules yellowish- to greyish green, mainly ascending, relatively thin, melanotic at base        C. schofieldii

 

62.   Podetial base melanotic (blackening)    63

62.   Podetial base not melanotic    65

 

63.   Podetial squamules usually present; podetial surface dull, "tomentose"     C. phyllophora s. lato

63.   Podetial squamules absent; podetial surface smooth and shiny     64

 

64.   Podetia up to 100 mm long, with frequent, oval perforations; base weakly melanotic; without atranorin     C. gracilis subsp. vulnerata

64.   Podetia up to 45 (rarely100) mm long; not, or rarely perforated; base clearly melanotic; atranorin usually present in small quantity    C. gracilis subsp. elongata

 

65.   Primary thallus evanescent; podetia largely subulate, but scyphi sometimes also present     66

65.   Primary thallus almost always persistent; podetia not subulate, scyphi present    68

 

66.   Atranorin present in large quantity; podetia usually pruinose, at least at tips         [C. ecmocyna subsp. intermedia] (see also couplet 96)

66.   Atranorin absent; podetia not at all pruinose     67

 

67.   Podetial bases becoming yellowish, perforations rare; scyphi commonly present on at least some podetia     [C. maxima]

67.   Podetial bases more or less the same colour as rest of podetia, or whitish, not becoming yellow; perforations frequent; scyphi rare    C. gracilis subsp. vulnerata

 

68.   Scyphi irregular (i.e., asymmetrical), oblique    C. prolifica

68.   Scyphi regular (i.e., symmetrical), round or flat    69

 

69.   Podetial surface smooth    C. gracilis subsp. turbinata

69.   Podetial surface areolate to verruculose    70

 

70.   Containing sekikaic and homosekikaic acids + fumarprotocetraric acid     C. novochlorophaea

70.   Containing fumarprotocetraric acid alone    C. pyxidata

 

71.   Podetia with soredia or corticate granules    72

71.   Podetia without soredia or corticate granules    88

 

72.   Propagules mostly corticate granules or granular microsquamules    73

72.   Propagules ecorticate granular or farinose soredia    75

 

73.   Podetia distinctly yellowish, at least at base; usnic acid often present; apothecia red

        C. transcendens

73.   Podetia not yellowish, even at base    74

 

74.   Podetia PD+ red (fumarprotocetraric acid), slender, branched at tips at least once or twice    C. scabriuscula

74.   Podetia PD- (squamatic acid) or PD+ orange (thamnolic acid), thick, infrequently branched    C. squamosa

 

75.   Podetia PD-    76

75.   Podetia PD+ red, yellow or orange    80

 

76.   Contains homosekikaic acid    [C. rei]

76.   Without homosekikaic acid    77

 

77.   Contains squamatic acid, lacking barbatic acid    C. umbricola

77.   Lacking squamatic acid, containing barbatic acid    78

 

78.   Containing usnic acid, thallus KC+ yellow; podetial base turning bluish (cyanotic)

        [C. cyanipes]

78.   Lacking usnic acid, thallus KC-; podetial base not turning bluish    79

 

79.   Apothecia red; cortex restricted to base of podetia; primary squamules crenate, rounded, rather thick    C. macilenta (chemotype 2)

79.   Apothecia waxy pale brown; cortex commonly covering the lower half of the podetia; primary squamules finely divided, thin    C. norvegica

 

80.   Podetia PD+ orange, K+ deep yellow (thamnolic acid); apothecia red     81

80.   Podetia PD+ red, K- or brownish (fumarprotocetraric acid); apothecia brown    83

 

81.   Podetia squamulose; soredia granular    C. transcendens

81.   Podetia largely esquamulose    82.

 

82.   Primary squamules small, up to 2 mm long, rounded, rather thick     C. macilenta (chemotype 1)

82.   Primary squamules large, up to 7 mm long, incised, finely divided, thin     C. umbricola

 

83.   Soredia mostly confined to upper half or tip of podetia     84

83.   Soredia usually covering podetia      87

 

84.   Podetia tall (65 mm or more), relatively slender, squamulose     C.  scabriuscula

84.   Podetia usually under 40 mm high, not squamulose      85

 

85.   Podetial surface verruculose; soredia mostly diffuse; containing homosekikaic acid     [C. rei]

85.   Podetial surface smooth (where corticate); soredia mostly in patches; lacking homosekikaic acid      86

 

86.   Thallus with brown tones predominating, inner medulla usually relatively thin         C. cornuta subsp. cornuta

86.   Thallus with grey-green tones predominating; inner medulla usually relatively thick and tough    C. ochrochlora

 

87.   Podetia very rarely branched, mostly under 30 mm tall, dark green to olivaceous; primary squamules up to 6 mm long and broad    C. coniocraea

87.   Podetia commonly branched once or twice, 20-100 mm tall, often greyish; primary squamules up to 3 mm long and broad    [C. subulata]

 

88.   Containing usnic acid; apothecia red, common    C. bellidiflora

88.   Lacking usnic acid; apothecia brown, rare    89

 

89.   Podetia PD- or PD+ yellow    90

89.   Podetia PD+ red (fumarprotocetraric acid)    94

 

90.   Medulla K+ pale yellow, UV(LW)-, containing atranorin, lacking squamatic acid; primary squamules ascending, dense, up to 8 mm long    C. symphycarpia

90.   Medulla K-, UV(LW)+ blue-white, lacking atranorin, containing squamatic acid; primary squamules smaller or absent    91

 

91.   Podetia decorticate when mature    C. squamosa

91.   Podetia retaining a continuous cortex when mature    92

 

92.   Podetia melanotic at base, without squamules    C. subfurcata

92.   Podetia not melanotic at base, with or without squamules     93

 

93.   Podetia with rudimentary cups opening by a gaping hole     C. crispata var. crispata

93.   Podetia largely subulate    C. crispata var. cetrariiformis

 

94.   Containing atranorin as a major constituent    95

94.   Lacking atranorin, or present only in small amounts    97

 

95.   Primary squamules up to 12 mm long, 7 mm broad; podetial surface epruinose, dark green    [C. turgida]

95.   Primary squamules small or disappearing; podetial surface pruinose, at least in part, greyish green    96

 

96.   Podetial squamules occasional; podetia up to 4 mm thick     [C. ecmocyna subsp. ecmocyna]

96.   Podetial squamules absent or confined to base; podetia up to 1.5 mm thick     C. ecmocyna subsp. occidentalis

 

97.   Podetia slender, 1-2(-3) mm thick, delicate; holes in axils of branches    C. furcata

97.   Podetia thicker; hole not in branch axils, although the podetia can have lateral perforations    98

 

98.   Podetial bases yellowish, perforations rare    [C. maxima]

98.   Podetial bases more or less the same colour as rest of thallus or melanotic    63

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________________

About this webpage:

Originally posted on: 11 March 2000
Written by: Irwin M. Brodo and Teuvo Ahti
Reformatted and converted to HTML by: Philip F. May   pfmay@aol.com
Suggestions and corrections to content: Irwin M. Brodo ibrodo@mus-nature.ca
Suggested citation:

Brodo, I.M. and Ahti, T. 1995. Key to Cladina and Cladonia on the Queen Charlotte Islands and neighboring areas [online]. Farlow Herbarium, Harvard University, Cambridge. Available: http://www.herbaria.harvard.edu/Data/Farlow/lichens/index.html