Farlow Herbarium, Harvard University

IDENTIFYING NORTH AMERICAN LICHENS:

A GUIDE TO THE LITERATURE

General lichen references, works for beginners, lichen keys online, and a lichen bibliography by genus

by Philip F. May, Irwin M. Brodo, and Theodore L. Esslinger

Revised 27 October 2002

About this webpage          Suggestions for use           Acknowledgements

Back to lichen pages at Harvard

 

References alphabetically by genus    [skip explanation]

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS:

Introduction: How we chose and organized the references
How to obtain a reference

Lichen identification for beginners
Keys for beginners
Great illustrations of many lichens

The twenty most useful North American references
The most useful foreign references

Keys for determining genera
Detailed descriptions of many genera

Keys available via the Internet

Keys for geographic regions:

Keys covering all of North America:
Arctic areas of North America
Boreal and hemiarctic areas of North America
Northeastern United States and eastern Canada
Southeastern United States
Central North America (Midwest to Great Plains)
Rocky Mountains
Southwestern United States
Northwestern United States and western Canada

Keys by type of lichen:

Pyrenolichens (lichens with perithecia)
Sterile species
Lichen parasites and parasymbionts
Species growing on leaves
Species growing on calcareous rock and soil (lime-loving lichens)
Maritime ("ocean-loving") lichens
Calicioid lichens and fungi ("stubble" and "pin" lichens)

General lichen references:

Textbooks--general
Textbooks--ecology, phytosociology, symbiosis, pollution monitoring
Dictionaries and Glossaries
Bibliographies and sources of lichen references
Major checklists and lists of synonyms (accepted names of species)
Systematic arrangements of lichens by order and family

Technique:

Collecting, photographing, curating, and publishing
Microscopic examination and staining
Identifying lichen substances:

Spot tests
Microcrystal tests
Thin-layer chromatography (TLC)
High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

Journals and Series Publications
Lichen collections and herbaria in North America

Addresses of lichenologists
Addresses of lichen groups

Lichen courses, workshops, and forays
Links to other lichen sites

References alphabetically by genus [skip explanation]

 


About this webpage

Authors: Philip F. May, Irwin M. Brodo, and Theodore L. Esslinger
Web implementation: Philip F. May
Original date online: 15 March 2000
Entries updated: 18 October 2002  (includes RLL #187)
URLs updated: 27 October 2002
File size: 853 kilobytes
Send corrections, suggestions, or comments to Philip May: philip.may@verizon.net
Suggested citation:

May, P. F., Brodo, I. M., and Esslinger, T. L. (2000-) Identifying North American Lichens: A Guide to the Literature {Online}. Farlow Herbarium, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Available: http://www.huh.harvard.edu/collections/lichens/guide/index.html

Table of Contents

Suggestions for use

       Unless you have a fast internet connection, we strongly recommend saving this bibliography onto your own computer’s hard drive via the save function of your browser. The file is about eight hundred fifty kilobytes long. Using a dial-up modem, it may take from 30 seconds to four minutes to access via the Internet, but much less time from your hard drive. Once saved, the file may be read directly using your browser or printed out. A printed version will be approximately 190 pages long.

       We try to update the bibliography at least once or twice a year. If you've using a copy stored on your hard drive, you may wish to check for an updated version occasionally.

       Font size may be adjusted on your Browser. With Internet Explorer look on the "View" menu under Fonts. With Netscape Navigator look either under "View" or "Options-General preferences," depending upon the version you have.

        Most browsers will also allow the document to be searched by keyword. If your program allows it, searching using bolded genus names will take you directly to a genus. Without bold, a search will take you to the next mention of the genus anywhere in the document.

Table of Contents

Introduction: How we chose and organized the references

       It has been 14 years since the second author, Irwin M. Brodo, first published "A Guide to the Literature for Identifying North American Lichens." Since then many changes have taken place in lichen systematics, and many new works have been published that are useful in North America. We decided it was time to update and thoroughly revise the Guide.

       This Guide to the Literature is restricted to works useful for identifying North American lichens. We include the continental United States and Canada but exclude Hawaii, Mexico, and Greenland. This is the same geographical area covered by Esslinger and Egan (1995) (the "Sixth Checklist") and its more recent online revisions (the "Cumulative Checklist").

       The first part of the Guide lists major works with a broad scope. These are often in book format, and many are still available for purchase. Some of these works should be in the personal library of every student of lichens. These are listed under various categories, as indicated in the table of contents.

       The second part cites specialized papers for all the genera accepted in the online Cumulative Checklist (for North America). These references are a subset of those you would find by searching the database Recent Literature on Lichens, plus some that are not in that database because they precede it or were omitted.

       Unless otherwise stated, each and every reference in the Guide has been reviewed recently for its relevance for someone trying to identify a North America lichen. We have listed the references under each category in their approximate order of usefulness. For a genus, we might list first the most recent specialized work containing a key to all the North American species; second, any fairly modern generic revision or monograph for North America or adjacent parts of the world; third, older monographs or works with broad keys or many species descriptions; and fourth (sometimes), works describing species added since the most recent key. Because they are cited in the first part of the bibliography, and to avoid endless repetition, important national and regional floras are generally not cited separately for each genus, even though one of them may contain a valuable identification key.

       Unfortunately, for many genera there is no publication that gives complete coverage of North American species, making it difficult to decide which reference to list first. Our judgements are possibly biased towards use in eastern North America. We recognize that another ordering of references may be more appropriate for users in other regions.

       A few of the references in the Guide are out-of-date but are included for their value in delimiting the taxa according to the older literature and for their value in nomenclature. In some cases, a key that has appeared in several publications (in slightly modified form) is cited in its various editions to aid the reader who may have access to one edition and not the other. Generally, however, we have listed only the most up-to-date version and have tried to avoid the needless listing of keys and articles clearly superceded by modern works covering the same subject area.

       We have briefly annotated most of the references. In many cases, the annotation includes a count both of total species and of North American species treated in the cited work. The North American count includes only species listed as accepted in a genus by the North American checklist (or a synonym of an accepted species). This count was made during June, 1999, based on the Cumulative Checklist, so it will gradually go out of date as species are added and deleted from the checklist. For references listed under a genus, we generally indicate if the work has contains a key, species descriptions, and/or useful species illustrations. If any of these is not mentioned in an annotation, it will be absent from the cited work.

       Contrary to the previous Guide, we now cite many unpublished and unprinted works. These would include keys and other information found on websites, computer keys where made available by the author, unpublished printed keys (with permission of the author), informal English translations of works published in foreign languages, and dissertations (when available to the public). In each case we provide instructions how to obtain the unpublished reference.

       Also contrary to the previous Guide, we have included references for all genera of lichenicolous fungi listed in the Cumulative Checklist. For ease in deciphering citations, we have abandoned abbreviations. Except for initials of personal names, the only abbreviation used in the Guide is "N. Am." for "North America."

       In a work of this size and nature, errors of omission and commission are bound to creep in. We invite the reader to submit suggestions for corrections, changes, and additions. Suggestions should go to Philip May: philip.may@verizon.net .

Table of Contents

How to obtain a reference:

       It is an unfortunate fact that the vast majority of the cited works are available only in specialized botanical or mycological libraries associated with universities, botanical gardens, or natural history museums. Some of these may offer visiting privileges, interlibrary loans, or remote copying services (instructions below). Alternately, the reader may be able to write directly to the author(s) for a reprint ( Addresses of lichenologists ). Active journals may sell back issues or make articles available online ( Journals ).

       For some references we have provided the name and e-mail address of a distributor or publisher. The distributor may charge a fee, usually for copying and mailing expenses, but some may charge for their time. Authors sometimes aim for a small profit on their labors, and, of course, publishers charge for their books. Libraries typically charge for remote copying services, sometimes surprisingly large amounts.

       Interlibrary loans and remote copying services are available only through other libraries. Individuals can not obtain these services directly.

      To obtain an interlibrary loan--including xerographic copies of journal articles--simply go to your nearest library. Any library with a reference desk will do, even a local public library. Give the reference librarian the full citation. The librarian can search specialized databases for libraries owning the reference you want and find out which ones will lend or copy it. The fees that libraries charge for lending or copying vary. Your librarian can determine the least expensive option.

Table of Contents

Lichen identification for beginners

By far the best way to start identifying lichens is by attending one or more workshop, course, or field trip led by an experienced lichenologist. It is hard to pick up identification skills on one's own and easy to get onto the wrong track, so beginners should seek help in getting started.

Academic and non-academic courses are offered at various times by various North American institutions and individual lichenologists. Lichen groups also periodically organize field trips and workshops. In addition, experienced lichenologists are often willing to check specimens and share their knowledge on a one-to-one basis with serious beginners.

     Courses, workshops, and field trips        Addresses of lichen groups        Addresses of lichenologists

[The following references include introductions to lichen identification:]

Brodo, I.M., Sharnoff, S.D., and Sharnoff, S. 2001. Lichens of North America. Yale University Press, New Haven & London. 795 pp. [14 introductory chapters, copiously illustrated with drawings and spectacular color photographs}

Brodo, I.M. 1988. Lichens of the Ottawa region, second edition. Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club Special Publication 3: 1-115, Ottawa. [introduction and glossary; available from the author at ibrodo@mus-nature.ca]

Goward, T., McCune, B. and Meidinger, D. 1994. The lichens of British Columbia, Illustrated keys. Part 1 - Foliose and squamulose species. B.C. Ministry of Forests, Special Report Series no. 8, i-iii, 1-181. Free downloadable version available: http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/docs/Srs/Srs08.htm bound version available: http://www.publications.gov.bc.ca [introductory chapter]

Hale, M.E., Jr. and Cole, M. 1988. Lichens of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London. 254 pp. [introductory chapter]

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1979. How to know the lichens, 2nd ed. Wm. C. Brown Co., Dubuque, Iowa, 246 pp. [introductory chapter]

McCune, B. and Geiser, L. 1997. Macrolichens of the Pacific Northwest. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, 386 pp. [introductory chapter]

Anonymous. (no date) Into the World of Lichens {Online}. Available: http://www.gardenbuildingsdirect.co.uk/Article/into-the-world-of-lichens {accessed 2009 August 25} [an introduction to lichen vocabulary]

May, P.F. 2000. How to identify a macrolichen. {Online} Available: http://www.huh.harvard.edu/collections/lichens/howto.html [tips for identifying a leafy, shrubby, or pendent lichen]

See also:     Textbooks--general        Dictionaries and Glossaries        Technique

Table of Contents

Keys for beginners

Keys are used to identify unknown lichens. The easiest keys use a minimum of jargon, provide an illustrated glossary, and offer choices that are relatively simple to make. It is generally best to chose a key covering a region close to where lichens were collected. Beginners should seek help when first starting to key out lichens. This will prevent much frustration.

Here are a selection of keys that are easier to use than most:

Anonymous. (no date) Into the World of Lichens {Online}. Available: http://www.gardenbuildingsdirect.co.uk/Article/into-the-world-of-lichens {accessed 2009 August 25} [an introduction to lichen vocabulary]

Goward, T., McCune, B. and Meidinger, D. 1994. The lichens of British Columbia, Illustrated keys. Part 1 - Foliose and squamulose species. British Columbia, Ministry of Forests, Special Report Series no. 8, i-iii, 1-181. Free downloadable version available: http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/docs/Srs/Srs08.htm bound version available: http://www.publications.gov.bc.ca [keys illustrated by small drawings, useful throughout northern North America; the drawings are very helpful for interpreting the keys; the first chapter give an introduction to lichen identification]

Goward, T. 1999. The lichens of British Columbia, Illustrated keys. Part 2 - Fruticose species. B.C. Ministry of Forests Research Program (Special Report Series no. 9). 319 pp. Free downloadable version available: http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/docs/Srs/Srs08.htm bound version available: http://www.crownpub.bc.ca [keys illustrated by drawings; covers both fruticose macro- and microlichens; notes include chemistry, diagnostic features, habitat, variability, and range; useful throughout northern North America; the drawings are very helpful in interpreting the keys; highly recommended]

Hinds, P.L. and Hinds, J.W. 1998. Simplified field key to Maine macrolichens, published by the authors, 47 pp. [useable throughout New England and adjacent Canada; the key requires some hands-on knowledge of terminology; available from the authors at 254 Forest Avenue, Orono, ME 04473 jwhplh@earthlink.net]

Brodo, I.M. 1988. Lichens of the Ottawa region, second edition. Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club Special Publication 3: 1-115, Ottawa. [northeastern U.S. and eastern Canada; keys written for, and tested on, non-professionals; covers all growth forms, but especially recommended for people starting to work on crusts; drawings of spores; available from the author at ibrodo@mus-nature.ca ]

McCune, B. and Geiser, L. 1997. Macrolichens of the Pacific Northwest. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, 386 pp. [keys, treats and describes most genera and species of the region, many excellent color photographs of species]

Harris, R.C . 1977. Lichens of the Straits Counties, Michigan. (unpublished), 150 pp. [useful in temperate eastern North America; covers all growth forms, especially good for beginners trying to key out crusts because it uses traditional, spore based genera; drawings of spores; many of the names are out of date; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Wetmore, C.M. 1998 (most recent revision). Keys to the lichens of Minnesota. University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota. 83 pp. Available from the author at Clifford.M.Wetmore-1@tc.umn.edu [keys to about 550 species; the keys are organized using traditional, spore-based generic concepts, with a more modern name provided at the species level; the keys are thus relatively easy to use; the author does not accept all the most recent generic names]

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1979. How to know the lichens, 2nd ed. Wm. C. Brown Co., Dubuque, Iowa, 246 pp. [Covers most of the leafy, shrubby, and pendent lichens found on N. Am. list; the keys are not technical, but take some practice to use reliably; names of many taxa are out of date, but the book is still very useful. In print.]

Hinds, P. 1998. Reformatted and updated keys to M.E. Hale, How to know the lichens. 72 pp. [A reworking of Hale's keys to make them faster and easier to use. The species names are brought into conformity with the most recent print version of the North American checklist. Does not contain species descriptions. Designed to be used in conjunction with Hale's original work. Available from Patricia Hinds, 254 Forest Avenue, Orono, ME 04473 jwhplh@earthlink.net]

Table of Contents

Great illustrations of many lichens

Brodo, I.M., Sharnoff, S.D., and Sharnoff, S. 2001. Lichens of North America. Yale University Press, New Haven & London. 795 pp. [keys, descriptions, range maps, and spectacular color photographs for more than 800 conspicuous foliose, fruticose and crustose lichen species; another 700 species are mentioned in valuable comparative notes; concise descriptions of most N. Am. genera, with useful comparisons to similar genera; introductory information about many aspects of lichen biology and systematics; this remarkable book is very useful for getting the feel of a genus; a user may also successfully key out common species; however, due to space constraints fewer than one-third of N. Am. species are keyed and fewer than half are mentioned.]

Wirth, V. 1995. Die Flechten Baden-Württembergs, Teil 1 and 2. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart. 1006 pp. [moderate overlap with N. Am., but modern and with magnificent color photographs; keys, descriptions of genera and species; this edition is an expanded version of the work listed next; English translation available as a computer file from Doyle Anderegg. doyle@uidaho.edu]

Wirth, V. 1987. Die Flechten Baden-Wurttembergs. Eugen Ulmer, GmbH and Co., Stuttgart. 528 pp. [the same magnificent color photographs as above, but fewer; distributions and notes; no keys or descriptions]

Thomson, J.W. 1984. America Arctic Lichens 1. The Macrolichens. Columbia University Press, New York, 504 pp. [keys; descriptions of species and genera; beautifully detailed drawings of most species; useful in boreal and alpine regions]

Hansen, E.S. and Andersen, J. 1995. Greenland Lichens. Rhodos, Copenhagen. 124 pp. [small but good color photographs of 300 lichens; descriptions but no keys; treats both macrolichens and microlichens; good overlap with northern and alpine N. Am.]

McCune, B. and Geiser, L. 1997. Macrolichens of the Pacific Northwest. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, 386 pp. [keys, descriptions of genera and species, 200 excellent color photographs]

Migula, W. 1925-1931 ("1929-1931"). Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. Band IV: Flechten. Hugo Bermühler Verlag, Berlin-Lichterfelde. Teil 1: 527 pp. plus plates, Teil 2: 868 pp. plus plates. [143 beautiful plates, only a few of which are photographs; plates subdivided into several illustrations of species anatomy and habitus; most plates partly or entirely in color; the treatments of some genera are still useful, too]

Jahns, H.J. 1980. Farne-Moose-Flechten Mittel-, Nord- und Westeuropas. BLV Verlagsgesellschaft, München, Wein, Zurich. 256 pp. [300 good-quality color photographs of ferns, mosses, and lichens; the colors are mostly true; keys and descriptions]

John, V. 1990. Atlas der Flechten in Rheinland-Pfalz. Vol. 1 (text) and Vol. 2 (maps). Beiträge zur Landespflege in Rheinland-Pfalz, 13, Landesamt für Umweltschutz und Gewerbeaufsicht Rheinland-Pfalz, Oppenheim, Germany. 275 and 272 pp. [200 color photographs; not reviewed]

Sharnoff, S. and Sharnoff, S. (undated). North American Lichens: {Online}. Available: http://www.lichen.com/portraits.html {accessed 2001 September 13} [ca. 85 color photographs, also introductory topics]

Table of Contents

The "twenty" most useful North American references for identifying lichens

[In addition to the North American references listed below, several European books are of tremendous value in North America, especially for identifying crustose species. These are listed in the next section: best foreign references ].

[The first two references cover all of North America]

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Unpublished. Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [An intermittently updated set of working keys in WordPerfect format of various vintages, the oldest of which can only be roughly converted into MS Word format. Fairly technical--especially at the generic level--but almost complete coverage of N. Am. species, including fungi parasitic on lichens and quite a few lichen species that are presently undescribed, unidentified, or otherwise not yet on the North American checklist. Keys to genera, keys to natural and artificial groups, keys to species, keys to sterile species, detailed descriptions of genera and species; distribution by region or continent; huge glossary, sections on technique. Mostly a compilation from the literature, mixed and matched as needed; full of informal comments, alternate keys, numbering errors in the keys, and new species listed but not yet keyed. Since hyperlinks are lacking, navigation within the multiple subkeys and sections of large genera can be difficult. Definitely a work in progress, but extremely useful, especially once the genus is known. Despite its problems and inconsistencies, this is one of the two most useful references for experienced students identifying North American lichens.]

Brodo, I.M., Sharnoff, S.D., and Sharnoff, S. 2001. Lichens of North America. Yale University Press, New Haven & London. 795 pp. [keys, descriptions, range maps, and spectacular color photographs for more than 800 conspicuous foliose, fruticose and crustose lichen species; another 700 species are mentioned in valuable comparative notes; concise descriptions of most N. Am. genera, with useful comparisons to similar genera; introductory information about many aspects of lichen biology and systematics; this remarkable book is very useful for getting the feel of a genus; a user may also successfully key out common species; however, due to space constraints fewer than one-third of N. Am. species are keyed and fewer than half are mentioned.]

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1979. How to know the lichens, 2nd ed. Wm. C. Brown Co., Dubuque, Iowa, 246 pp. [Semi-complete coverage of N. Am. macrolichens as known in the late 1970s. The keys go directly to species level, so you don't need to know the genus first. The most common species are keyed, with other species mentioned in the fine print. The keys are not technical, but take some practice to use reliably. Partial species descriptions, including chemistry. Names of taxa are out of date, but the book is still very useful. In print..]

Hinds, P. 1998. Reformatted and updated keys to M.E. Hale, How to know the lichens. 72 pp. [A reworking of Hale's keys to make them faster and easier to use. The species names are brought into conformity with the most recent print version of the North American checklist. Does not contain species descriptions. Designed to be used in conjunction with Hale's original work. Available from Patricia Hinds, 254 Forest Avenue, Orono, ME 04473 jwhplh@earthlink.net]

[The next eighteen references are in alphabetical order:]

Brodo, I.M. 1968. The lichens of Long Island, New York: a vegetational and floristic analysis. New York State Museum and Science Service Bulletin 410: 1-330. [keys to 260 species including crusts, useful notes; valuable on the northern Coastal Plain and in adjacent regions; the arrangement of genera in the book is a little confusing; available from http://www.nysm.nysed.gov/publications.html ]

Brodo, I.M. 1988. Lichens of the Ottawa region, second edition. Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club Spec. Publication 3: 1-115, Ottawa. [northeastern U.S. and eastern Canada; especially good for beginners trying to key out crusts; copies still available from the author. ibrodo@mus-nature.ca ]

Dey, J.P. 1978. Fruticose and foliose lichens of the high-mountain areas of the southern Appalachians. Bryologist 81: 1-93. [Southern macrolichens; concentrates on the high-elevation spruce-fir forest, but some of the keys have been expanded to cover lower elevations]

Gowan, S.P. and Brodo, I.M. 1988. The lichens of Fundy National Park, New Brunswick, Canada. Bryologist 91: i + 255-325. [New England and eastern Canada; detailed keys to both macro- and microlichens; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/]

Goward, T., McCune, B. and Meidinger, D. 1994. The lichens of British Columbia, Illustrated keys. Part 1 - Foliose and squamulose species. B.C. Ministry of Forests, Special Report Series no. 8, i-iii, 1-181 Free downloadable version available: http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/docs/Srs/Srs08.htm bound version available: http://www.publications.gov.bc.ca

[keys illustrated by small drawings, brief characterizations of genera; notes and chemistry for species; useful throughout northern North America]

Goward, T. 1999. The lichens of British Columbia, Illustrated keys. Part 2 - Fruticose species. B.C. Ministry of Forests Research Program (Special Report Series no. 9). 319 pp. Free downloadable version available: http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/docs/Srs/Srs08.htm bound version available: http://www.crownpub.bc.ca

[keys illustrated by drawings; covers both fruticose macro- and microlichens, including, for example, calicioid species, Gyalidiopsis, Baeomyces, and Pseudephebe; notes include chemistry, diagnostic features, habitat, variability, and range; useful throughout northern North America]

Harris, R.C . 1977. Lichens of the Straits Counties, Michigan. (unpublished), 150 pp. [useful in temperate eastern North America; covers all growth forms, especially good for beginners trying to key out crusts because it uses traditional, spore-based genera; drawings of spores; many of the names are out of date; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [southern N. Am. and eastern coastal plain; one drawback--you must know the family, or often the genus, to start with; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy.]

Hinds, P.L. and Hinds, J.W. 1998. Simplified field key to Maine macrolichens, published by the authors, 47 pp. [useful throughout New England and adjacent Canada; the key requires some hands-on knowledge of terminology; available from the authors at 254 Forest Avenue, Orono, ME 04473 jwhplh@earthlink.net]

Ladd, D. M. 1997. Preliminary Draft: Lichens of the lower Ozark region of Missouri and Arkansas. Unpublished. [keys, brief descriptions of genera, and notes; available from The Nature Conservancy at cost; contact Douglas Ladd: dladd@TNC.org ]

McCune, B. and Geiser, L. 1997. Macrolichens of the Pacific Northwest. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, 386 pp. [keys to 458 species, descriptions of genera and ca. 200 species, excellent color photographs of ca. 200 species]

McCune, B. and Goward, T. 1995. Macrolichens of the Northern Rocky Mountains. Mad River Press, Eureka, California. 208 pp. [detailed keys that include many drawings, ca. 500 species; descriptions of genera; heavy use of abbreviations]

Nash, T.H., III, Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., and Bungartz, F. (eds.). 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona. 532 pp. [keys to all genera in the region; keys to the species of 132 genera, incuding squamulose lichens, the Lichinales, most macrolichens, and most pyrenolichens; in N. Am. covers Arizona and southern California, but undoubtedly useful in adjacent regions; descriptions; notes on substrates, habitat, and distribution; many range maps; illustrated glossary; key to photobionts; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/PublicationsforSale.htm]

Noble, W. 1982. The lichens of the coastal Douglas-fir dry subzone of British Columbia. Ph.D. thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Part II reprinted and updated in 1997, 238 pp. [practically the only key covering crustose lichens for the area west of the Dakotas; beautifully reprinted and much more compact then the original, but the update unfortunately lacks a key to genera; keys to species for each genus; non-technical descriptions of genera and species, spore drawings for a few genera, notes; the keys and descriptions predate the generic re-arrangements of recent years, and they de-emphasize mycological characters such as ascus type and conidial type; available from Bruce McCune at Bruce.McCune@science.oregonstate.edu]

St. Clair, L.L. 1999. A color guidebook to the common Rocky Mountain Lichens. Bean Life Science Museum of Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, 242 pp. [keys to nearly 200 common species--including some crustose lichens--most of which are described and illustrated with color photographs; covers all of the Rockies, the Great Basin, the Colorado Plateau, and the basin and range province of New Mexico and Arizona.]

Thomson, J.W. 1984. America Arctic Lichens 1. The Macrolichens. Columbia University Press, New York, 504 pp. [keys; descriptions of species and genera; beautiful detailed drawings of most species; also useful alpine areas]

Thomson, J.W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens 2. The Microlichens. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 675 pp. [keys, descriptions of species and genera, some species illustrated; also useful in alpine areas]

Wetmore, C.M. 1967. Lichens of the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. Publications of the Museum, Michigan State University, Biological Series 3: 209-464. [keys, covers both macro- and microlichens, traditional generic concepts, notes on species]

Wetmore, C.M. 1998 (most recent revision). Keys to the lichens of Minnesota. University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota. 83 pp. Available from the author at Clifford.M.Wetmore-1@tc.umn.edu [keys to about 550 species; the keys are organized using traditional, spore-based generic concepts, with a more modern name provided at the species level; the keys are thus relatively easy to use; ; Melanelia and Trapeliopsis not yet treated; the author does not accept all recent generic names]

Table of Contents

The most useful foreign references for identifying North American lichens

[the first four references are extremely useful, especially for crustose lichens:]

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W., and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [Invaluable, especially for its detailed descriptions of genera and species. Very useful for crustose genera, due to the extensive species overlap with temperate North America. Less useful for macrolichens. Keys, species descriptions and comparisons, chemistry, distributions by continents, literature references by genus, glossary. Generic concepts slightly conservative. . The keys to genus are probably too technical for beginners. Essential in any N. Am. lichen library. Available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Clauzade, G. and Roux, C. 1985. Likenoj de Okcidenta Europo. Ilustrita Determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Botanique du Centre-Ouest, Nouvelle Série, Numéro Spécial 7. Royan, France. 893 pp. [Illustrated generic and species keys for the lichens of western Europe (excluding the Azores); good species overlap with temperate and boreal N. Am.; lacks separate species descriptions, but compensates with extra information in the keys; the species of similar genera are often treated together in one key, making identification easier; keys are relatively non-technical; the book is unfortunately written in Esperanto, but some keys have been translated into French (see list below).]

Clauzade, G. and Roux, C. 1987. Likenoj de Okcidenta Europo. Suplemento 2a Bulletin de la Société Botanique du Centre-Ouest, Nouvelle Série, 18: 177-214. [first mini-revision (in Esperanto)]

Clauzade, G. and Roux, C. 1989. Likenoj de Okcidenta Europo. Suplemento 3a. Bulletin de la société linnéene de Provence 40: 73-110. [second mini-revision (in Esperanto)]

Ravel, P. 1996. Likenoj de Okcidenta Europo: Le genre Parmelia s. l. d'après G. Clauzade and C. Roux. Genres Parmelia, Cetraria, Hypogymnia, Pseudevernia, Cetrelia, Menegazzia, Platismatia et Parmeliopsis. Bulletin d'Informations de l'Association Française de Lichénologie 20(2): 13-39. [keys, translated from Esperanto into French; include any changes made in the supplements (not reviewed)]

[To conserve space, the other translations in the series are summarized below in the format: author, date, genus or group covered, volume number, and page numbers. The article titles, journal names, and annotations are as for Ravel (1996).]

Ravel, P. 1996. Cladonia. 21(1): 5-37.

Ravel, P. 1997. Lichens à apothécies en forme de lirelles. 21(2): 11-49.

Duclaux, G. 1997. Lobaria, Sticta. 22(2): 7-11.

Ravel, P. 1998. Stereocaulon, Usnea. 23(1): 1-11, 35-47.

Ravel, P, 1999. Alectoria, Bryoria, Pseudephebe, Physcia (including Phaeophyscia, Physconia, Hyperphyscia), Anaptychia. 24(1): 11-36.

Ravel, P. 1999. Caloplaca. 24(2): 1-37.

Ravel, P. 2000. Catillaria (including Catinaria, Cliostomum, Kiliasia, Megalaria and Tylothallia). 25(2): 7-19.

Ravel, P. 2000. Dermatocarpon. 25(2): 21-25.

Poelt, J. 1969. Bestimmungsschlüssel europäischer Flechten. Cramer, Lehre. 757 pp. [Detailed keys to the lichens of all Europe from the Urals to the Azores (excluding the Caucasus). This work--and the revisions by Poelt and Vezda (1977 and 1981)--have been supplanted by Clauzade and Roux (1985); nonetheless, they are still very useful and covers more area; they do not, however, treat all genera. English translation available from Dr. Doyle Anderegg Doyle@uidaho.edu in a version with certain genera replaced by revised text from Poelt and Vezda (1977).]

Poelt, J. and Vezda, A. 1977. Bestimmungsschlüssel europäischer Flechten. Ergänzungsheft I. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 9. J. Cramer, Vaduz. 258 pp.. [revised treatments of several genera. English translation available as a computer file from Dr. Doyle Anderegg Doyle@uidaho.edu as replacement genera integrated into the English translation of Poelt (1969)]

Poelt, J. and Vezda, A. 1981. Bestimmungsschlüssel europäischer Flechten. Ergänz-ungsheft II. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 16. J. Cramer, Vaduz. 390 pp. [revised treatments of several genera; a revised key to European genera. English translation available as a computer file from Dr. Doyle Anderegg. Doyle@uidaho.edu]

Wirth, V. 1995. Die Flechten Baden-Württembergs, Teil 1 and 2. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart. 1006 pp. [covers the SW corner of Germany; only moderate overlap with N. Am., but modern, with excellent keys and magnificent color photographs; good descriptions of genera; habitat preferences of species, but no species descriptions; English translation available as a computer file from Dr. Doyle Anderegg. Doyle@uidaho.edu ]

Wirth, V. 1987. Die Flechten Baden-Wurttembergs: Verbreitungsatlas. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart. 528 pp. [a previous edition; magnificent color photographs, distribution of species, notes; no keys or descriptions]

[the next three works are sometimes useful]

Dobson, F.S. 2000. Lichens. An Illustrated Guide to the British and Irish Species. Richmond Publishing Co. Ltd., Slough, England. 431 pp. [non-technical keys to approximately 700 species, good overlap with northern and eastern N. Am.; descriptions of genera and species; for each genus drawings of spores, of stained asci, and of apothecial anatomy; small color photographs of each species, plus drawings of thallus morpholgy as needed; contains quite a few errors at the species level; most useful at the generic level, especially for its illustrations]

Magnusson, A.H. 1952. Lichens from Torne Lappmark. Arkiv för Botanik, Series II, 2: 45-249. [key, old, but helpful for crusts, especially in the large traditional genera]

Wirth, V. 1995. Flechtenflora. Bestimmung und ökologische Kennzeichnung der Flechten Südwestdeutschlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart. 661 pp. [detailed keys to genera and species of southwest Germany and environs; the descriptions mainly cover ecology and distribution; compact, few illustrations; supplants the previous edition issued in 1980]

[Less often useful:]

Dahl, E. and Krog, H. 1973. Macrolichens of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Scandinavian University Books, Universitetsforlaget, Oslo. 185 pp. [straightforward keys, good overlap with N. Am., no descriptions, many helpful drawings]

Ozenda, P. and Clauzade, G. 1970. Les lichens. Étude biologique et flore illustrée. Masson et Cie, Paris. 801 pp. [covers France and adjacent regions; traditional genera used; emphasis on obsolete orders and families makes it hard to identify to genus; within genera, good keys to species; photographs and great drawings; index gives taxon number, instead of page number; now superseded by Clauzade and Roux (1985)]

Moberg, R. and Holmåsen, I. 1992. Flechten von Nord- und Mitteleuropa. Ein Bestimmungsbuch. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, Jena, New York. 237 pp. [mainly valuable for its 300 color photographs; partial coverage of European species; key to genera, keys to species of macrolichen genera, but not microlichens genera; brief descriptions of genera and species, drawings of spores for microlichen genera]

(Various authors). 1930-1960. Dr. L. Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. Die Flechten. Band 8 and Band 9, Abt. 1-6. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft m. b. H., Leipzig. (each part numbered separately) [this monumental work was a standard reference for many years; it contains very detailed treatments for most taxonomic groups found in German-speaking Europe, as known in the 1930s; however subsequent taxonomic and nomenclatural changes, the description of many new species, and de-emphasis in the use of forms and variations makes this work less useful now; in many cases, it remains a good source for anatomical drawings for common European species, often under old names]

Table of Contents

Keys for determining genera

Since most floristic works contain keys to the genera of their area, and since these references are given above and below, they will not be repeated here. The larger the region covered by a key, the more likely it will prove useful in other areas. The European floras are extremely useful throughout the northern part of N. Am.

Keys to the genera written after the mid-1980s typically require skill in ascal staining techniques and knowledge of ascus types. (One notable exception is the key in the 1992 volume of the Flora of Australia.) Older keys to the genera are often easier to use, but they may not place a specimen into the correct modern genus. If an older key is used, it will often be necessary to key to species in a flora or generic treatment of the same vintage. After a species epithet is obtained, one can find the presently used genus and species name in a table of synonyms ( Checklists and lists of synonyms ).

McCune, B. 1997. Key to the Genera of the Pacific Northwest. Distributed by the author. 70 pp. [draft key, fairly useful throughout N. Am.; available at cost from Bruce McCune, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, 97331-2902 Bruce.McCune@science.oregonstate.edu ]

Rambold, G. and Triebel, D. 1995-. A key to the genera of lichenized and lichenicolous Ascomycetes {Online}. In: LIAS: A Global Information System for Lichenized and Non-Lichenized Ascomycetes. Botanische Staatssammlung München. Available: http://www.mycology.net//lias/index.cfm {accessed 2001 January 23}. [world-wide, multiple entry key: start with any characters. Still in the draft stage and thus with some problems]

Tucker, S. and Thiers, H. 1998. Key to crustose lichen genera of California. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society 5(1): 1-11. [relatively non-technical and easy to use; does not use ascal wall characters; covers about 150 genera, but 50 rarely collected genera are omitted]

Malcolm, W.M., and Galloway, D.J. 1997. New Zealand Lichens. Checklist, Key, and Glossary. Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, Wellington, 192 pp. [illustrated, technical key; contains many genera not in N. Am., as well as those that are; section on ascus staining technique, which is needed to use the key; contains a wonderful illustrated glossary]

Rogers, R.W. 1980. The Genera of Australian Lichens (Lichenized Fungi). University of Queensland Press, St. Lucia, London, New York. 124 pp. [non-technical key, older concepts; incomplete overlap with N. Am. genera]

Sipman, H. 1999. Identification key and literature guide to the genera of lichenized fungi (Lichens) in the Neotropics, provisional version {Online}. Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Free University of Berlin. Available: http://www.bgbm.fu-berlin.de/sipman/keys/neokeyA.htm {accessed 2001 January 23}. [key to the genera, with hyperlinks to distribution data, references, and--when available--photographs and keys to species; glossary; useful in the subtropical part of the United States and perhaps elsewhere]

Sipman, H. 1996. Key to the lichen genera of the Guianas {Online}. 453 couplets. Available: http://www.mnh.si.edu/biodiversity/bdg/lichkey3.html {accessed 2001 January 23}. [useful in the subtropical part of the United States and perhaps elsewhere]

Keys for determining the genera of the following groups can be found interspersed alphabetically in the generic part of this bibliography:   Arthoniales    bacidioid lichens   Calicioid lichens and fungi ("stubble" and "pin" lichens)      Gomphillaceae      lecideoid lichens      Lichinaceae and allies      Parmeliaceae      Physciaceae    fruticose Roccellaceae      Solarinellaceae      Teloschistaceae

Table of Contents

Detailed descriptions of many genera

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W., and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [the best descriptions of genera available: detailed and in a uniform format; comparisons with similar genera; uses conservative and somewhat dated generic concepts; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens {diskettes}. Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [bases descriptions mainly on Purvis et al. (1992), but recognizes more segregate genera; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Nash, T.H., III, Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., and Bungartz, F. (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona. 532 pp. [uses a uniform format similar to Purvis et al. (1992), but recognizes most modern seggregate genera; useful comparative notes; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/PublicationsforSale.htm]]

Thomson, J.W. 1984. America Arctic Lichens 1. The Macrolichens. Columbia University Press, New York, 504 pp. [conservative generic concepts]

Thomson, J.W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens 2. The Microlichens. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 675 pp. [conservative generic concepts]

Wirth, V. 1995. Die Flechten Baden-Württembergs, Teil 1 and 2. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart. 1006 pp. [excellent descriptions of genera; English translation available as a computer file from Doyle Anderegg. doyle@uidaho.edu]

Brodo, I.M., Sharnoff, S.D., and Sharnoff, S. 2001. Lichens of North America. Yale University Press, New Haven & London. 795 pp. [short descriptions of most N. Am. genera; especially useful are the comparative notes and the color photographs which convey the "feel" of each genus]

Table of Contents

Keys available via the Internet

Peterson, E. (ed.). 2002-. Lichen key archive {Online}. Available: http://www.toyen.uio.no/botanisk/lav/LichenKey/index.htm {2002 October 18}. [a worldwide semipermanent repository for keys; rates each key on how complete and how technical it is; the site will probably be updated more frequently than this bibliography and covers a wider geographical range; many keys for tropical America]

Sipman, H. 1999. Lichen determination keys available on Internet {Online}. Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Freie Universität Berlin. Available: http://www.bgbm.fu-berlin.de/sipman/keys/default.htm {accessed 2002 October 18}. [a website with hyperlinks to other websites with keys; it will probably be updated more frequently than this bibliography and covers a wider geographical range; many keys for tropical America]

Goward, T., McCune, B. and Meidinger, D. 1994. The lichens of British Columbia, Illustrated keys. Part 1 - Foliose and squamulose species. B.C. Ministry of Forests, Special Report Series no. 8, i-iii, 1-181. Free downloadable .pdf version available: http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/docs/Srs/Srs08.htm bound version available: http://www.publications.gov.bc.ca {both accessed 2002 October 18} [keys to genera and species, illustrated by small drawings; brief characterizations of genera; notes and chemistry for species; useful throughout northern North America; files require the use of Adobe Acrobat Reader, a free program available over the Internet]]

Goward, T. 1999. The lichens of British Columbia, Illustrated keys. Part 2 - Fruticose species. B.C. Ministry of Forests Research Program (Special Report Series no. 9). 319 pp. Free downloadable version available: http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/docs/Srs/Srs09.htm ; bound version available: http://www.crownpub.bc.ca {both accessed 2002 October 18} [keys illustrated by drawings; covers both fruticose macro- and microlichens, including, for example, calicioid species, Gyalidiopsis, Baeomyces, and Pseudephebe; notes include chemistry, diagnostic features, habitat, variability, and range; useful throughout northern North America]

Anonymous. (no date) Into the World of Lichens {Online}. Available: http://www.gardenbuildingsdirect.co.uk/Article/into-the-world-of-lichens {accessed 2009 August 25} [an introduction to lichen vocabulary]

Wetmore, C. 1999. Caloplaca data {Online}. University of Minnesota. Available: http://www.tc.umn.edu/~wetmore/Calop.html {accessed 2002 October 18}. [separate keys to 4 major subgroups of Caloplaca (sorediate species, species with lobed margins of the thallus, species with black or brown apothecia, species with orange or yellow apothecia and white or gray thalli); the keys include all species seen by the author, with American species bolded; hyperlinks to range maps and photographs]

Harris, R.C. 1997-1999. Lime loving lichens. Eastern Lichen Network {Online}. Available: http://www.nybg.org/bsci/lichens/eln/lime_loving_lichens.htm {accessed 2002 October 18} [a key to ca. 180 lichen taxa growing on carcareous rock in eastern temperate N. Am.]

Lumbsch, H.T. and Brodo, I.M. 2000. Preliminary key to Lecanora species likely to occur in New England {Online}. Farlow Herbarium, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Available: http://www.huh.harvard.edu/collections/lichens/Lecanora_New_England.html {accesed 2002 October 18} [key to 64 species]

Brodo, I.M. and Ahti, T. 1995. Key to Cladina and Cladonia on the Queen Charlotte Islands and neighboring areas {Online}. Farlow Herbarium, Harvard University, Cambridge. Available: http://www.huh.harvard.edu/collections/lichens/queencharlotte.html [key to ca. 80 species]

Hinds, J.W. 1998. Lichen flora of eastern North America: the genus Parmelia sensu stricto. {Online}. Eastern Lichen Network. Available http://www.nybg.org/bsci/lichens/eln/articles.html {Accessed 2002 October 18}[key to 7 eastern N. Am. species, descriptions]

Buck, W.R. 1998. Lichen flora of eastern North America: the genus Gomphillus (Gomphillaceae). {Online}. Eastern Lichen Network. Available: http://www.nybg.org/bsci/lichens/eln/articles.html {Accessed 2002 October 18} [key, 2 eastern N. Am. species; descriptions, fine illustrations of morphology]

May, P.F. 1998. Lichen flora of eastern North America: the genus Ophioparma Norman. {online}. Eastern lichen Network. Available: http://www.nybg.org/bsci/lichens/eln/articles.html {Accessed 2002 October 17} [key, 2 eastern N. Am. species, descriptions, illustrations]

Schumm, F. 2000. Hilfsschlüssel zu sorediösen, unterseits unberindeten Heterodermia-Arten (inkl. einiger soredienfreier, sonst habituell ähnlicher Arten, Flechten, Physciaceae) {updated version, online in .pdf format}. Available: http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/schumm {accessed 2002 October 18}] [detailed world key to the 30 sorediate species with an ecorticate lower surface; 14 of 28 on N. Am. list

Schumm, F. 2001. Hilfsschlüssel zum Bestimmen der Arten der Gattung Heterodermia mit Podocarpa-Wuchsform {Online in .pdf format}. Available: http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/schumm {accessed 2002 October 18} [detailed world key to the 32 small shrubby species; 8 of 28 on N. Am. list]

Anonymous (ed.) 1997. Key to the genus Parmelia of Great Britain and Ireland {Online}. British Lichen Society. Available: http://www.theBLS.org.uk/cd/key.htm {accessed 2002 October 18}. [key to 47 species of Parmelia in the broad sense, N. Am. species, in several genera, not counted]

Sipman, H. 1997. Revised key to Megalosporaceae (genera Austroblastenia, Megaloblastenia, Megalospora) including some easily confused taxa, provisional version {Online}. Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Freie Universität Berlin. Available: http://www.bgbm.fu-berlin.de/bgbm/staff/wiss/Sipman+H/keys/Megalokey.htm {accessed 2002 October 18}. [key, about 33 species, 2 of 3 species of Megalospora on N. Am. list]

Elix, J. 1997. Revised worldwide key for the genus Relicina (Parmeliaceae) {Online). Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Freie Universität Berlin. Available: http://www.bgbm.fu-berlin.de/bgbm/staff/wiss/Sipman+H/keys/Relicina.htm {accessed 2002 October 18}. [key, about 50 species, 2 of 2 on N. Am. list]

Rambold, G. (ed.) 1996-. LIAS: A Global Information System for Lichenized and Non-Lichenized Ascomycetes. Botanische Staatssammlung München. Available: http://www.mycology.net//lias/index.cfm {accessed 2002 October 18} [world or regional multiple-entry interactive keys to lichen genera and also to species of the following N. Am. genera (organized by family): Adelolecia, Arthonia (in the broad sense, subset: taxa with red pigments);Biatora {subset Europe] Bunodophoron, Carbonea, Cladonia (in the broad sense, subset Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia), Clauzadeana, Diploschistes, Lecanora (key to 193 taxa of Lecanora in the narrow sense.), Lecideaceae (Europe), Megalospora, Miriquidica, Phacopsis, Phaeophyscia, Rimularia, and Tephromela; the interactive keys are still being developed and therefore have a few problems]

Sipman, H. 1999. Identification key and literature guide to the genera of lichenized fungi (Lichens) in the Neotropics, provisional version {Online}. Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Free University of Berlin. Available: http://www.bgbm.fu-berlin.de/bgbm/staff/wiss/Sipman+H/keys/neokeyA.htm {accessed 2002 October 18} [key to the genera, with hyperlinks to distribution data, references, and--when available--photographs and keys to species; glossary; useful in the subtropical part of the United States and perhaps elsewhere]

Sipman, H. 1996. Key to the lichen genera of the Guianas. {Online} 453 couplets. Available: http://www.mnh.si.edu/biodiversity/bdg/lichkey3.html {accessed 2001 September 14} [useful in the subtropical part of the United States and perhaps elsewhere]

Table of Contents

Keys for geographic regions:

Keys covering all of North America

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens {diskette}. Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [ (the best, but some problems; see annotation under "Twenty most useful")]

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1979. How to know the lichens, 2nd ed. Wm. C. Brown Co., Dubuque, Iowa, 246 pp. [Semi-complete coverage of N. Am. macrolichens as known in the late 1970s. The keys go directly to species level; you don't need to know the genus first. The most common species are keyed, with other species mentioned in the fine print. The keys are not technical, but take some practice to use reliably. Partial species descriptions including chemistry. Names of many taxa are out of date, but the book is still very useful. In print..]

Hinds, P. 1998. Reformatted and updated keys to M.E. Hale, How to know the lichens. 72 pp. [A reworking of Hale's keys to make them faster and easier to use. The species names are brought into conformity with the most recent print version of the North American checklist. Does not contain species descriptions. Designed to be used in conjunction with Hale's original work. Available from Patricia Hinds, 254 Forest Avenue, Orono, ME 04473 jwhplh@earthlink.net]

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [old, but sometimes still useful; many non-European species on the N. Am. checklist--especially western crusts--can best be keyed out using this work; the keys, however, are often somewhat vague; try Ryan (1994-1999) first]

Table of Contents

Arctic areas of North America

Thomson, J.W. 1984. America Arctic Lichens 1. The Macrolichens. Columbia University Press, New York, 504 pp. [keys; descriptions of species and genera; beautiful detailed drawings of most species; also useful alpine areas]

Thomson, J.W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens 2. The Microlichens. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 675 pp. [keys, descriptions of species and genera, some species illustrated; also useful in alpine areas]

Thomson, J.W. 1979. Lichens of the Alaskan Arctic Slope. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 314 pp. [keys, descriptions of species and genera; supplanted by Thomson 1979 and 1997, but still useable]

Lynge, B. and P.F. Scholander. 1932. Lichens from North East Greenland. I. Skrifter om Svalbard og Ishavet 41: 1-116. [macrolichens; detailed species descriptions but no keys]

Lynge, B. 1937. Lichens from West Greenland, collected chiefly by Th.M. Fries. Meddelelser om Grønland 118(8): 1-225. [keys in Latin for several genera, detailed species accounts in English, no generic key]

Lynge, B. 1940. Lichens of North East Greenland. II. Microlichens. Skrifter om Svalbard og Ishavet 81: 1-143. [keys in Latin for some genera, detailed species accounts in English, no generic key

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1954. Lichens from Baffin Island. American Midland Naturalist 51: 232-264. [keys for species in some genera]

Hansen, E.S. and Andersen, J. 1995. Greenland Lichens. Rhodos, Copenhagen. 124 pp. [no key, short descriptions and good color photos of 300 macro- and microlichens]

Table of Contents

Boreal and hemiarctic areas of North America

Thomson, J.W. 1984. America Arctic Lichens 1. The Macrolichens. Columbia University Press, New York, 504 pp. [keys; descriptions of species and genera; beautiful detailed drawings of most species; also useful alpine areas]

Thomson, J.W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens 2. The Microlichens. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 675 pp. [keys, descriptions of species and genera, some species illustrated; also useful in alpine areas]

Thomson, J.W., Scotter, G.W. and Ahti, T. 1969. Lichens of the Great Slave Lake Region, Northwest Territories, Canada. Bryologist 72: 137-177. [keys only to some groups]

Dahl, E. and Krog, H. 1973. Macrolichens of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Scandinavian University Books, Universitetsforlaget, Oslo. 185 pp. [straightforward keys, good overlap with N. Am., no descriptions, many helpful drawings]

Magnusson, A.H. 1952. Lichens from Torne Lappmark. Arkiv för Botanik, Series II, 2: 45-249. [detailed keys to many traditionally defined genera, Arctic regions, 15 to 60 overlap with N. Am. species, but often with traditional generic names]

Ahti, T. and Hepburn, R.L. 1967. Preliminary studies on woodland caribou range, especially on lichen stands, in Ontario. Ontario Department of Lands and Forests Research Report (Wildlife) 74: 1-134. [contains a key to the macrolichens of northern Ontario]

Krog, H., Østhagen, H. and Tønsberg, T. 1980. Lavflora. Norsk Busk- og Bladlav. Supplement in English. Universitetsforlaget, Oslo, 53 pp. [keys to the macrolichens of Norway (translated into English in the Supplement); species and genera descriptions in Norwegian, photographs of each species]

Bird, C. 1970. Keys to the Lichens of West-Central Canada. Processed publication. Calgary, Alberta. 171 pp. [keys only]

Krog, H. 1968. The macrolichens of Alaska. Norsk Polarinstitut Skrifter 144: 1-180. [notes plus a few photographs, but no keys; 6 new species]

Table of Contents

Northeastern United States and eastern Canada

Brodo, I.M. 1988. Lichens of the Ottawa region, second edition. Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club Spec. Publication 3: 1-115, Ottawa. [keys; covers both macrolichens and crusts; available from the author at ibrodo@mus-nature.ca ]

Harris, R.C . 1977. Lichens of the Straits Counties, Michigan. (unpublished), 150 pp. [useful in temperate eastern North America; covers all growth forms, especially good for beginners trying to key out crusts because it uses traditional, spore- based genera; drawings of spores; the names are out of date; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy.]

Gowan, S.P. and Brodo, I.M. 1988. The lichens of Fundy National Park, New Brunswick, Canada. Bryologist 91: i + 255-325. [detailed keys; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/]

Brodo, I.M. 1968. The lichens of Long Island, New York: a vegetational and floristic analysis. New York State Museum and Science Service Bulletin 410: 1-330. [keys, notes, the arrangement of the general is confusing; copies are still available from Biological Survey, New York State Museum, Room 3140 CEC, Albany, NY 12230]

Taylor, C.J. 1967-1968. The lichens of Ohio. Part I. Foliose lichens. Part II. Fruticose and cladoniform lichens. Ohio State University, Columbus. 227 + 22 pp. [keys, detailed descriptions, large photographs, detailed information on microcrystal tests]

Hinds, P.L. and Hinds, J.W. 1998. Simplified field key to Maine macrolichens, published by the authors, 47 pp. [keys only; available from the authors at 254 Forest Avenue, Orono, ME 04473 jwhplh@earthlink.net]

Harris, R.C. 1997-1999. Lime loving lichens. Eastern Lichen Network. Available: http://www.nybg.org/bsci/lichens/eln/lime_loving_lichens.htm {accessed 1999 November 20} [a key to ca. 180 lichen taxa growing on carcareous rock in eastern temperate N. Am.]

Wong, P.Y. and Brodo, I.M. 1992. The Lichens of Southern Ontario, Canada. Syllogeus, 69, Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa. 79 pp. [annotated species list; includes keys to Bacidia in the broad sense, Caliciales in the broad sense., Caloplaca, Lecidea in the broad sense, Leptogium, Porpidia, and Rhizocarpon; available from the publisher at http://nature.ca/prodserv/cat/product_e.cfm?ID=258&Browse=Scientific%20Publication&searchText=]

Flenniken, D. 1999. The macrolichens in West Virginia. Published by the author. v + 231 pp. [keys, 284 species, species descriptions and comparisons, characterizations of genera, 320 color photographs; aimed at beginners, so relatively non-technical; available from the author at FlennikenD@aol.com ]

Medlin, J.J. 1996. Michigan lichens. Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bulletin 60: 1-98. [87 color photographs of common lichens; descriptions of species; the color for most, but not all, photographs is true]

Lamb, I.M. 1954. Lichens of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. Annual Report of the National Museum of Canada, Bulletin 132: 239-313. [list of 199 species; notes, several species described, discussions of taxonomy; no key]

Degelius, G. 1940. Contributions to the lichen flora of North America. I. Lichens from Maine. Arkiv för Botanik 30A (1): 1-62. [list of 229 species, about one-third with descriptive notes; no key]

Table of Contents

Southeastern United States

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [keys to many genera and their species, sometimes including species outside Florida for completeness; arranged by order and family; lacks keys to higher taxa, so the user must either know the family or genus; extensive treatment of pyrenolichens; for some pyrenolichen genera there are eastern N. Am. or even provisional world keys, extensive taxonomic notes; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy.]

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 109 pp. [similar to Harris (1995), but with fewer genera treated and more descriptive and taxonomic notes; only a few Pyrenolichen genera are treated; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy.]

Ladd, D. M. 1997. Preliminary Draft: Lichens of the lower Ozark region of Missouri and Arkansas. Unpublished. [keys, brief descriptions of genera, notes; available from The Nature Conservancy at cost; contact Douglas Ladd: dladd@TNC.org ]

Dey, J.P. 1978. Fruticose and foliose lichens of the high-mountain areas of the southern Appalachians. Bryologist 81: 1-93. [lichens of the southern spruce-fir forest; some keys expanded to cover lower altitudes]

Flenniken, D. 1999. The macrolichens in West Virginia. Published by the author. v + 231 pp. [keys, 284 species, species descriptions and comparisons, characterizations of genera, 320 color photographs; aimed at beginners, so relatively non-technical; available from the author at FlennikenD@aol.com ]

Moore, B.J. 1968. The macrolichen flora of Florida. Bryologist 71: 161-266. [lacks index, hard to locate the genera]

Degelius, G. 1941. Contributions to the lichen flora of North America. 2. The lichen flora of the Great Smoky Mountains. Arkiv för Botanik 30A (3): 1-80. [list of 206 species, about one-third with descriptive notes; no keys]

Table of Contents

Central North America (Midwest to Great Plains):

Wetmore, C.M. 1998 (most recent revision). Keys to the lichens of Minnesota. University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota. 83 pp. Available from the author at Clifford.M.Wetmore-1@tc.umn.edu [keys to about 550 species; relatively easy to use because the keys are organized using traditional, spore-based generic concepts, with a more modern name provided at the species level; the author does not accept all recent generic names; a couple of genera have also not yet been treated, notably Melanelia and Trapeliopsis]

Wetmore, C.M. 1967. Lichens of the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. Publications of the Museum, Michigan State University, Biological Series 3: 209-464. [keys and notes only, traditional generic concepts]

Harris, R.C . 1977. Lichens of the Straits Counties, Michigan. (unpublished), 150 pp. [useful in temperate eastern North America; covers all growth forms, especially good for beginners trying to key out crusts because it uses traditional, spore- based genera; drawings of spores; the names are out of date; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Ladd, D. M. 1997. Preliminary Draft: Lichens of the lower Ozark region of Missouri and Arkansas. Unpublished. [keys, brief descriptions of genera, notes; available from The Nature Conservancy at cost; contact Douglas Ladd: dladd@TNC.org ]

Wilhelm, G.S. 1998. The lichen flora of Chicago and vicinity: one hundred years of lichenology. Erigenia 16: 3-36. [good keys to genera and 222 species]

Medlin, J.J. 1996. Michigan lichens. Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bulletin 60: 1-98. [87 color photographs of common lichens; descriptions of species; the color for most, but not all, photographs is true]

Taylor, C.J. 1967. The Lichens of Ohio. Part I. Foliose Lichens. Biological Notes No. 3, The Ohio Biological Survey, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. lv + 147 pp. [keys, detailed species descriptions, large photographs, detailed information on microcrystal tests]

Taylor, C.J. 1968. Lichens of Ohio. Part 2. Fruticose and Cladoniform Lichens. Biological Notes No. 4, The Ohio Biological Survey, Ohio State University, Columbus. 153-227 + A1-A22 pp. [keys, detailed species descriptions, large photographs, detailed information on microcrystal tests]

Table of Contents

Rocky Mountains

McCune, B. and Goward, T. 1995. Macrolichens of the Northern Rocky Mountains. Mad River Press, Eureka, California. 208 pp. [detailed keys that include many drawings, ca. 500 species; descriptions of genera; heavy use of abbreviations]

St. Clair, L.L. 1999. A color guidebook to the common Rocky Mountain Lichens. Bean Life Science Museum of Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, 242 pp. [keys to nearly 200 common species--including some crustose lichens--most of which are described and illustrated with color photographs; covers all of the Rockies, the Great Basin, the Colorado Plateau, and the basin and range province of New Mexico and Arizona.]

Wetmore, C.M. 1967. Lichens of the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. Publications of the Museum, Michigan State University, Biological Series 3: 209-464. [keys and notes only, traditional generic concepts; includes crustose lichens]

Kershaw, L., MacKinnon, A. and Pojar, J. 1998. Plants of the Rocky Mountains. Lone Pine Publishing, Edmonton. 527 pp. [small color photos of 40 species; ca. 80 more species mentioned in text; brief characterizations and comparisons, habitat notes; 33 line drawings, no key]

Newberry, C. 1991. Lichens of the Uinta Mountains and adjacent intermountain North America. Master of Science thesis, Brigham Young University, Provo. 237 pp. [relatively non-technical keys to genus and species, genus and species descriptions; covers both macro- and microlichens; recommended by, and available at cost from, Dr. Larry St. Clair, 193 MLBM, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602 Larry_StClair@byu.edu ]

Imshaug, H.A. 1957. Alpine lichens of western United States and adjacent Canada. I. The macrolichens. Bryologist 60: 177-272. [macrolichens only; keys, notes]

Table of Contents

Southwestern United States (Arizona, Utah, Nevada, New Mexico, west Texas, southern California)

Nash, T.H., III, Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., and Bungartz, F. (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona. 532 pp. [keys to all genera in the region; keys to the species of 132 genera, incuding squamulose lichens, the Lichinales, most macrolichens, and most pyrenolichens; in N. Am. covers Arizona and southern California, but undoubtedly useful in adjacent regions; descriptions; notes on substrates, habitat, and distribution; many range maps; illustrated glossary; key to photobionts; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/PublicationsforSale.htm]

Wetmore, C.M. 1976. Macrolichens of Big Bend National Park, Texas. Bryologist 79: 296-313. [keys to genera and species]

Ryan, B. (Continuously updated). Keys to Lichens of the Sonoran Desert Region. Unpublished set of working keys, in computer file format. [not reviewed; according to the author, these are in reasonably good shape, but lack species descriptions; available on diskette for a modest fee from the author brucryan@mail.dancris.com ]

Anderson, K.T. 1998. Lichen Flora of Chiricahua National Monument in Southeast Arizona. Ph.D. dissertation, Brigham Young University, 123 pp. Available from UMI Dissertation Service at http://www.umi.com/hp/Support/DExplorer/, Dissertation number 9822824. [keys to genera and species, descriptions, both macrolichens and microlichens covered]

Weber, W.A. 1963. Lichens of the Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona. University of Colorado Studies, Series in Biology, No. 10. 27 pp. [keys to the species of several genera]

St. Clair, L.L. 1999. A color guidebook to the common Rocky Mountain Lichens. Bean Life Science Museum of Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, 242 pp. [keys to nearly 200 common species--including some crustose lichens--most of which are described and illustrated with color photographs; covers all of the Rockies, the Great Basin, the Colorado Plateau, and the Basin and Range province of New Mexico and Arizona.]

Newberry, C. 1991. Lichens of the Uinta Mountains and adjacent intermountain North America. Master of Science thesis, Brigham Young University, Provo. 237 pp. [relatively non-technical keys to genus and species, genus and species descriptions; extensive coverage of both macro- and microlichens; highly recommended by, and available at cost from, Dr. Larry St. Clair, 193 MLBM, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602 Larry_StClair@byu.edu ]

Hale, M.E., Jr. and Cole, M. 1988. Lichens of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London. 254 pp. [keys to common species, including some crusts; descriptions; partly illustrated with photographs of variable quality; in print]

Wright, D.M. 2000. Guide to the macrolichens of California: Part 1, the orange pigmented species. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society 7(1): 7-16. [keys to genera and species; descriptions of genera and species; notes; a few drawings]

Wright, D.M. 2000. Guide to the macrolichens of California: part 2, the gray foliose species. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society 7(2): 44-63. [keys to genera and species; descriptions of genera and species; notes]

Herre, A.W.C.T. 1910. The lichen flora of the Santa Cruz Peninsula, California. Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences 12: 27-269. [keys, descriptions of genera and species]

Hasse, H.E. 1913. The lichen flora of southern California. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 17: 1-132. [keys, descriptions of genera and species]

Smith, D.W. 1994. The corticolous lichen flora of Cedar Breaks National Monument and surrounding areas on the Markagunt Plateau, Iron County, Utah. Master of Science thesis, Brigham Young University, Provo. 113 pp. [relatively non-technical keys to genus and species, genus and species descriptions; covers both macro- and microlichens; available at cost from Dr. Larry St. Clair, 193 MLBM, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602 Larry_StClair@byu.edu ]

Rajvanshi, V. 1994. Terricolous lichen flora of the San Rafael Swell, Emery County, Utah. Master of Science thesis, Brigham Young University, Provo. 46 pp. [relatively non-technical keys to genus and species, genus and species descriptions; covers both macro- and microlichens; available at cost from Dr. Larry St. Clair, 193 MLBM, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602 Larry_StClair@byu.edu ]

Table of Contents

Northwestern United States and far western Canada

Goward, T., McCune, B. and Meidinger, D. 1994. The lichens of British Columbia, Illustrated keys. Part 1 - Foliose and squamulose species. B.C. Ministry of Forests, Special Report Series no. 8, i-iii, 1-181. Free downloadable version available: http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/docs/Srs/Srs08.htm bound version available: http://www.publications.gov.bc.ca [keys illustrated by small drawings, brief characterizations of genera; notes and chemistry for species; useful throughout northern North America]

Goward, T. 1999. The lichens of British Columbia, Illustrated keys. Part 2 - Fruticose species. B.C. Ministry of Forests Research Program (Special Report Series no. 9). 319 pp. Free downloadable version available: http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/docs/Srs/Srs08.htm bound version available: http://www.crownpub.bc.ca. [keys illustrated by drawings; covers both fruticose macro- and microlichens, including, for example, calicioid species, Gyalidiopsis, Baeomyces, and Pseudephebe; notes include chemistry, diagnostic features, habitat, variability, and range; useful throughout northern North America]

McCune, B. and Geiser, L. 1997. Macrolichens of the Pacific Northwest. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, 386 pp. [keys to 458 species , descriptions of genera and ca. 200 species, excellent color photographs of ca. 200 species]

McCune, B. and Goward, T. 1995. Macrolichens of the Northern Rocky Mountains. Mad River Press, Eureka, California. 208 pp. [detailed keys that include many drawings, ca. 500 species; descriptions of genera]

Noble, W. 1982. The lichens of the coastal Douglas-fir dry subzone of British Columbia. Ph.D. thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Part II reprinted and updated in 1997, 238 pp. [practically the only key covering crusts in the area west of the Dakotas; beautifully reprinted and much more compact then the original, but the update unfortunately lacks a key to genera; keys to species for each genus; non-technical descriptions of genera and species, spore drawings for a few genera, notes; the keys and descriptions predate the generic re-arrangements of recent years, and they de-emphasize mycological characters such as ascus type and conidial type; available from Bruce McCune at Bruce.McCune@science.oregonstate.edu]

Noble, W. 1982. The lichens of the coastal Douglas-fir dry subzone of British Columbia. Ph.D. thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 942 pp. [the original thesis, typed double spaced; like the reprinted version, but includes Part I; includes a key to genera, distribution maps, and lots of analysis; available from National Library of Canada, Canadian Thesis Services, Telephone (819) 953-6221 E-mail: theses@nlc-bnc.ca ]

Vitt, D.H., Marsh, J.E. and Bovey, R.B. 1988. Mosses, Lichens and Ferns of Northwest North America. Lone Pine Publishing, Edmonton. 296 pp. [keys to about 160 common lichen species; descriptions, small but good color photographs of each]

Hale, M.E., Jr. and Cole, M. 1988. Lichens of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London. 254 pp. [keys to common species, including some crusts; descriptions; partly illustrated with photographs of variable quality; in print]

Wright, D.M. 2000. Guide to the macrolichens of California: Part 1, the orange pigmented species. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society 7(1): 7-16. [keys to genera and species; descriptions of genera and species; notes; a few drawings]

Wright, D.M. 2000. Guide to the macrolichens of California: part 2, the gray foliose species. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society 7(2): 44-63. [keys to genera and species; descriptions of genera and species; notes]

Howard, G.E. 1950. Lichens from the state of Washington. University of Washington Press, Seattle, 191 pp. [keys, descriptions of genera and species; largely out of date]

Imshaug, H.A. 1957. Alpine lichens of western United States and adjacent Canada. I. The macrolichens. Bryologist 60: 177-272. [macrolichens only; keys, notes]

Krog, H. 1968. The macrolichens of Alaska. Norsk Polarinstitut Skrifter 144: 1-180. [list of 326 species; notes; many characterizations, some descriptions, some taxonomic discussions, some photographs of thalli; no key]

Table of Contents

Keys by type of lichen:

Pyrenolichens (lichens with perithecia)

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [keys, starting at the family level; the user must know either the family or the genus; all groups traditionally handled by lichenologists are treated, some for Florida only, some for eastern North America, some for the world; extensive taxonomic notes; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1973. The corticolous pyrenolichens of the Great Lakes Region. Michigan Botanist 12: 3-68. [artificial key to species; old names, but still very useful, descriptions, spore drawings]

Harris, R.C. 1989. A sketch of the family Pyrenulaceae (Melanommatales) in Eastern North America. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 49: 74-107. [keys to Anthracothecium, Lithothelium, Plagiocarpa, Pyrgillus, Eopyrenula, and Pyrenula; descriptions, spore drawings]

Aptroot, A. 1991. A Monograph of the Pyrenulaceae (Excluding Anthracothecium and Pyrenula) and the Requienellaceae, with Notes on the Pleomassariaceae, the Trypetheliaceae and Mycomicrothelia (Lichenized and Non-lichenized Ascomycetes). Bibliotheca Lichenologica 44. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 178 pp. [world keys to families, genera, and species, descriptions, drawings of spores and photographs of thalli; the taxonomy of these groups is controversial]

McCarthy, P.M. and Mitchell, M.E. 1988. Lichens of the Burren Hills and the Aran Islands. Officina Typographica, Galway, 123 pp. [many species in various keys, terminal choices of key equivalent to a description, drawings of anatomy and spores]

Table of Contents

Sterile species

Tønsberg, T. 1992. The sorediate and isidiate, corticolous, crustose lichens in Norway. Sommerfeltia 14: 1-331. [Sterile crustose lichens; crustose lichens]

Fryday, A. and Coppins, B. 1997. Keys to sterile, crustose saxicolous and terricolous lichens occurring in the British Isles. Lichenologist 29: 301-332. [key to 200 taxa, excluding most Lepraria and Leproloma]

James, P.W. and Coppins, B. J. 1979. Key to British sterile crustose lichens with Trentepohlia as phycobiont. Lichenologist 11: 253-262. [detailed key amounting to descriptions, 24 species]

Laundon, J.R. 1962. The taxonomy of sterile crustaceous lichens in the British Isles. 1. Terricolous species. Lichenologist 2: 57-67. [key, 19 species]

Laundon, J.R. 1963. The taxonomy of sterile crustaceous lichens in the British Isles. 2. Corticolous and lignicolous species. Lichenologist 2: 101-151. [key ,many taxa, notes and a few descriptions]

James, P.W. 1970. The lichen flora of shaded acid rock crevices and overhangs in Britain. Lichenologist 4: 309-322. [detailed key to about 50 species, many of which are sterile]

Schreiner, E. and Hafellner, J. 1992. Sorediöse, corticole Krustenflechten im Ostalpenraum. I. Die Flechenstoffe und die gesicherte Verbreitung der besser bekannten Arten. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 45. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 291 pp. [key to 60 species, descriptions]

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [keys by substrate and propagule type; the sterile keys are in rough shape; (see annotation under "Twenty most useful")}

Brodo, I.M. 1988. Lichens of the Ottawa region, second edition. Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club Spec. Publication 3: 1-115, Ottawa. [about 40 sterile crustose and squamulose species are treated; available from the author at ibrodo@mus-nature.ca ]

Gowan, S.P. and Brodo, I.M. 1988. The lichens of Fundy National Park, New Brunswick, Canada. Bryologist 91: i + 255-325. [about 45 sterile species; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/ ]

McCune, B. 1985. Sterile, yellowish lichen crusts on soil in North America. Evansia 2: 23-26. [key to 12 species]

McCune, B. 1998. Lichens of granitic peaks in the Bitterroot Range, Montana and Idaho, USA. in Glenn, M.G, Harris, R.C., Dirig, R. and Cole, M.S. (eds.). Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson. Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, New York, 281-294. [key to sterile white crusts on alpine soils; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/]

Harris, R.C . 1977. Lichens of the Straits Counties, Michigan. Ann Arbor (litho.), 150 pp. [key to sterile crusts; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Almborn, 0. 1952. A key to the sterile corticolous crustaceous lichens occurring in South Sweden. Botaniska Notiser 1952: 239-263. [key, about 70 species, notes]

Brodo, I.M. 1968. The lichens of Long Island, New York: a vegetational and floristic analysis. New York State Museum and Science Service Bulletin 410: 1-330. [copies are still available from Biological Survey, New York State Museum, Room 3140 CEC, Albany, NY 12230]

Henssen, A. 1963. Eine Revision der Flechtenfamilien Lichinaceae und Ephebaceae. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 18(l): 1-123. [key to genera of sterile Lichenaceae and allies]

Table of Contents

Lichen parasites and parasymbionts

[See References by genus for treatments of individual lichenicolous genera and for treatments organized by host genus]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141.[keys to genera and to species; the most up-to-date and wide-ranging flora of lichenicolous fungi; in Esperanto]

Roux, C. and Bellemère, A. 1991. Systématique des champignons lichénicoles non lichénisés: nouveautés et changements importants depuis la parution de Nelikenigintaj fungoj likenlogaj. Bulletin d'Informations de l'Association Française de Lichénologie 16(2): 71-83. [mostly taxonomic notes on and characterizations of new genera based on literature published since Clauzade, Diederich and Roux (1989); to keys to recently segregated genera; a few species characterized; in French]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1983. A key to the lichen-forming, parasitic, parasymbiotic and saprophytic fungi occurring on lichens in the British Isles. Lichenologist 15: 1-44. [one overall key, spore drawings for many species]

Alstrup, V. and Hawksworth, D.L. 1990. The lichenicolous fungi of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bioscience 31: 1-90. [one overall key to 124 species, illustrations of new and rare species, generally no descriptions, but references thereto; about 50 overlap with species reported from N. Am. so far.]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1979. The lichenicolous Hyphomycetes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 6: 183-300. [keys, detailed descriptions, and fine drawings for each species; a fundamental work]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1981. The lichenicolous Coelomycetes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 9: 1-98. [keys, detailed descriptions, and illustrations for each species; a fundamental work]

Triebel, D. 1989. Lecideicole Ascomyceten. Eine Revision der obligat lichenicolen Ascomyceten auf lecideoiden Flechten. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 35. J. Cramer, Berlin-Stuttgart. 278 pp. [keys, detailed descriptions of genera and species; some drawings of spores and asci]

Clauzade, G. and Roux, C. 1976. Les champignons lichenicoles non lichenises. Universite des Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc, Montpellier. 110 pp.

Keissler, K. von. 1930. Die Flechtenparasiten. In Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 8: 1-712. [keys to genera that start with the family, keys to species, lacks keys to families; most useful for descriptions and illustrations of individual species]

David, J.C. and Hawksworth, D.L. 1995. Zevadia: a new lichenicolous hyphomycete from western Ireland. In: Farkas, E.E., Lücking, R. and Wirth, V. (eds.). Scripta Lichenologica--Lichenological Papers Dedicated to Antonín Vezda. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 58. J. Cramer, Berlin and Stuttgart pp. 63-71. [updated key to the lichenicolous genera of dematiaceous fungi with aggregated conidiophores]

Diederich, P. 1996. The Lichenicolous Heterobasidiomycetes. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 61. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 198 pp. [keys, descriptions of genera and species, drawings]

Matzer, M. 1996. Lichenicolous Ascomycetes with Fissitunicate Asci on Foliicolous Lichens. Mycological Papers, 171, CAB International, Wallingford. x + 202 pp. [keys by genus and species and by host; 49 species (many new) in 15 genera, none yet reported for N. Am., but likely to be in the future, descriptions, illustrations]

Dennis, R.W.G. 1978. British Ascomycetes. J. Cramer, Vaduz, 585 pp. [useful for its fine, mostly color, illustrations; treats some lichen parasites and non-lichenized genera found in the N. Am. Checklist, usually under old generic names; the index of specific epithets is excellent; keys to orders, families, genera, and species; brief descriptions of genera and species]

Table of Contents

Species growing on leaves

Lücking, R. 1992. Foliicolous Lichens - A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Lichen Flora of Costa Rica, Central America. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia, 104, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 179 pp. [best modern key to foliicolous genera, key to species, illustrations, 220 taxa]

Santesson, R. 1952. Foliicolous lichens I. A revision of the taxonomy of the obligately foliicolous, lichenized fungi. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 12: 1-590. [the basic reference; a classic lichenological work]

Farkas, E. and Sipman, H.J.M. 1997. Checklist of foliicolous lichenized fungi. After Farkas and Sipman (1993), with additions to 1996. Abstracta Botanica 21: 173-206. [this combination of world checklist and bibliography gives identification references for every genus and species; these include keys, descriptions, and illustrations, when available]

Lücking, R. 1997. Additions and Corrections to the Knowledge of the Foliicolous Lichen Flora of Costa Rica. The Family Gomphillaceae. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 65. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 109 pp. [83 species in overall key, good throughout neotropics, but limited use on N. Am. list, notes, photographs]

Awasthi, D.D. 1991. A Key to the Microlichens of India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 40. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 340 pp. [key to 30 obligately foliicolous lichen genera]

Vezda, A. 1987. Flechtensystematische Studien XII. Die Familie Gomphillaceae und ihre Gliederung. Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica 22: 179-198. [key to the genera with hyphophores]

Table of Contents

Species growing on calcareous rock and soil (lime-loving lichens)

Harris, R.C. 1997-1999. Lime loving lichens. Eastern Lichen Network. Available: http://www.nybg.org/bsci/lichens/eln/lime_loving_lichens.htm {accessed 1999 November 20} [a key to ca. 180 lichen taxa growing on carcareous rock in eastern temperate N. Am]

Fletcher, A. 1975. Key for the identification of British marine and maritime lichens. II. Calcareous and terricolous species. Lichenologist 7: 73-115. [part of key to 428 species, key termina equivalent to brief descriptions]

Fröberg, L. 1989. The Calcicolous Lichens on the Great Alvar of Öland, Sweden. Institutionen för Systematisk Botanik, Lund. 109 pp. [descriptions of 109 species in about 55 genera (N. Am. species not counted); notes with ecology and comparisons to similar species; lichen communities; several illustrations, especially for Verrucaria]

Renobales, G. 1996. Contribución al conocimiento de los líquenes calcícolas del occidente de Vizcaya y parte oriental de Cantabria (N-España). GuineanA, 2, Servicio Editorial de la Universidad del País Vasco, Bilbao. 310 pp. [annotated list of 222 species, descriptions for lesser known species (some illustrated), keys to Caloplaca, Polyblastia, Staurothele, Thelidium, and Verrucaria]

McCarthy, P.M. and Mitchell, M.E. 1988. Lichens of the Burren Hills and the Aran Islands. Officina Typographica, Galway, 123 pp. [detailed key to calcicolous lichens, about 135 species; terminal choices of key equivalent to a description]

Table of Contents

Maritime ("ocean-loving") lichens

Taylor, R.M. 1982. Marine flora and fauna of the northeastern United States. Lichens (Ascomycetes) of the intertidal region. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Technical Report NMFS Circular 446: 1-24. [artificial key illustrated with line drawings, descriptions for 22 species; useful on eastern rocky shores]

Fletcher, A. 1975. Key for the identification of British marine and maritime lichens. I. Siliceous rocky shore species. II. Calcareous and terricolous species. Lichenologist 7: 1-52, 73-115 [key to 428 species, key termina equivalent to brief descriptions; useful on eastern rocky shores]

Taylor, R.M. 1974. Studies on the littoral lichens of northeastern North America. Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, 203 pp. [not seen; available from UMI Dissertation Services at http://www.umi.com/hp/Support/DExplorer/ dissertation number 7507264]

Brodo, I.M. and Santesson, R. 1997. Lichens of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. 3. Marine species of Verrucaria (Verrucariaceae, Ascomycotina). Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 82: 27-37. [key to 10 named and 3 unnamed N. Am. species]

Arup, U. 1995. Littoral species of Caloplaca in North America: a summary and key. Bryologist 98: 129-140. [key, 20 species, brief descriptions, color photographs of habitus]

Arup, U. 1994. The genus Caloplaca on seashore rocks in eastern North America. Bryologist 97: 377-392. [key, 5 species, descriptions, photographs]

Arup, U. 1995. Eight species of Caloplaca in coastal western North America. Bryologist 98: 92-111. [descriptions and comparisons of 8 species. photographs]

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Calicioid lichens and fungi ("stubble" and "pin" lichens)

Tibell, L. 1999. Calicioid lichens and fungi. in Ahti, T., Jørgensen, P.M., Kristinsson, H., Moberg, R., Søchting, U. and Thor, G. (eds.). Nordic Lichen Flora. Volume 1. Introductory Parts. Calicioid Lichens and Fungi. Nordic Lichen Society, Uddevalla. 94 pp. [keys to 15 genera and 80 species, 70 on N. Am. list, covers all calicioid groups, good overlap (70 of 117 species) with N. Am.; good color photographs of all species]

Tibell, L. 1984. A reappraisal of the taxonomy of Caliciales. In: Hertel, H. and Oberwinkler, F. (eds.). Beiträge zur Lichenologie. Festschrift J. Poelt. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia 79: 597-713. [modern world key to genera, generic descriptions, taxonomic overview of the Caliciales, s.l.]

Selva, S.B. and Tibell, L. 1999. Lichenized and non-lichenized calicioid fungi from North America. Bryologist 102: 377-397. [keys to the North American species of Chaenotheca, Chaenothecopsis, Phaeocalicium, Sclerophora, and Stenocybe; descriptions of 15 species, and notes for 4 others, mostly new or newly reported; photographs of newly described species; 7 species newly described or reported in the same issue of Bryologist are not included in the keys]

Tibell, L. 1975. The Caliciales of boreal North America. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 21(2): 1-128. [keys, descriptions, photographs of anatomy for some genera, covers perhaps half of the species now known from N. Am., moderately old generic concepts]

Selva, S.B. 1988. The Caliciales of Northern Maine. Bryologist 91: 2-17 [key to 35 species, descriptions]

Middelborg, J. and Mattsson, J. 1987. Crustaceous lichenized species of the Caliciales in Norway. Sommerfeltia 5: 1-70. [keys, 39 species in Calicium, Chaenotheca (including Cybebe), Cyphelium, Microcalicium, Sclerophora, Thelomma, good overlap]

Tibell, L. 1996. Caliciales. Flora Neotropica, 69, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 78 pp. [modern key to genera, including several not on N. Am. list, keys to 51 neotropical species, most of them also found on N. Am. list; descriptions]

Tibell, L. 1987. Australasian Caliciales. Symbolae Botanicae Upsaliensis 27(1): 1-279. [modern key to genera, keys to 78 species, about 40 occurring on N. Am. list; detailed descriptions and fine illustrations make this a good source for confirming an identification]

Schmidt, A. 1970. Anatomisch-taxonomische Untersuchungen an europaischen Arten der Flechtenfamilie Caliciaceae. Mitteilungen aus dem Staatsinstitut für allgemeine Botanik in Hamburg 13: 111-166. [treatment of European Mycocaliciaceae, including Mycocalicium, Phaeocalicium, Chaenothecopsis, and Stenocybe; good for photographs of anatomy, and for generic concepts; some species descriptions, no keys]

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General lichen references:

Textbooks--general

[Note: multiple-author texts have chapters written by individual experts; their tone tends to be academic, and they often lack a unified style. Texts with citations are harder to read than those without them but allow further study of specific topics.]

Purvis, W. 2000. Lichens. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, and The Natural History Museum, London. 112 pp. [a well-written, simple introduction to lichens; lots of top-quality color photographs; the best book for readers lacking a science background]

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1983. The Biology of the Lichens. Third Edition. Edward Arnold, Baltimore. 190 pp. [short, unified and clear--a classic; citations are handled as endnotes, making the text easy to read; still in print]

Hawksworth, D.L. and Hill, D.J. 1984. The Lichen-Forming Fungi. Blackie, Glasgow and London. 158 pp. [a short British textbook suitable for the literate beginner; rather succinct, but covers the ground; illustrations are small; in print]

Richardson, D.H.S. 1974. The Vanishing Lichens. Hafner Press, New York. 231 pp. [a non-technical, easy-to-read book on the history, economic uses, and ecological importance of lichens; not really a textbook]

Schöller, H. (ed.). 1997. Flechten. Geschichte, Biologie, Systematik, Ökologie, Naturschutz und kulturelle Bedeutung. Waldemar Kramer, Frankfurt am Main. 247 pp. [takes a world-wide perspective; unified style despite multiple authors; good color illustrations; in German]

Lawrey, J.D. 1984. Biology of Lichenized Fungi. Praeger Publishers, New York. 408 pp. [not intended as an introductory text; basically a synthesis of lichen research with citations; emphasizes physiology, chemistry, ecology, and lichens as bio-indicators; de-emphasizes morphology, ontogeny, and systematics; few illustrations, many graphs; in print]

Nash, T.H., III (ed.). 1996. Lichen biology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England. 303 pp. [an up-to-date multiple-author text with an academic tone; citations; some photographs; in print]

Galun, M. (ed.). 1988. CRC Handbook of Lichenology. {in three volumes} CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton. 297 pp., 181 pp., 147 pp. [a multiple-author encyclopedic review of the state of lichenology]

Ahmadjian, V. and Hale, M.E., Jr. (eds.). 1973. The lichens. Academic Press, New York. 697 pp. [a multiple-author text with a slightly academic tone; text citations]

Henssen, A. and Jahns, H.M. 1974. Lichenes. Eine Einführung in die Flechtenkunde. Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart. 467 pp. [great drawings of anatomy and excellent discussion of morphologic development; one-third of book devoted to discussion and illustration of taxonomic groups; in German]

Ozenda, P. 1963. Lichens. Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin-Nikolassee. 199 pp. [textbook emphasizing anatomy and morphology; many wonderful drawings; in French]

Ozenda, P. and Clauzade, G. 1970. Les Lichens. Etude Biologie et Flore Illustree. Masson and Cie, Editeurs, Paris. 801 pp. [combines a 125 page text emphasizing morphology and anatomy, with extensive keys to European lichens; the text is illustrated with many line drawings; the keys are illustrated mostly with photographs; the keys have a peculiar arrangement and have been supplanted by Clauzade and Roux (1985)]

Smith, A.L. 1921. Lichens. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 464 pp. [a classic; thoroughly covers all lichen biology known at the time]

Masuch, G. 1993. Biologie der Flechten. Quelle and Meyer Verlag, Heidelberg, Wiesbaden. 411 pp. [not reviewed; in German]

Søchting, U. 1994. Laver. Natur og Museum (Arhus) 33(3): 1-32. [not reviewed; an introduction to lichens; in Danish]

Van Haluwyn, C. and Lerond, M. 1993. Guide des Lichens. Lechevalier, Paris. 344 pp. [textbook in French; also keys to common French lichens illustrated with good line drawings; the keys are not too useful in North America]

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Specialized Textbooks: ecology, phytosociology, symbiosis, pollution monitoring

[in no special order]

Richardson, D.H.S. 1992. Pollution Monitoring with Lichens. Naturalists' Handbooks, 19, Richmond Publishing Co. Ltd., Slough, England. 76 pp. [also covers the effects of pollution on lichens; a compact review with citations; available from St. Mary's University bookstore, Halifax, phone (902) 496-8765, don.harper@stmarys.ca ]

Gilbert, O. 2000. Lichens. New Naturalist Library, Harper Collins Publishers, London. 288 pp. [a fairly easy-to-read textbook on the lichen ecology of Great Britain]

Kershaw, K.A. 1985. Physiological Ecology of Lichens. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 293 pp. [lichen physiology in the context of their environment; text citations; lots of graphs]

Seaward, M.R.D. 1977. Lichen Ecology. Academic Press, London, 550 pp. [a multiple-author compilation of research; lichens in relationship to their environment; citations; very few illustrations or graphs]

Barkman, J.J. 1958. Phytosociology and Ecology of Cryptogamic Epiphytes. Van Gorcum, Assen, Netherlands. 628 pp. plus 16 plates plus separate tables. [the foundation work of two sub-fields; the author describes lichen associations, that is, named groups of reliably co-occurring species; encyclopedic coverage of the ecology of lichens on bark; citations, lots of tables]

Ahmadjian, V. 1993. The Lichen Symbiosis. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 250 pp. [emphasizes the biological relationship between the alga and the fungus; techniques for studying this relationship; de-emphasizes morphology, anatomy, ecology; citations]

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Dictionaries and Glossaries

[Most national and regional floras contain glossaries. The following are noteworthy:]

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [contains the most complete lichen glossary in the English language; describes the different usage of the same terms by various authorities; for details see annotation under "Twenty most useful")}

Hawksworth, D.L., Kirk, P.M., Sutton, B.C. and Pegler, D.N. 1995. Ainsworth and Bisby's Dictionary of Fungi. Eighth Edition. CAB International, Wallingford. xii +616 pp. [this important reference includes not only definitions, but also short articles on many subjects, a systematic arrangement of fungi, keys to families, literature citations by genus and topic, etc.]

Malcolm, W.M. and Galloway, D.J. 1997. New Zealand Lichens. Checklist, Key, and Glossary. Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, Wellington, 192 pp. [contains a marvelous illustrated glossary; notable for illustrations of ascus types]

Ulloa, M. and Hanlin, R.T. 2000. Illustrated Dictionary of Mycology. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, Minnesota, 448 pp. [many line drawings and photographs; limited to defining and illustrating technical terms, including those used in lichenology]

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W., and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [a good, partially illustrated glossary; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm for more details see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Thorpe, T. 1981. Russian-English glossary of some biological and related terms used in lichenology. In. Brodo, I.M. (ed.). Handbook of the lichens of the USSR. Translations of keys contained in volumes 1, 3-5. (National Museums of Canada, Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa), in several individually numbered sections. pp. 1-9.

Berger, K. 1980. Mykologisches Wörterbuch. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart. 432 pp. [This useful book presents side by side in 8 languages 3200 words commonly used in mycological literature. The 8 languages are German, English, French, Spanish, Latin, Russian, Polish, and Czech. Seven separate indexes makes it possible to translate starting with any of the 8 languages.]

Hornak, K.A. 1998. Diccionario de Liquenología (Dictionary of Lichenology). Editorial Castillo La Vieja, Horsham, Pennsylvania. 293 + 29 pp. [Spanish-English and English-Spanish translations of lichenological and ecological terms, but no definitions; ca. 6500 entries; the word "lichen" in 30 languages; tree species in three languages, including Latin; bibliography lacks author names]

Sipman, H. 2001. Glossary of technical terms. {Online} Permanently stored at the Lichen Key Archive. Available: http://www.toyen.uio.no/botanisk/lav/LichenKey/Current/Sipman/neokeya.htm#glossary [modest in length, but available online]

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Bibliographies and sources of lichen references

Culberson, W.L., Egan, R.S. and Esslinger, T.L. 1997-. Search recent literature on lichens {Online}. (Presented on the Web by E. Timdal; first posted 1997.04.14, latest update 2001.04.27.) Available: http://www.nhm.uio.no/botanisk/bot-mus/lav/sok_rll.htm {accessed 2001 September 13} [this online searchable bibliography contains references to almost all works related to lichens published after 1951; has keywords and abstracts, which usually mention new scientific names and combinations; is based upon the series in Bryologist, as cited next; can be searched at the same time as "Mattick's Index"]

Esslinger, T.L., Egan, R.S. and Culberson, W.L. 1951-. Recent Literature on Lichens. Bryologist 54- [a series of bibliographies reporting "new" literature, published in most issues; Also, available from the authors as a series of diskettes using commercial bibliographic software (Bookends, Papyrus); but most convenient is the searchable online combined database cited above]

Sipman, H. 2001. Mattick's Literature Index {Online}. (Presented on the Web by E. Timdal; first posted 2001.06.12; latest update 2001.06.12.) Available: http://www.nhm.uio.no/botanisk/lav/RLL/MATTICK.HTM {accessed 2001 September 13} [this online searchable bibliography presently contains references to ca. 90% of the lichen literature from 1975 to 1950; limited keywords, a few abstracts; may be searched at the same time as "Recent Literature on Lichens"]

Triebel, D. and Rambold, G. 1998-. DALI: Database of ascomycete literature {Online}. Botanische Staatssammlung München, Munich. Available: http://www.mycology.net/index.cfm {accessed 2001 January 23} [Searchable database of 4,000 references on the systematic and taxonomic studies of ascomycetes. It concentrates on the Lecanorales, Leotiales and the ecological group of lichenicolous fungi, but also has references to pyrenocarpous and mitosporic fungi. Other fungal biblographies ara also available via links at Mycology Net.]

Hawksworth, D.L., Kirk, P.M., Sutton, B.C. and Pegler, D.N. 1995. Ainsworth and Bisby's Dictionary of Fungi. Eighth Edition. CAB International, Wallingford. xii +616 pp. [literature citations by genus and topic]

Hawksworth, D.L. and Ahti, T. 1990. A bibliographic guide to the lichen flora of the world , second edition. Lichenologist 22: 1-78. Available as a reprint from the British Lichen Society http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm . [list of major floras, by geographical region]

Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network (EMAN) Coordinating Office. 1997. Selected books on lichens (for monitoring projects using lichens). Science Directorate of Environment Canada. Available: http://eqb-dqe.cciw.ca/eman/ecotools/protocols/terrestrial/lichens/part4.html {accessed 1999 September 23} [references on four topics: biological monitoring of pollution, lichen ecology, texts, and lichen identification]

Biosis. 1980-. Biological Abstracts {CD-ROM}. distributed by Ovid Technologies, Inc. Available locally by subscription or online for a fixed fee http://www.biosis.org/ [abstracts many botany journals; includes a number of lichenological citations not found in Recent Literature on Lichens; worth searching when completeness is needed; most university science libraries subscribe to this service]

Table of Contents

Major checklists and lists of synonyms (accepted names of species)

[The following reference is accepted as the standard by most North American lichenologists:]

Esslinger, T.L. and Egan, R.S. 1995. A sixth checklist of the lichen-forming, lichenicolous, and allied fungi of the continental United States and Canada. Bryologist 98: 467-549. [the standard reference for nomenclature in North America]

Esslinger, T.L. 1997-. A cumulative checklist for the lichen-forming, lichenicolous and allied fungi of the continental United States and Canada {Online}. North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota. Available: http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu/instruct/esslinge/chcklst/chcklst7.htm {accessed 2001 January 23; most recent update 15 May 2000} [the online version of the N. Am. checklist (Esslinger and Egan, 1995), updated periodically with additions, corrections, and taxonomic changes; the taxonomy and nomenclature may change again before the next printed version of the checklist; this Guide to the Literature is based upon the online version available in June, 1999]

[Here is a sample foreign checklists that may occasionally prove useful when either taxonomy or nomenclature is in dispute:]

Santesson, R. 1993. The lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Sweden and Norway. SBT-förlaget, Lund. 240 pp. [many lichenologists use this checklist as their standard source for species names; however many of the 2,600 species covered are not in North America, and it is now a little out of date; cites references for each genus and species, but many of these pertain to their distribution in Scandinavia]

Timdal, E. and Tønsberg, T. 1997-. Checklist to Norwegian lichens: accepted names {online}. Botanical Garden and Museum, University of Oslo. Available: http://www.toyen.uio.no/botanisk/lav/LISTS.HTM {accessed 1999 September 3: most recent update January. 1997} [based upon, and updated from, Santesson (1993)]

Wirth, V. 1994. Checkliste der Flechten und flechtenbewohnenden Pilze Deutschlands - eine Arbeitshilfe {Checklist of the lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Germany}. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, Serie A Biiologie 517: 1-63. [includes 1835 species and 1600 synonyms in a separate list]

Nimis, P.L. 1993 The Lichens of Italy. An Annotated Catalogue. Museu regionale di scienze naturali, Torino, Monograph 12: 1-897.

Martellos, S., Nimis, P.L. and Grube, M. 2000. Taxon query interface for P.L. Nimis-Checklist of Italian Lichens 2.0 Available: http://dbiodbs.univ.trieste.it/web/lich/askit1 {accessed 2001 January 23}. [the entire checklist is available at this site, or one can search by taxon; synonyms are treated]

Filson, R.B. 1996. Checklist of Australian Lichens and Allied Fungi. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series, No. 7, Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. 204 pp.

Feuerer, T. 2000-. Checklists of Lichens {online}. Available: http://www.rrz.uni-hamburg.de/biologie/ialb/herbar/lichenw.htm {accessed 2000 June 1}. [links to 18 online national checklists]

Table of Contents

Systematic arrangements of lichens by order and family

[The systematics of lichens is not yet settled. The following recent classification schemes place lichens into the context of non-lichenized fungi:]

Anonymous. 2000. FungalNet {Online}. Available: http://www.fungalweb.com/searchframes.html {accessed 2001 September 13}. [contains an expanding, searchable taxonomic tree to ALL fungal groups down to the genus level; includes generic synonyms, as well as accepted taxa; includes lichenized and lichenicolous groups; the tree itself can take up to a minute to load on the left side of the screen]

O.E. Eriksson (Web Editor), Baral, H.-O. , Currah, R.S., Hansen, K., Kurtzman, C.P., Rambold, G. and Laessøe, T. 2001. Outline of Ascomycota - 2001 {Online). Myconet. Available: http://www.umu.se/myconet/Myconet.html {accessed 2001 September 13} [the lastest classification system of the ascomycetes down to the family level; treats only accepted taxa; includes most lichens and lichenicolous groups, as well as non-lichenized ascomycetes; taxonomic decisions are made by several editorial boards]

Hawksworth, D.L., Kirk, P.M., Sutton, B.C. and Pegler, D.N. 1995. Ainsworth and Bisby's Dictionary of Fungi. Eighth Edition. CAB International, Wallingford. xii +616 pp. [includes a systematic arrangement of all fungi down to the level of genus; includes all lichenized groups; keys to the family level]

Eriksson, O.E. and Hawksworth, D.L. 1993. Outline of the ascomycetes - 1993. Systema Ascomycetum 12(1-2): 51-257. [an alphabetical listing of accepted orders, with the accepted families in each; an alphabetical list of accepted families, with the accepted genera in each; separate alphabetical indexes to orders, families, and genera include both accepted and unaccepted names]

Eriksson, O.E. and Winka, K. 1998. Families and higher taxa of Ascomycota. Myconet 1: 17-24. [only accepted taxa are treated]

Tehler, A. 1996 systematics, phylogeny and classification. In: Nash, T.H., III (ed.). Lichen biology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England. pp. 217-239. [another view]

Harris, R.C. 1994. A guide to the higher groups of New York State lichens. (unpublished) 34 pp. [Nested keys to the orders and families occurring in New York; drawings of asci, ascal tips, and paraphyses; notes on each family usually include a list of the genera found in New York; the taxonomic arrangement differs somewhat from that of Eriksson and of Hawksworth; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Table of Contents

Technique: collecting and curating, microscopic examination and staining, identifying lichen substances:

Collecting, photographing, curating, and publishing

Taylor, C.J. 1967-1968. The lichens of Ohio. Part I. Foliose lichens. Part II. Fruticose and cladoniform lichens. Ohio State University, Columbus. 227 + 22 pp. [how to collect and curate lichens]

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1979. How to know the lichens, 2nd ed. Wm. C. Brown Co., Dubuque, Iowa, 246 pp. [how to collect and curate lichens]

Brodo, I.M. 1988. Lichens of the Ottawa region, second edition. Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club Spec. Publication 3: 1-115, Ottawa. [how to collect and curate lichens; copies still available from the author. ibrodo@mus-nature.ca ]

May, P.F. 2000. How to collect lichens {Online}. Available: http://www.huh.harvard.edu/collections/lichens/collecting.html [tips on collecting]

Malcolm, W.M and Garnock-Jones, P.J. 2000. Photographing lichens without a camera. Australasian Lichenology 47: 17-22. [techniques for using a scanner to make color images of lichens]

Hawksworth D.L. 1974. Mycologist's Handbook, Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew. 231 pp. [methods for collecting, studying, and especially publishing in the field of taxonomy; discussion of rules of nomenclature ]

Table of Contents

Microscopic examination and staining

Malcolm, W.M. and Galloway, D.J. 1997. New Zealand Lichens. Checklist, Key, and Glossary. Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, Wellington, 192 pp. [formulas of reagents and stains, p. 189; techniques for microscopic examination of specimens, pp. 179-183; the best instructions for staining asci, pp. 180-181, many drawings of stained asci]

Orange, A., James, P.W., and White, F.J. 2001. Microchemical Methods for the Identification of Lichens. British Lichen Society. 101 pp. [a long list of stains, a whole chapter on the use of iodine compunds; includes tables giving iodine reactions of several polysaccharides and showing the distribution of lichenan in selected genera; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W., and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [technique for squash preparations and staining asci; reagents; pp. 4-8; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Thomson, J.W. 2000. Using the ascus apex in lichen identification. Evansia 17: 41-43. [an easily obtained description of ascus staining; some of the illustrations of asci are oversimplified]

Ryan, B. 1994-1999. Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskette} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [whole sections on technique and staining; for details see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]]

Hawksworth, D.L., Kirk, P.M., Sutton, B.C. and Pegler, D.N. 1995. Ainsworth and Bisby's Dictionary of Fungi. Eighth Edition. CAB International, Wallingford, xii +616 pp. [see articles under "stains" and "iodine"]

Common, R.S. 1991. The distribution and taxonomic significance of lichenan and isolichenan in the Parmeliaceae (lichenized Ascomycotina), as determined by iodine reactions. I. Introduction and methods. II. The genus Alectoria and associated taxa. Mycotaxon 41: 67-112. [contains a long discussion of staining with various iodine reagents and the effects of their concentrations on the appearance specimens under the compound microscope]

Baral, H.O. 1987. Lugol's solution/IKI versus Melzer's reagent: Hemiamyloidity, a universal feature of the ascus wall. Mycotaxon 29: 399-450. [discussion of iodine reactions}

Baral, H.O. 1992. Vital versus herbarium taxonomy: morphological differences between living and dead cells of ascomycetes, and their taxonomic implications. Mycotaxon 44: 333-390. [discusses the effects of various mounting media on the appearance of specimens, how to tell live from dead cells, and the changes in appearance cells undergo after death]

Delly, J.G. 1988. Photography through the microscope, ninth edition. Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York, 104 pp. [includes detailed instructions for the proper use of microscopes, such as aligning the components and adjusting the diaphragms and condenser.

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Identifying lichen substances:

Spot tests

[Spot tests are simple color-based chemical tests that can be performed non-laboratory settings. They are popular because they are easy. However, spot tests are relatively insensitive and non-specific, and they are subject to misinterpretation due to concentration-related variability or the presence of more than one substance in a specimen. Many regional floras include instructions on how to perform spot tests. The following references either include exceptionally detailed instructions, variations on the method, or a lengthy table of spot-test reactions.]

Wright, D. 1996. An introduction to lichen spot tests. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society 3(1): 9-12. [spot tests, a very detailed treatment with discussion of problems; drawings]

Orange, A., James, P.W., and White, F.J. 2001. Microchemical Methods for the Identification of Lichens. British Lichen Society. 101 pp. [a chapter on spot tests; table of reactions; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Tucker, S. and Bratt, C. 1996. A minority recommendation on spot test methods for lichens. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society 3(1): 12-13. [spot tests, alternate methods to Wright (1996), also detailed]

McCune, B and Rosentreter, R. 1993. Improved spot tests for Bryoria. Evansia 10: 58-60. [a method of spot testing for use when the thallus color obscures the results; it uses acetone extracts on a porcelain spot plate]

Brodo, I.M. and Hawksworth, D.L. 1977. Alectoria and allied genera in North America. Opera Botanica 42: 1-164. [a method of spot testing for when thallus color obscures the results; it uses filter paper; illustration]

Dey, J.P. 1978. Fruticose and foliose lichens of the high-mountain areas of the southern Appalachians. Bryologist 81: 1-93. [a list of common lichen substances and their spot test reactions]

Dahl, E. and Krog, H. 1973. Macrolichens of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Scandinavian University Books, Universitetsforlaget, Oslo. 185 pp. [a list of common lichen substances and their spot test reactions]

Malcolm, W.M., and Galloway, D.J. 1997. New Zealand Lichens. Checklist, Key, and Glossary. Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, Wellington, 192 pp. [key to spot test reactions, p. 182; some errors in key]

Table of Contents

Microcrystal tests

[Microcrystal tests may also, with care, safely be performed outside the laboratory. Like spot tests they may be hard to interpret due to concentration-related variability or the presence of more than one substance in a specimen. However, microcrystal tests are more sensitive and more specific than a spot text, although more difficult to perform ]

Taylor, C.J. 1967-1968. The lichens of Ohio. Part I. Foliose lichens. Part II. Fruticose and cladoniform lichens. Ohio State University, Columbus. 227 + 22 pp. [the best and most detailed information on microcrystal tests; many photographs of recrystallized lichen substances]

Huneck, S. and Yoshimura, I. 1996. Identification of Lichen Substances. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg. 493 pp. [instructions for microcrystal tests; many photos of recrystallized lichen substances; available at http://www.springer-ny.com ]

Thomson, J.W. 1967. The lichen genus Cladonia in North America. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 172 pp. [microcrystal tests; some photographs of recrystallized lichen substances]

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1979. How to know the lichens, 2nd ed. Wm. C. Brown Co., Dubuque, Iowa, 246 pp. [ brief introduction to microcrystal tests; a few small photographs of recrystallized lichen substances]

Table of Contents

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC and HPTLC)

[Standard thin-layer chromatography uses toxic solvents and strong acids. A variation called high-performance thin-layer chromatography uses smaller amounts of the same chemicals. TLC and HPTLC are sensitive techniques and usually give specific, unambiguous results. However, they are time-consuming to perform and requires several hundred dollars worth of equipment. For safe use, both techniques require a ventilated hood and a safe way to dispose of hazardous chemical wastes.]

Orange, A., James, P.W., and White, F.J. 2001. Microchemical Methods for the Identification of Lichens. British Lichen Society. 101 pp. [the best TLC cookbook; inlcudes 2-dimensional TLC, TLC of xanthones and fatty acids, table of Rf values for systems C. A. B', and G, charts for difficult groups;,safety data; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

White, F.J. and James, P.W. 1985. A new guide to microchemical techniques for the identification of lichen substances. British Lichen Society Bulletin, 57 (Supplement): 1-41. [spot tests, UV fluorescence, and an introduction to thin-layer chromotography; a list of lichen substances, their TLC Rf classes for systems A, B, and C, color, color under UV light]

Culberson, C.F. 1972. Improved conditions and new data for the identification of lichen products by a standardized thin-layer chromatographic method. Journal of Chromatography 72: 113-125. [introduces and summarizes the standard TLC methodology for identifying lichen substances; contains a list of lichen substances with their Rf values and classes}

Culberson, C.F. and Ammann, K. 1979. Standardmethode zur Dunnschichtchromatographie von Flechtensubstanzen. Herzogia 5: 1-24. [perhaps the best summary of Culberson's method; aimed at non-chemists, it treats some issues not covered in her 1972 paper; in German]

Culberson, C.F. 1974. Conditions for the use of Merck silica gel 60 F-254 plates in the standardized thin-layer chromatographic technique for lichen products. Journal of Chromatography. 97: 107-108. [a refinement of Culberson (1972)]

Culberson, C.F. and Johnson, A. 1982. Substitution of methyl tert.-butyl ether for diethyl ether in standardized thin-layer chromatographic method for lichen products. Journal of Chromatography 238: 438-487. [a safety-related change to Culberson (1972), with a new table of Rf classes based on the new solvent system]

Culberson, C.F. and Johnson, A. 1976. A standardized two-dimensional thin-layer chromatographic method for lichen products. Journal of Chromatography 128: 253-259. [an extension of Culberson (1972) used for identifying difficult compounds]

Arup, U., Ekman, S., Lindblom, L. and Mattsson, J.-E. 1993. High performance thin layer chromotography (HPTLC), an improved technique for screening lichen substances. Lichenologist 25: 61-71. [introduces and describes the technique]

Culberson, C.F. 1969. Chemical and Botanical Guide to Lichen Products. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. xi + 628 pp. [lists the lichen substances contained in about 2,000 species with; gives physical and chemical data for most lichen substances known at the time]

Culberson, C.F. 1970. Supplement to "Chemical and Botanical Guide to Lichen Products". Bryologist 73: 177-377. [reports new lichen substances and lists the chemical contents of additional taxa; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/]

Culberson, C.F. and Culberson, W.L. and Johnson, A. 1977. Second Supplement to "Chemical and Botanical Guide to Lichen Products". American Bryological and lichenological Society, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis. 400 pp. [reports new lichen substances and lists the chemical contents of additional taxa; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/]

Huneck, S. and Yoshimura, I. 1996. Identification of Lichen Substances. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg. 493 pp. [chemical and physical data on all presently know lichen substances, including their Rf values in several TLC solvent systems; available at http://www.springer-ny.com ]

Mietzsch, E., Lumbsch, H.T. and Elix, J.A. 1992. Wintabolites {program on diskette and printed users manual}. Published by the authors, Essen. 54 pp. Available from H Thorsten Lumbsch at lumbsch@uni-essen.de [this wonderful program contains an interactive database which allows the user to enter Rf values and other experimental data from TLC; the program provides a list of lichen substances that match or nearly match the data; the user may also directly access the stored data for each substance in the database]

Table of Contents

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

Feige, G.B., Lumbsch, H.T., Huneck, S. and Elix, J.A. 1993. Identification of lichen substances by a standardized high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Journal of Chromatography 646: 417-427. [describes the technique]

Yoshimura, I., Kinoshita, Y., Yamamoto, Y., Huneck, S. and Yamada, Y. 1994. Analysis of secondary metabolites from lichens by high performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector. Phytochemical analysis 5: 195-205. [includes UV spectral data and retention times for a large number of lichen substances]

Table of Contents

Journals and Series Publications

[Here is a list of the active journals and series cited most often in this Guide to the Literature. We have provided the website URLs for these journals in case you wish to subscribe or order back issues. You may read or download articles from some journals online. However, generally the best way to get single articles is from a library. See how ]

Annales Botanici Fennici http://www.sekj.org/

Bibliotheca Lichenologica http://www.schweizerbart.de/j/

Bryologist http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/bryologist.html or http://www.devonian.ualberta.ca/bryologist/ [at present these sites provide subscription information only; for directions on how to order back issues and special publications, consult the inner back cover of a recent issue]

Bulletin de la Société Linéenne de Provence [no website found]

Bulletin of the California Lichen Society http://ucjeps.herb.berkeley.edu/rlmoe/cals.html [articles may be read online]

Canadian Journal of Botany http://www.nrc.ca/cgi-bin/cisti/journals/rp/rp2_desc_e?cjb

Herzogia http://www.schweizerbart.de/j/

Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/hattori.html

Lichenologist http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm [subscriptions only] http://www.academicpress.com/lichenol [articles available online from 1993 forward]

Mycotaxon http://ww1.mycotaxon.com/fungi/

Nova Hedwigia http://www.schweizerbart.de/j/

Nova Hedwigia Beihefte (supplements) http://www.schweizerbart.de/j/

Plant Systematics and Evolution http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00606/index.htm

Sendtnera (formerly Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München) http://www.botanik.biologie.uni-muenchen.de/botsyst/sendtner.htm [table of contents and instructions for authors only]

Sommerfeltia http://www.toyen.uio.no/botanisk/sommerf/sm_intro.htm

Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses http://tango.its.uu.se/acta/ACTA-ENG.taf?function=titlar&_UserReference=BBD5C9A90726052138D71D9C&NYA=NEJ&SERIE_uid1=0082-0644

Table of Contents

Lichen collections and herbaria in North America

Here are some institutions where there are major or well-identified collections of preserved lichens. They are organized alphabetically by state or province. We provide a website when known and useful. Addresses, phone numbers, and e-mail addresses of contact persons for all herbaria worldwide may be obtained online from the Index Herbariorum (at http://www.nybg.org/bsci/ih/ih.html ). We have cited each collection’s standard acronym to aid in searching the online index.

Location

AB: University of Alberta Cryptogamic Herbarium (ALTA) http://www.museums.ualberta.ca/dig/naturalhist/plant/cryptogamic/

AZ: Arizona State University Lichen Herbarium (ASU), Tempe http://ces.asu.edu/ASULichens/

BC: University of British Columbia Herbarium, Vancouver (UBC) http://herbarium.botany.ubc.ca/index.html

CA: Santa Barbara Botanic Garden Herbarium (SBBG) http://www.sbbg.org/herbariu.htm

CA: University of California, Berkeley (UC) http://ucjeps.herb.berkeley.edu/

CO: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder (COLO) http://www.colorado.edu/CUMUSEUM/research/botany/botany.html

DC: United States National Herbarium (Smithsonian Institution), Washington, D.C. (US) http://www.nmnh.si.edu/botany/colls.htm

FL: University of Florida Herbarium, Gainesville (FLAS) http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/natsci/herbarium/

MA: Farlow Herbarium, Harvard University (FH) http://www.huh.harvard.edu/

ME: University of Maine at Fort Kent (UMFK) http://academic.umfk.maine.edu/lichens/herbar.htm

MI: Michigan State University Herbarium, East Lansing (MSC) http://www.bpp.msu.edu/herbarium/index.html

MI: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (MICH) http://herbarium.lsa.umich.edu/

MN: Bell Museum of Natural History, University of Minnesota, St. Paul (MIN) http://www1.umn.edu/bellmuse/collections.html

NB: Lichen Herbarium, Biology Department, University of Nebraska, Omaha http://www.unomaha.edu/~egan/research.htm [not formally part of OMA, but rather Robert Egan’s personal collection stored there]

NB: New Brunswick Museum, St. John (NBN) http://www.gnb.ca/0130/english/00aa.html

NC: Duke University Herbarium, Durham (DUKE) http://www.biology.duke.edu/facilities/herbarium.html

NE: University of Nebraska State Museum, Lincoln (NEB) http://www-museum.unl.edu/research/botany/botany.html

NS: Nova Scotia Museum of Natural History, Halifax (NSPM) http://nature.museum.gov.ns.ca/backstge/collects/botgen.htm

NY: Cryptogamic Herbarium, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx (NY) http://www.nybg.org/bsci/herb/

ON: Canadian Museum of Nature (CANL) http://nature.ca/collections/botany_e.cfm

ON: Claude Garton Herbarium, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay (LKHD) http://www.lakeheadu.ca/~biowww/documents/main/support.html

ON: Cryptogamic Herbarium, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto (TRTC) http://www.library.utoronto.ca/muskoka_flora/misc/rombtny.htm [webpage not very useful]

ON: Fowler Herbarium, Queens University, Kingston (QK) http://biology.queensu.ca/~fowler/

OR: Oregon State University Herbarium, Corvallis (OSC) http://www.orst.edu/dept/botany/herbarium/index.html

QU: Herbier Jardin Botanique, Montreal (MTJB) [no useful webpage]

QU: Herbier Louis-Marie, Université Laval, Ste-Foy, Québec (QFA) http://www.fsaa.ulaval.ca/fra/faculte_instal-herbier.html

UT: Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, Provo (BRY) http://bioag.byu.edu/mlbean/plants.htm

WA: University of Washington Herbarium, Seattle (WTU) http://depts.washington.edu/wtu/home.htm

WI: Wisconsin State Herbarium, University of Wisconsin, Madison (WIS) http://www.botany.wisc.edu/herbarium/home.html

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Addresses of lichenologists

Eastern Lichen Network membership list:     http://www.nybg.org/bsci/lichens/eln/eln_address.html

American Bryological and Lichenological Society, membership list:    http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/membership.htm

International Association for Lichenology, Directory of lichenologists:    http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/lichen/

Mycology Net: E-mail addresses of lichenologists and mycologists:     http://www.mycology.net/index.cfm

Table of Contents

Addresses of North American lichen groups

American Bryological and Lichenological Society http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls

Eastern Lichen Network http://www.nybg.org/bsci/lichens/eln/

California Lichen Society http://ucjeps.herb.berkeley.edu/rlmoe/cals.html

Northwest Lichenologists http://www.proaxis.com/~mccune/nwl.htm

[Standard mail addresses for international groups can be found at http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/cpsu/ial.htm]

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Lichen courses, workshops, and forays

ABLS listing of Workshops, classes, seminars, and forays: http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/Workshops%20and%20Seminars.htm

Table of Contents

Links to other lichen sites

[The following websites contain links to many other sites related to lichens:]

ABLS internet resources for bryologists and lichenologists: http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/resources.html [many links, up to date, organized by categories,]

The Lichens: http://www.is.kochi-u.ac.jp/Bio/lichens/lich-f-2.html [many links]

California Lichen Society: http://ucjeps.herb.berkeley.edu/rlmoe/cals.html [many links]

Links to Lichens and Lichenologists: http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/cpsu/hmpage.html [many, somewhat out of date]

North American Lichens: http://www.lichen.com/links.html [some links]

British Lichen Society http://www.thebls.org.uk/links.htm [many links]

International Association for Lichenology http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/cpsu/ial.htm [addresses of lichen societies worldwide]

Table of Contents

References alphabetically by genus

Explanation:

 This section contains revisions, monographs, and other useful works that are restricted to one genus, a few related genera, or to a group of species. We have chosen works that will directly help with identification. Usually they include keys and/or descriptions of species.

·   We do NOT (typically) cite again the regional and national floras listed in the previous parts of the bibliography even though they may be extremely useful. We have made this decision in order to avoid endless repetition of citations. Therefore we urge the reader to consult the relevant regional, national, and European floras listed previously.

·   The taxa recognized in this section follow A Cumulative Checklist for the Lichen-forming, Lichenicolous and Allied Fungi of the Continental United States and Canada (a periodically updated online version of the "Sixth Checklist"). We used the checklist version of June, 1999. For subsequently added genera we've generally listed only references new since March, 2000. Most species-level changes in nomenclature and taxonomy have been ignored. We recommend downloading the most recent version of the checklist for use with this bibliography. http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu/instruct/esslinge/chcklst/chcklst7.htm

·   References are cited in the approximate order of usefulness for identification.

·   We have included headings for families and orders when there are useful keys available; For example, there are listings both for Arthonia and Arthoniales.

·   The number in parenthesis after each genus name is the number of species on North American checklist, as of June, 1999. This number will not be kept current and so will become inaccurate over time. A number in brackets--occasionally provided--represents the number of North American species reported in the recent literature, if different from the checklist of June, 1999.

·   We have annotated most citations with at least the following information:

*we mean species accepted under the same genus name by the North American checklist of June, 1999; the reference may treat several additional (not counted) North American species that have been transferred to other genera;

If an annotation does not mention a key, descriptions, or illustrations, the reference lacks the item, at least to a useful degree.

Unless otherwise stated, any species mentioned by name in an annotation is described in the reviewed reference and will be found on the North American checklist.

In some instances, we provide the name and e-mail address of a distributor or publisher for a reference. Authors and distributors of unpublished works sometimes charge a fee for their expenses and time. Book publishers and distributors normally charge both for their publications and for mailing expenses.

First letter of genus:

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z Contents

Ac

Ag

An

Ar

As

Abrothallus (8) [11]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [key, 12 species, 7 on N. Am. list, in Esperanto]

Hafellner, J. 1994. Beiträge zu einem Prodromus der lichenicolen Pilze Österreichs und angrenzender Gebiete. I. Einige neue oder seltene Arten (Contributions to a preliminary study of the lichenicolous fungi of Austria and adjacent areas. I. Some new or rare species) Herzogia 10: 1-28. [A. bryoriarum, description, drawing of anatomy]

Cole, M.S. and Hawksworth, D.L. 2001. Lichenicolous fungi, mainly from the USA, including Patriciomyces gen. nov. [A. tulasnei newly described and illustrated; A. microsperma descriptive note]

Diederich, P. 1990. New or interesting lichenicolous fungi 1. Species from Luxembourg. Mycotaxon 37: 297-330. [A. prodiens, illustration]

Absconditella (3)

Vezda, A. 1965. Flechtensystematische Studien II. Absconditella, eine neue Flachtengattung. Preslia 37: 237-245. [key, 4 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of anatomy]

Poelt, J. and Vezda, A. 1977. Bestimmungsschlüssel europäischer Flechten. Ergänzungsheft I. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 9. J. Cramer, Valduz. 258 pp. [key, 7 species, 2 on N. Am. list; English translation available as a computer file from Dr. Doyle Anderegg Doyle@uidaho.edu as replacement genera integrated into the English translation of Poelt (1969)]

Vezda, A. and Pisut, I. 1984. Zwei neue Arten der Flechtengattung Absconditella (lichenisierte Stictidaceae, Ostropales) in der Tschechoslowakei. Nova Hedwigia 40: 341-346. [2, species described, A. lignicola on N. Am. list, drawings of anatomy]

Acanthothecis [2]

Staiger, B., and Kalb, K. 1999. Acanthothecis and other graphidioid lichens with warty periphysoids or paraphysis-tips. Mycotaxon 73: 69-134. [interim world key, 19 species, 2 on North American list; descriptions, drawings of 11 species; generic description and delimitation; also, key to all known graphidioid species with warty periphyses or paraphysis-tips]

Acarospora (77)             

Magnusson, A.H. 1956. A second supplement to the monograph of Acarospora with keys. Göteborgs Kongliga Vetenskaps och vitterhets Samballes Nya Handlingar 6(17): 1-34. [key to about 85 N. Am. species, about 70 of which still on N. Am. list; also a world key to about 105 species published after 1929, descriptions of several new species, of which 2 are still on list]

Clauzade, G., Roux, C. and Rieux, R. 1981. Les Acarospora de I'Europe occidentale et de la region méditerranéenne. Bulletin du musée d’histoire naturelle de Marseille 41: 41-93. [key, 69 species in the broad sense; 27 species of Acarospora in the strict sense on N. Am. list; descriptions integrated into key, fine drawings of thalli; synonymizes many of Magnusson’s species; recognizes more yellow species than Weber]

Magnusson, A.H. 1929. A monograph of the genus Acarospora. Kongelige Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar 7(4): 1-400. [world key each for the 48 yellow and 151 brown species; descriptions; the yellow species are now represented by 1 or 2 species on the N. Am. list; about 40 brown species on the N. Am. list]

Weber, W.A. 1968. A taxonomic revision of Acarospora, subgenus, Xanthothallia. Lichenologist 4: 16-31. [a radical lumping of yellow Acarospora into only two species, one of which is now the type species of Pleopsidium]

Golubkova, N.S. 1988. The Lichen Family Acarosporaceae in the U.S.S.R. Komarov Botanical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R. (`Nauka'), Leningrad. 136 pp. [key, 57 species, about 20 on N. Am. list, descriptions, in Russian]

Magnusson, A.H. 1929. The lichen genus Acarospora in New Mexico. Meddelanden fran Göteborgs Botaniska Trädgard (Acta Horti Gotoburgensis (Gothoburgensis)) 5: 55-72. [notes on twenty species, 13 brown and 1 yellow still on N. Am. list, 7 described as new]

Magnusson, A.H. 1935. Acarosporaceae und Thelocarpaceae. In Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 9,5(l): 1-318. [key, 98 species, 2 yellow and 22 brown species on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Magnusson, A.H. 1929. The yellow species of Acarospora in North America. Mycologia 21: 249-260. [key, 16 species, 2 still on N. Am. list, descriptions of 8 new species]

Acrocordia (4)

Coppins, B.J. and James, P.W. 1978. New or interesting British lichens II. Lichenologist 10: 179-207. [key, 5 species, 4 on N. Am. list]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 4 N. Am. species; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1975. A taxonomic revision of the genus Arthopyrenia Massal. s. lat. (Ascomycetes) in North America. Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, 288 pp. [key, 3 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of spores and other anatomical features; available from UMI Dissertation Services at http://www.umi.com/hp/Support/DExplorer/ dissertation number 7605564]

Swinscow, T.D.V. 1970. Pyrenocarpous lichens: 14. Arthopyrenia Massal. sect. Acrocordia (Massal.) Müll. Arg. in the British Isles. Lichenologist 4: 218-233. [key, 5 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of anatomy]

Acroscyphus (1)

Tibell, L. 1984. A reappraisal of the taxonomy of Caliciales. In Hertel, H. and Oberwinkler, F. (eds.). Beiträge zur Lichenologie. Festschrift J. Poelt. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia 79. J. Cramer, Vaduz pp. 597-713. [description of the new monospecific genus Acrocyphus, key to genera of Caliciales in the broad sense]

Tibell, L. 1996. Flora Neotropica Monograph 69: Caliciales. New York Botanical Garden, New York, 78 pp. [description of the only species in genus, generic key, photograph]

[Actinogyra]                   (see Umbilicaria)

Adelococcus (1)

Matzer, M. and Hafellner, J. 1990. Eine Revision der lichenicolen Arten der Sammelgattung Rosellina (Ascomycetes). Bibliotheca Lichenologica 37. J. Cramer, Berlin. 138 pp. + 8 pl. [key, 2 species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations, key to related genera]

Triebel, D., Rambold, G. and Nash, TH, III. 1991. On lichenicolous fungi from continental North America. Mycotaxon 42: 263-296. [N. Am. specimens have smaller spores]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141.[key 3 species, 1 on N. Am. list, in Esperanto]

Adelolecia (2)

[see also pre-1984 keys to Lecidea]

Hertel, H. and Rambold, G. 1995. On the genus Adelolecia (lichenized Ascomycotina, Lecanorales). In Knoph, J-G., Schrüfer, K. and Sipman, H.J.M. (eds.). Studies in Lichenology with Emphasis on Chemotaxonomy, Geography and Phytochemistry. Festschrift Christian Leuckert. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 57. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart, pp. 211-230. [descriptions of 2 species, 2 on N. Am. list]

Rambold, G. (no date). Lecanoraceae: Adelolecia {Online}. In: LIAS: A Global Information System for Lichenized and Non-Lichenized Ascomycetes. Listed in the DAP key as a taxonomic group under "Species of Lecanora (subset L. subfusca group)." Botanische Staatssammlung München. Available: http://www.mycology.net//lias/index.cfm {accessed 2001 January 23}. [online interactive multiple-access world key; 2 species of Adelolecia, 2 on N. Am. list; problems with key when last accessed]

Hafellner, J. 1984. Studien in Richtung einer naturlicheren Gliederung der Sammelfamilien Lecanoraceae und Lecideaceae. In Hertel, H. and Oberwinkler, F. (eds.). Beiträge zur Lichenologie. Festschrift J. Poelt. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia 79. J. Cramer, Vaduz pp. 241-371. [Adelolecia-a new genus; illustration of anatomy of A. pilati]

Agonimia (1) [3]

Coppins, B.J. and James, P.W. 1978. New or interesting British lichens II. Lichenologist 10: 179-207. [detailed key, 2 species, 1 on N. Am. list photo]

Swinscow, T.D.V. 1971. Pyrenocarpous lichens: 15. Key to Polyblastia Massal. in the British Isles. Lichenologist 5: 92-113. [as Polyblastia, description and illustration]

Agrestia (1)

[see also Aspicilia]

Thomson, J.W. 1960. Agrestia cyphellata, a new genus and species of lichen in the Usneaceae. Bryologist 63: 246-250. [A. hispida as A. cyphellata, description, photos]

Sanders, W.B. 1999. Thallus organization and development in the fruticose lichen Aspicilia californica, with comparisons to other taxa. Lichenologist 31: 149-162. [A. hispida as Aspicilia, characterization, photographs of thallus and anatomy, comparisons]

Brodo, I.M. 1977 ("1976"). Lichenes Canadenses Exsiccati: Fascicle II. Bryologist 79: 385-405. [descriptive/taxonomic note, photos]

Agyrium (1)

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W., and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [description of genus and 1 species, 1 on N. Am. list; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Dennis, R.W.G. 1978. British Ascomycetes. J. Cramer, Vaduz, 585 pp. [description of genus and 1 species, 1 on N. Am. list, illustration]

Gowan, S.P. and Brodo, I.M. 1988. The lichens of Fundy National Park, New Brunswick, Canada. Bryologist 91: 255-325. [1 species in main key, part VII; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/PublicationsforSale.htm ]

[Agyrophora]                   (see Umbilicaria)

[Ahlesia]                           (see Thelocarpon)

Ahtiana (3)

Thell, A., Goward, T., Randlane, T., Kärnefelt, E.I. and Saag, A. 1995. A revision of the North American lichen genus Ahtiana (Parmeliaceae). Bryologist 98: 596-605. [3 species, all on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations; tables comparing species and genera]

Goward, T. 1986 ("1985"). Ahtiana, a new genus in the Parmeliaceae. Bryologist 88: 367-371. [description of genus and A. sphaerosporella, generic comparative table]

Alectoria (7)

Brodo, I.M. and Hawksworth, D.L. 1977. Alectoria and allied genera in North America. Opera Botanica 42: 1-164. [key to Alectorioid species, 8 Alectoria species, descriptions, photos]

Allantoparmelia (3)

Esslinger, T.L. 1977. A chemosystematic revision of the brown Parmeliae. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 42: 1-211. [key to about 60 brown parmelioid lichens in the northern hemisphere, 3 species as Parmelia subgenus Allantoparmelia, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs of thalli]

Esslinger, T.L. 1978. A new status for the brown Parmeliae. Mycotaxon 7: 45-54. [genus characterized; key to similar genera]

[Allarthonia]                   (see Arthonia)

Allocetraria (1)

Thell, A., Randlane, T., Kärnefelt, I., Gao, Xiang-Q. and Saag, A. 1995. The lichen genus Allocetraria (Ascomycotina, Parmeliaceae). In Daniels, F.J.A., Schulz, M. and Peine, J. (eds.). Flechten Follmann. Contributions to Lichenology in Honour of Gerhard Follmann. Geobotanical and Phytotaxonomical Study Group, Botanical Institute, University of Cologne, Cologne pp. 353-370. [key, 8 species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions, a few photographs, table comparing similar genera]

Kärnefelt, I. and Thell, A. 1996. A new classification for the Dactylina/Dufourea complex. Nova Hedwigia 62: 487-511. [generic delimitation and comparisons]

Amandinea (6)

Sheard, J.W. and May, P.F. 1997. A synopsis of the species of Amandinea (lichenized Ascomycetes, Physciaceae) as presently known in North America. Bryologist 100: 159-169. [key, 6 species, 6 on N. Am. list, descriptions or brief characterizations, EM photographs of spore ornamentation]

Scheidegger, C. 1993. A revision of European saxicolous species of the genus Buellia de Not. and formerly included genera. Lichenologist 25: 315-364. [Amandinea reinstated as a genus and described; 3 species in key to Buellia in the wide since, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions]

[Amphiloma]                   (see Leproloma)

Amygdalaria (7)

Brodo, I.M. and Hertel, H. 1987. The lichen genus Amygdalaria Porpidiaceae) in North America. Herzogia 7: 493-521. [8 species, 7 on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Inoue, M. 1984. Japanese crustose lichen genera formerly reported under Lecidea sensu lato. 1. Amygdalaria Norman. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 56: 321-330. [key, 3 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Anamylopsora (1)

Timdal, E. 1991. Anamylopsora, a new genus in the Lecideaceae. Mycotaxon 42: 249-254. [monospecific, description]

Anaptychia (5)

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskette} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [key, 5 N. Am. species, descriptions; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Kurokawa, S. 1962. A monograph of the genus Anaptychia. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 6: 1-115. [5] [as Anaptychia section and series Anaptychia: key, 7 species, 5 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations; all other 72 species in the monograph have been treated by subsequent authors as Heterodermia]

Anema (1)

Herre, A. W. C. T. 1944. A neglected field of study with the description of a new lichen from California. Farlowia 1: 391-393. [1 species described]

Moreno, P.P. and Egea, J. M. 1992. Estudios sobre el complejo Anema-Thyrea-Peccania en el sureste de la Peninsula Iberica y norte de Africa. Acta Botanica Barcinonensia 41: 1-66. [revision; generic delimitations; key, 6 species, none on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs; key to genera, comparative table]

Anisomeridium (20)

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [provisional world key to Anisomeridium in the broad sense (includes Ditremis}, 76 species, a of which have not yet been described; 20 on N. Am. list, notes and some descriptions; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1975. A taxonomic revision of the genus Arthopyrenia Massal. s. lat. (Ascomycetes) in North America. Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, 288 pp. [key, 16 species, 14 presently on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of spores and other anatomical features; available from UMI Dissertation Services at http://www.umi.com/hp/Support/DExplorer/ dissertation number 7605564]

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 109 pp. [as Ditremis: key to 13 species, plus 3 yet unnamed, 11 named species still on N. Am. list, taxonomic notes, 3 species described as new; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1973. The corticolous pyrenolichens of the Great Lakes Region. Michigan Botanist 12: 3-68. [2 common temperate species (A. biforme and A. nyssigenum, both as Arthopyrenia) in general key, spore drawings, notes]

Anthracothecium (6)

Harris, R.C. 1989. A sketch of the family Pyrenulaceae (Melanommatales) in eastern North America. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 49: 74-107. [key, 6 species, descriptions, spore drawings]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 6 species; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 109 pp. [key, 5 species; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy

Anzia (3)

Dey, J.P. 1978. Fruticose and foliose lichens of the high-mountain areas of the southern Appalachians. Bryologist 81: 1-93. [key, 3 species, spot tests]

Culberson, W.L. 1961. A second Anzia in North America. Brittonia 13: 381-384. [A. ornata, description, photograph of thallus, comparisons with A. colpodes]

Yoshimura, I. and Sharp, A.J. 1968. Some lichens from the southern Appalachians and Mexico. Bryologist 71:108-113. [A. americana newly described; illustration]

Anzina (1)

Scheidegger, C. 1985. Systematische Studien zur Krustenflechte Anzina carneonivea (Trapeliaceae, Lecanorales). Nova Hedwigia 41: 191-218. [describes in detail the monospecific genus, illustrations, comparisons with Trapelia]

[Apatoplaca]                    (see Caloplaca)

Arctocetraria (2)

Kärnefelt, I., Mattsson, J-E. and Thell, A. 1993. The lichen genera Arctocetraria, Cetraria, and Cetrariella (Parmeliaceae) and their presumed evolutionary affinities. Bryologist 96: 394-404. [new genus, generic comparisons, ascal illustrations; 2 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions of mycological characters only]

Kärnefelt, I. 1979. The brown fruticose species of Cetraria. Opera Botanica 46: 1-150. [2 N. Am. species in key to 14 species of Cetraria in the broad sense, full descriptions, photographs]

Arctomia (2)

Henssen, A. 1969. Eine Studie über die Gattung Arctomia. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 63: 126-138. [key, 2 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Arctoparmelia (4)

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1986. Arctoparmelia, a new genus in the Parmeliaceae (Ascomycotina). Mycotaxon 25: 251-254. [5 species, 4 on N. Am. list, characterizations and comparisons, generic delimitation]

Arctopeltis (1)

Ryan, B.D. and Nash, T.H., III. 1997. Placodioid taxa of Lecanoraceae sensu Zahlbr. (lichenized Ascomycotina) in North America: taxa excluded from Lecanora subg. Placodium. Nova Hedwigia 64(3-4): 393-420. [A. thuleana in key to placidioid groups and genera, comparative characterization]

Poelt, J. 1983. Über den Formenkreis der Flechte Lecanora contractula. International Journal of Mycology and Lichenology 1: 143-160. [A. thuleana a new genus and species, description and drawings, comparisons with L. contractula]

Arthonia (125)

[see also references to lichenicolous lichens and fungi]

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [key, 77 species, descriptions]

Willey, H. 1890. Synopsis of the genus Arthonia. New Bedford, Mass., 62 pp. [treats 348 species, of which about 65 are now in Arthothelium; about 95 N. Am. Arthonia species (probably several more under old names); partial key (from 1 to 40 species per terminus of key), brief descriptions]

Egea, J.M. and Torrente, P. 1995. Especies saxícolas del género Arthonia (Arthoniaceae) en áreas costeras de California y Baja California (Estados Unidos y México). In Daniels, F.J.A., Schulz, M. and Peine, J. (eds.). Flechten Follmann. Contributions to Lichenology in Honour of Gerhard Follmann. Geobotanical and Phytotaxonomical Study Group, Botanical Institute, University of Cologne, Cologne pp. 193-204. [key, 8 species, 6 N. Am. species; A. infectans and A. madreana described as new and illustrated with anatomical photographs]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [detailed key, 38 lichenicolous species, 11 on N. Am. list, in Esperanto]

Redinger, K. 1937. Arthoniaceae. In Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 9,2 (1): 1-180. [key, 47 species, 19 on N. Am. list, descriptions, some drawings]

Almquist, S. 1880. Monographia Arthoniarum Scandanaviae. Kongl. Swvenska Ventenskaps-akademiens handlingar 17(6): 1-69. [key, 27 species plus varieties, 22 on N. Am. list, descriptions, in Latin]

Grube, M. (no date). Arthoniaceae: Arthonia (subset taxa with red pigments) {Online). In: LIAS: A Global Information System for Lichenized and Non-Lichenized Ascomycetes. Botanische Staatssammlung München. Available: http://www.mycology.net//lias/index.cfm {accessed 1999 September 30}. [online interactive multiple-access world key to Arthonia and Arthothelium with red pigments, about 55 species, 5 on N. Am. list]

Coppins, B.J. and James, P.W. 1978. New or interesting British lichens II. Lichenologist 10: 179-207. [key to 6 gray pruinose species, 2 on N. Am. list ]

Grube, M., Matzer, M. and Hafellner, J. 1995. A preliminary account of the lichenicolous Arthonia species with reddish, K+ reactive pigments. Lichenologist 27: 25-42. [key, 9 species, 0 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Arthoniales (key for determining the genera of the order) 

Grube, M. 1998. Classification and phylogeny in the Arthoniales (lichenized Ascomycetes). Bryologist 101: 377-391.

Arthopyrenia (20?)

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [N. Am. key, 15 species in the narrow sense, notes and new species; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1975. A taxonomic revision of the genus Arthopyrenia Massal. s. lat. (Ascomycetes) in North America. Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, 288 pp. [key, 24 species, 14 still on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of spores and other anatomical features; available from UMI Dissertation Services at http://www.umi.com/hp/Support/DExplorer/ dissertation number 7605564]

Arthothelium (18)

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [key, 13 species, 13 still on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Willey, H. 1890. Synopsis of the genus Arthonia. New Bedford, Mass., 62 pp. [treats about 65 species as muriform Arthonia; about 14 N. Am. species; partial key is not useful; brief descriptions]

Coppins, B.J. and James, P.W. 1979. New or interesting British lichens III. Lichenologist 11: 27-45. [key, about 10 species, 2 on N. Am. list]

Grube, M. and Giralt, M. 1996. Studies on some species of Arthothelium occurring in the western Mediterranean. Lichenologist 28: 15-36. [key, 6 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, spore illustrations]

Arthrorhaphis (4)

Hansen, E.S. and Obermayer, W. 1999. Notes on Arthrorhaphis and its lichenicolous fungi in Greenland. Bryologist 102(1): 104-107. [key, 3 species, 2 on N. Am. list; characterizations, notes; also characterizations of 3 parasites of Arthrorhaphis]

Obermayer, W. 1994. Die Flechtengattung Arthrorhaphis (Arthrorhaphidaceae, Ascomycotina) in Europa und Grönland. Nova Hedwigia 58(3-4): 275-333.[key, 5 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Santesson, R. and Tønsberg, T. 1994. Arthrorhaphis aeruginosa and A. olivaceae, two new lichenicolous fungi. Lichenologist 26: 295-299. [description of 2 new species, 1 on N. Am. list, photographs of asci and spores]

[the first two references together cover all species]

Obermayer, W. 1996. The genus Arthrorhaphis in the Himalayas, the Karakorum and the subalpine and alpine regions of south-eastern Tibet. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 80: 331-342. [key to 3 yellow species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions of species and of genus]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1983. A key to the lichen-forming, parasitic, parasymbiotic and saprophytic fungi occurring on lichens in the British Isles. Lichenologist 15: 1-44. [2 species in overall key, 2 on N. Am. list]

Arthrosporum (1)

Vainio, E.A. 1922. Lichenographia fennica. Volume 2. Acta Societatis pro Flora et Fauna Fennica 53: 266-268. [1 species as Bilimbia section Arthrospora, key to 25 species of Bilimbia; descriptions, in Latin]

Asahinea (2)

Gao, X. 1991. Studies in species of the lichen genus Asahinea. Nordic Journal of Botany 11: 483-485. [2 species, 2 on N. Am. list descriptions]

Culberson, W.L. and Culberson, C.F. 1965. Asahinea, a new genus in the Parmeliaceae. Brittonia 17: 182-190. [genus described, 3 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs of thalli]

Aspicilia (59)

Magnusson, A.H. 1939. Studies in species of Lecanora - mainly the Aspicilia gibbosa group. Kungl. Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar , Ser. 3, 17(5): 1-182. [key, 114 species as Lecanora, est. 30 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations of thalli]

Magnusson, A.H. 1952. Lichens from Torne Lappmark. Arkiv för Botanik, Series II, 2: 45-249. [key to about 70 Arctic species of Aspicilia in the broad sense, as Lecanora subgenus Aspicilia, est. 30 on N. Am. list, a few species described]

Rosentreter, R. 1998. Notes on the Aspicilia reptans complex, with descriptions of two new species. In: Glenn, M.G., Harris, R.C., Dirig, R., and Cole, M.S. (eds.): Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson. Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, New York pp. 163-170. [key to terricolous Aspicilia in western N. Am., 5 species, 4 presently on N. Am. list; A. californica and A. filiformis new species; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/]

Ekman, S. and Froberg, L 1988. Taxonomical problems in Aspicilia contorta and A. hoffmannii -- an effect of hybridization? International Journal of Mycology and Lichenology 3: 215-225. [brief descriptions of A contorta and A. calcarea; photographs of thalli]

Fryday, A.M. 2001. Additions to the lichen flora of North America??[sic]. Agonimia allobata and Aspicilia grisea. Evansia 18: 87-89. [brief description of A. grisea]

Aspidothelium (1)

Lücking, R. 1992. Foliicolous Lichens - A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Lichen Flora of Costa Rica, Central America. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia, 104, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 179 pp. [key, 4 species, 1 on N. Am. list, brief notes, drawings of asci, spores, and paraphyses; photographs of aspect]

Santesson, R. 1952. Foliicolous lichens I. A revision of the taxonomy of the obligately foliicolous, lichenized fungi. Symbolae Botanicae Upsaliensis 12(1): 1-590. [key, 4 species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustration of perithecia of A. fugiens]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [1 species in key to Thelenella; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Asterophoma (1)

Tibell, L. 1991. The Asterophoma anamorph of Chaenothecopsis savonica and its hyphomycetous synanamorph. Canadian Journal of Botany 69(11): 2427-2433. [A. mazaediicola, description, many illustrations]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1981. The lichenicolous Coelomycetes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany Series 9: 1-98. [monospecific new genus, A. mazaediicola, description, drawings of anatomy, key to genera]

Asterothyrium (3)

Lücking, R. 1992. Foliicolous Lichens - A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Lichen Flora of Costa Rica, Central America. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia, 104, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 179 pp. [key, 10 species, 3 on N. Am. list, brief notes, spore drawings of spores and some asci]

Santesson, R. 1952. Foliicolous lichens I. A revision of the taxonomy of the obligately foliicolous, lichenized fungi. Symbolae Botanicae Upsaliensis 12(1): 1-590. [key, 8 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of spores; 1 N. Am. species as Gyalectidium]

Astrothelium (6)

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [North American key, 6 species; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 109 pp. [key, 5 species; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1984 {1986}. The family Trypetheliaceae (Loculoascomycetes: lichenized Melanommatales) in Amazonian Brazil. Supplement Acta Amazonica 14(1/2): 55-80. [key, 13 species, 4 on N. Am. list, notes]

Athelia (2)

Jülich, W. 1978. A new lichenized Athelia from Florida. Persoonia 10: 149-151. [key, 4 species, 2 on N. Am. list, A. poeltii description, drawing of anatomy]

Jülich, W. 1972. Monographie der Athelieae (Corticiaceae, Basdiomycetes). Willdenowia, Beihefte 7:1-283. [key, 23 species, A. epiphylla on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of anatomy]

Eriksson, J. and Ryvarden, L. 1973. The Corticiaceae of Northern Europe, vol. 2. Fungiflora, Oslo, pp. 60-261. [11 species, descriptions, illustrations, A. epiphylla in N. Am (not illustrated)]

Aulaxina (2)

Lücking, R. 1997. Additions and Corrections to the Knowledge of the Foliicolous Lichen Flora of Costa Rica. The Family Gomphillaceae. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 65. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 109 pp. [key, useful in neotropics, 7 species, 2 on N. Am. list, spore drawings, notes on variation]

Santesson, R. 1952. Foliicolous lichens I. A revision of the taxonomy of the obligately foliicolous, lichenized fungi. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 12: 1-590. [key, 8 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, a few illustrations of thalli]

Kalb, K. and Vezda, A 1988. Neue oder bemerkenswerte Arten der Flechtenfamilie Gomphillaceae in der Neotropis. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 29. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 80 pp. [key to 7 neotropical species, 2 on N. Am. list]

Lücking, R. 1992. Foliicolous Lichens - A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Lichen Flora of Costa Rica, Central America. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia, 104, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 179 pp. [key, 5 species, 2 on N. Am. list, brief notes, photographs of thalli]

Vezda, A. 1979. Flechten systematische Studien XI. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Familie Asterothyriaceae (Discolichens). Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica 14: 43-94. [illustrations of hyphophores for 5 species, 2 on N. Am. list; key to genera]

 

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z Contents

   Be     Bi     Br     Bu

Bachmanniomyces (1)

Hawksworth, D.L. 1981. The lichenicolous Coelomycetes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany Series 9: 1-98. [genus newly described, in key to genera; 1 species, B. uncialicola, description, drawings]

Bacidia   (ca. 40 in the narrow sense plus many more not definitively placed)

Ekman, S. 1996. The corticolous and lignicolous species of Bacidia and Bacidina in North America. Opera Botanica 127: 1-148. [key, descriptions, 27 species of Bacidia in the strict sense; key to bacidioid genera, generic delimitation, tholus illustrations,]

Wong, P.Y. and Brodo, I.M. 1992. The Lichens of Southern Ontario, Canada. Syllogeus, 69, Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa. 79 pp. [key to Bacidia in the broadest sense, 27 taxa, 13 N. Am. species in the narrow sense; available from the publisher at http://nature.ca/prodserv/cat/product_e.cfm?ID=258&Browse=Scientific%20Publication&searchText=]

Tønsberg, T. 1998. Additions to the lichen flora of North America VI. Bryologist 100: 522-524. [B. viridifarinosa]

Vainio, E.A. 1922. Lichenographia Fennica II. Baeomyceae et Lecideales. Acta Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica 53(l): 1-340. [key, descriptions, 35 species]

Santesson, R. 1952. Foliicolous lichens I. A revision of the taxonomy of the obligately foliicolous, lichenized fungi. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 12: 1-590. [key, 33 foliicolous species of Bacidia in the broad sense]

Bacidina (14)

[see also pre-1990 keys to Bacidia]

Ekman, S. 1996. The corticolous and lignicolous species of Bacidia and Bacidina in North America. Opera Botanica 127: 1-148. [key, descriptions, tholus illustrations, 12 species of Bacidina in the strict sense; key to bacidioid genera, generic delimitation]

Vezda, A. 1990. Bacidina genus novum familiae Lecideaceae s. lat. (ascomycetes lichenisati). Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica 25: 431-432. [Bacidina a new genus (Latin diagnosis only); new combinations]

Santesson, R. 1952. Foliicolous lichens I. A revision of the taxonomy of the obligately foliicolous, lichenized fungi. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 12: 1-590. [key to Bacidia in the broad sense includes foliicolous species of Bacidina; species not counted]

Bactrospora (9)

Egea, J.M. and Torrente, P. 1993. The lichen genus Bactrospora. Lichenologist 25: 211-255. [world key, descriptions, 20 species, 8 on N. Am. list]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 5 species, B. macrospora; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 109 pp. [key, 4 species, all newly described; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Baeomyces (3)

Thomson, J.W. 1967. The lichen genus Baeomyces in North America north of Mexico. Bryologist 70: 285-298. [key, 3 N. Am. species plus two more now in Dibaeis, descriptions]

Thomson, J.W. 1984. America Arctic Lichens 1. The Macrolichens. Columbia University Press, New York, 504 pp. [key, 3 species plus Dibaeis roseus, illustrations, descriptions]

Gierl, C. and Kalb, K. 1993. Die Flechtengattung Dibaeis. Eine Übersicht über die rosafrüchtigen Arten von Baeomyces sens. lat. nebst Anmerkungen zu Phyllobaeis gen. nov. Herzogia 9: 593-645. [Baeomyces in the broad sense split into 3 genera, ontogeny, ascus types, illustrations]

Ihlen, P.G. 1997. The lichen genus Baeomyces (Leotiales, Ascomycotina) in Norway. Nova Hedwigia 64(1-2): 137-146. [key, 3 species of Baeomyces in the strict sense, 3 on N. Am. list]

Frey, E. 1933. Cladoniaceae (unter Ausschluss der Gattung Cladonia), Unbilicariaceae. In Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 9, 4(1): 1-426. [key, 4 species of Baeomyces in the broad sense, key to forms and varieties, descriptions, illustrations]

Ihlen, P.G. 1998. The lichenicolous fungi on species of the genera Baeomyces, Dibaeis, and Icmadophila in Norway. Lichenologist 30: 27-57. [key, 19 lichenicolous species, descriptions, illustrations]

Bathelium (2)

Harris, R. C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10c tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the Author, Bronx, New York 192 pages. [world key, 9 species, notes]

Bellemerea (5)

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskette} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [key, 5 species, plus a few undescribed or not yet transferred; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Clauzade, G. and Roux, C. 1985. Likenoj de Okcidenta Europo. Ilustrita Determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Botanique du Centre-Ouest, Nouvelle Série, Numéro Spécial 7. Royan, France. 893 pp. [key, 7 species, 4 on N. Am. list]

Clauzade, G. and Roux, C. 1984. Les genres Aspicilia Massal. et Bellemerea Hafellner et Roux. Bulletin de la Société Botanique du Centre-Ouest, Nouvelle Série 15: 1. [generic delimitation, illustrations]

Belonia (1)

Navarro-Rosinés, P. and Llimona, X. 1997. Belonia mediterranea, a new calcicolous lichen species from Catalonia (NE Spain). Lichenologist 29: 15-27. [key to 6 European species, 1 on N. Am. list]

Swinscow, T.D.V. 1964. Pyrenocarpous lichens: 6. Lichenologist 2: 276-283. [B. russula, description and illustration]

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W., and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [key, 4 species, 1 in N. Am, description; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Vezda, A. 1959. K taxonomii rozsireni a ekologii lisejniku Belonia russula Krb. ve stredni Evrope. (Zur Systematik, Verbreitung und Ökologie der Flechte Belonia russula Kbr. in Mitteleuropa.) Prirodovedny Casopsi Slezsky 20: 241-253. [key to 5 European species of Belonia and 7 of Gongylia, only B. russula on N. Am. list; in German and Czech]

Biatora (14)

Printzen, C. and Tønsberg, T. 1999. The lichen genus Biatora in northwestern North America. Bryologist 102: 692-713. [key, 15 species of Biatora, plus 4 similar species, some new, some new to N. Am., 9 names on N. Am. list; descriptions for most, photographs of anatomy of new species only]

Printzen, C. 1995. Die Flechtengattung Biatora in Europa. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 60. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 275 pp. [key in German and English, 17 European species, 9 names on N. Am. list, descriptions, spore illustrations]

Printzen, C. (no date). Biatoraceae: Biatora (subset Europe) {Online}. In: LIAS: A Global Information System for Lichenized and Non-Lichenized Ascomycetes. Botanische Staatssammlung München. Available: http://www.mycology.net//lias/index.cfm {accessed 1999 September 30}. [online interactive multiple-access European key, 17 species, 8 names on the N. Am. list]

Printzen, C. 1995. Some notes on the delimitation of the genus Biatora Fr. (Lecanorales, lichenized ascomycetes). Cryptogamic Botany 5: 105-110. [illustrations]

Ekman, S. 1994. Biatora meiocarpa (Nyl.) Arnold, a misunderstood species. Lichenologist 26: 31-37. [description]

Biatorella (5)

Magnusson, A.H. 1934. On the species of Biatorella and Sarcogyne in America. Annales Cryptogamie Exotique 7: 115-146. [key, 12 species of Biatorella in the broad sense, many now transferred, 4 species of Biatorella in the strict sense on N. Am. list; descriptions; 5th species, B. plicata, is keyed and described under Sarcogyne]

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [3 N. Am. species, others have been transferred]

Hafellner, J. 1994. On Biatoridium, a resurrected genus of lichenized fungi (Ascomycotina, Lecanorales). In: Stenroos, S. (ed.) Focus on Lichen Taxonomy and Biogeography: A Festschrift in Honour of Teuvo Ahti. Acta Botanica Fennica, 150, Finnish Botanical Publishing Board, Helsinki, pp. 39-46. [definition of Biatorella in the strict sense; states that some unstudied N. Am. Biatorella species may eventually have to be transferred]

Biatoropsis (1)

Diederich, P. 1996. The Lichenicolous Heterobasidiomycetes. Bibliotheca Lichenologica.61. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 198 pp. [key to genera, genus, B. usnearum described]

Diederich, P. and Christiansen, M.S. 1994. Biatoropsis usnearum Räsänen, and other heterobasidiomycetes on Usnea. Lichenologist 26: 47-66. [description and illustration]

Biatoridium (1)

Hafellner, J. 1994. On Biatoridium, a resurrected genus of lichenized fungi (Ascomycotina, Lecanorales). In: Stenroos, S. (ed.) Focus on Lichen Taxonomy and Biogeography: A Festschrift in Honour of Teuvo Ahti. Acta Botanica Fennica, 150, Finnish Botanical Publishing Board, Helsinki, pp. 39-46. [key, 2 species, B. delitescens, photographs]

[Bilimbia]                           (see Mycobilimbia)

Bispora [2]

[Blastenia]                          (see Caloplaca)

[Bombyliospora]                (see Megalospora)

[Botrydina]                         (see Omphalina)

[Bottaria]                             (see Pyrenula)

Brigantiaea (4)

Hafellner, J. 1997. A world monograph of Brigantiaea (lichenized Ascomycotina, Lecanorales). In: Tibell, L. and Hedberg, I. (eds.). Lichen Studies Dedicated to Rolf Santesson. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 32(1): 35-74. [world key, 15 species, 4 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Brodoa (1)

[see also pre-1987 keys to Hypogymnia]

Krog, H. 1974. Taxonomic studies in the Hypogymnia intestiniformis complex. Lichenologist 6: 135-140. [descriptions of 3 species (as Hypogymnia), 1 on N. Am. list, photographs]

Thomson, J.W. 1984. America Arctic Lichens 1. The Macrolichens. Columbia University Press, New York, 504 pp. [description, illustration, as Hypogymnia oroarctica]

Goward, T. 1987 ("1986"). Brodoa, a new lichen genus in the Parmeliaceae. Bryologist 89: 219-223. [generic delimitation and comparison]

Bryocaulon (2)

[see also pre-1986 keys to Cornicularia]

Kärnefelt, I. 1986. The genera Bryocaulon, Coelocaulon and Cornicularia and formerly associated taxa. Opera Botanica 86: 1-90. [new genus, comparisons; 3 species in overall key, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Golubkova, N.S., Dombrovskaja, A.V., Zhurbenko, M.P., Kotlov, Y.V. and Krusanova, Z.G. 1996. Handbook of the Lichens of Russia. 6. Alectoriaceae, Parmeliaceae, Stereocaulaceae. Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg. 204 pp. [key, 3 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, in Russian]

Bryonora (4) [5]

Poelt, J. and Obermayer, W. 1991. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Flechtenflora des Himalaya II. Die Gattung Bryonora (Lichenes, Lecanoraceae) zugleich eine Revision aller Arten. Nova Hedwigia 53: 1-26. [world key, 11 species, 4 on N. Am. list, short descriptions]

Holtan-Hartwig, J. 1991. A revision of the lichens Bryonora castanea and B. curvescens. Mycotaxon 40: 295-305. [key, all 4 species on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Poelt, J. 1983. Bryonora, eine neue Gattung der Lecanoraceae. Nova Hedwigia 38: 73-111. [new genus described; key, 6 species, 2 on N. Am. list; detailed descriptions; photographs of morpholoogy and anatomy]

Bryophagus (1)

Vezda, A. 1966. Flechtensytematische Studien III. Die Gattungen Ramonia Stiz. und Gloeolecta Lett. Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica 1: 154-175. [description of B. gloeocapsa (as Gloeolecta bryophagus), detailed drawings]

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W., and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp.

[1 species in generic key; description; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

[Bryopogon]                    (see Bryoria)

Bryoria (24)

Brodo, I.M. and Hawksworth, D.L. 1977. Alectoria and allied genera in North America. Opera Botanica 42: 1-164. [key to Alectorioid species, 29 species of Bryoria in the broad sense including Nodobryoria, descriptions, photos, generic diagnosis]

Bystrek, J. and Fabiszewski, J. 1998. Materials to North American lichen flora. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae 67(1): 87-93. [3 new N. Am. species described or tranferred; also 3 new subspecies by transfer; all described; color photographs]

Common, R. and Brodo, I.M. 1995. Bryoria Sect. Subdivergentes recognized as the new genus Nodobryoria (lichenized Ascomycotina). Bryologist 98: 189-206. [generic delimitation]

Buellia (72)

Imshaug, H.A. 1951. The lichen-forming species of the genus Buellia occurring in the United States and Canada. Ph.D. dissertation, University Michigan, Ann Arbor, 217 pp. [key, 42 species of Buellia in the broad sense, 33 of which are still in Buellia in the strict sense; descriptions; available from UMI Dissertation Services at http://www.umi.com/hp/Support/DExplorer/ dissertation number 0002607]

Harris, R.C. 1988. Buellia in north and central Florida or the virtues and rewards of collecting. Evansia 5: 37-45. [key, 20 species of Buellia in the broad sense, notes, 3 new species]

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, New York, 109 pp. [key 20 species of Buellia in the broad sense, B. imshaugiana, B. rappii, notes; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York, 192 pp. [key, 16 species of Buellia in the strict sense; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Nordin, A. 2000. Taxonomy and phylogeny of Buellia species with pluriseptate spores (Lecanorales, Ascomycotina). Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 33: 1-117. [world key, 35 species, 13 on N. Am. list; descriptions, spore drawings, photographs of thalli]

Nordin, A. 1999. Buellia species with pluriseptate spores: new and unrecorded species in North America. Bryologist 102: 249-264. [key, 17 species, 12 on N. Am. list, and 6 more to be added, descriptions and illustrations for 7 species]

Scheidegger, C. 1993. A revision of European saxicolous species of the genus Buellia de Not. and formerly included genera. Lichenologist 25: 315-364. [key includes 36 saxicolous species with one-septate spores (43 of Buellia in the broad sense, 11 in the strict sense on the N. Am. list), descriptions, spores conidia, illustrations]

Marbach, B. 2000. Corticole und lignicole Arten der Flechtengattung Buellia sensu lato in den Subtropen und Tropen. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 74. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart, 384 pp. [key to approx. 110 species of Buellia in the wide sense, approx. 12 on N. Am. list of Buellia; detailed descriptions, drawings of anatomy for each species; subdivides Buellia into several seggregate genera (not yet accepted in N. Am.)]

Nordin, A 1996. Buellia species (Physciaceae) with pluriseptate spores in Norden. In: Hultgard, U.-M., Martinsson, K. and Moberg, R. (eds.) The Nordic Flora--Towards the Twenty-First Century. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Symbolae Botanicae Upsaliensis 31(3): 327-354. [key, 7 species, 5 on N. Am. list, 1 transferred, descriptions, illustrations]

Poelt, J. and Sulzer, M. 1974. Die Erdflechte Buellia epigaea, eine Sammelart. Nova Hedwigia 25: 173-192. [key, 5 terricolous species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Sheard, J.W. 1969. Four previously misinterpreted Buellia species from North America. Bryologist 72: 220-224. [B. fimbriata, B. microbola, B. nigra, B. aethalea (as B. verruculosa)]

Weber, W.A. 1971. Four new species of Buellia (Lichenes) from western North and South America. Bryologist 74: 185-191.[B. capitis-regum, B. saurina]

Hafellner, J. 1979. Karschia. Revision einer Sammelgattung an der Grenze von lichenisierten und nichlichenisierten Ascomyceten. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia 62: 1-248. [B. adjuncta, B. badia, B. erubescens (as B. zahlbruckneri), B. imshaugii, B. pulverulenta, Amandinea punctata; drawings of anatomy]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141.[lichenicolous key includes 6 Buellia species, 4 on N. Am. list, spore drawings, in Esperanto]

Buelliella (3)

Hafellner, J. 1979. Karschia. Revision einer Sammelgattung an der Grenze von lichenisierten und nichtlichenisierten Ascomyceten. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia 62: 1-248. [Buelliella a new genus; 3 species, all in N. Am., descriptions, drawings of anatomy]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141.[key to 4 lichenicolous species, 3 on N. Am. list, spore drawings, in Esperanto]

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [key, 7 species, most now transferred; 2 still in genus, brief descriptions]

[Buelliopsis]                      (see Buellia)

Bulbothrix (5)

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1976. A monograph of the lichen genus Bulbothrix Hale (Parmeliaceae). Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 32: 1-29. [world key, 29 species, 5 on N. Am. list, full descriptions, photographs of aspect]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [North American key, 5 species; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Dey, J.P. 1987. The distribution of the lichen, Bulbothrix isidiza, in North America north of Mexico. Bryologist 90: 417-418. [discussion of differences among 5 N. Am. species, and relatives]

Hale, M.E., Jr. and Kurokawa, S. 1964. Studies on Parmelia subgenus Parmelia. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 36: 121-191. [world key as Parmelia series Bicornutae, 28 species, 5 on N. Am. list]

Bullatina (1)

Vezda, A. 1979. Flechten systematische Studien XI. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Familie Asterothyriaceae (Discolichens). Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica 14: 43-94. [B. aspidota keyed and described as Gyalectidium, illustration of hyphophores and aspect]

Lücking, R. 1992. Foliicolous Lichens - A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Lichen Flora of Costa Rica, Central America. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia, 104, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 179 pp. [keyed by ascocarp, hyphophore, and as sterile in generic key]

Santesson, R. 1952. Foliicolous lichens I. A revision of the taxonomy of the obligately foliicolous, lichenized fungi. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 12: 1-590. [B. aspidota keyed and described as Gyalectidium, illustration of aspect]

Vezda, A. 1987. Flechtensystematische Studien XII. Die Familie Gomphillaceae und ihre Gliederung. Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica 22: 179-198. [description of Bullatina as a new monospecific genus; key to the genera with hyphophores,]

Lücking, R. 1997. Additions and Corrections to the Knowledge of the Foliicolous Lichen Flora of Costa Rica. The Family Gomphillaceae. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 65. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 109 pp. [1 species in overall key, 1 on N. Am. list]

Bunodophoron (1)

Tibell, L. 1999. Calicioid lichens and fungi. in Ahti, T., Jørgensen, P.M., Kristinsson, H., Moberg, R., Søchting, U. and Thor, G. (eds.). Nordic Lichen Flora. Volume 1. Introductory Parts. Calicioid Lichens and Fungi. Nordic Lichen Society, Uddevalla. 94 pp. [1 species in key to genera, 1 on N. Am. list, description, notes, color photograph]

Tibell, L. 1975. The Caliciales of boreal North America. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 21(2): 1-128. [key, 1 species, as Sphaerophorus]

[see also keys in major European floras]

Lye, K. 1969. The distribution and ecology of Sphaerophorus melanocarpus. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 63: 300-318. [how to separate B. melanocarpus from S. fragilis in difficult cases]

Wedin, M. (no date). Sphaerophoraceae: Bunodophoron {Online). In: LIAS: A Global Information System for Lichenized and Non-Lichenized Ascomycetes. Botanische Staatssammlung München. Available: http://www.mycology.net//lias/index.cfm (under Sphaerophoraceae){accessed 1999 September 30}  [online interactive multiple-access world key; 20 species]

Wedin, M. 1995. The lichen family Sphaerophoraceae (Caliciales, Ascomycotina) in temperate areas of the southern hemisphere. Symbolae Botanicae Upsaliensis 31(1): 1-102. [20 species in key to family, none on N. Am. list, but included here as the only available monograph; descriptions, photographs, generic description]

Wedin, M. 1993. A phylogenetic analysis of the lichen family Sphaerophoraceae (Caliciales); a new generic classification and notes on character evolution. Plant Systematics and Evolution 187: 213-241. [generic description and delimitation]

Byssoloma (6) [5, fide Harris]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 4 species, B. pubescens described as new (= B. meadii); available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W., and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [key, 3 species, B. marginata; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Ekman, S. 1996. The corticolous and lignicolous species of Bacidia and Bacidina in North America. Opera Botanica 127: 1-148. [B. meadii only]

Santesson, R. 1952. Foliicolous lichens I. A revision of the taxonomy of the obligately foliicolous, lichenized fungi. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 12: 1-590. [key, 6 species, 3 in N.A, descriptions, illustrations]

Kalb, K. and Vezda, A. 1990. Die Flechtengattung Byssoloma in der Neotropis (eine taxonomisch-phytogeographische Studie). Nova Hedwigia 51(3-4): 435-451. [key, 11 species, 3 on N. Am. list]

Vezda, A. 1987. Foliicole Flechten aus Zaire (III). Die Gattung Byssoloma Trevisan. Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica 22: 71-83. [key 10 species, 3 in N. Am.]

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z Contents

   Can     Cat     Ce     Ch     Cl     Co     Cr

[Calenia]                           (see Bullatina)

[Caliciella]                         (non-lichenized fungi)

[Calicioid lichens]             (see Calicioid lichens and fungi ("stubble" and "pin" lichens )

Calicium (14) [15]

[the first reference, together with any of the last three references, will allow the identification of all presently listed N. Am. species]

Tibell, L. Two new species of Calicium from Europe. Mycotaxon 70: 431-443. [European key, 17 species, 14 on N. Am. list; (missing C. leucochlorum), description and illustration of C. montanum]

Middelborg, J. and Mattsson, J. 1987. Crustaceous lichenized species of the Caliciales in Norway. Sommerfeltia 5: 1-70. [key, 12 species, 11 on N. Am. list, brief descriptions]

Tibell, L. 1977. Lavordningen Caliciales i Sverige Inledning och Släktet Calicium. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 71: 239-259. [key, 12 species, 11 on N. Am. list, descriptions, fine illustrations of habitus, in Swedish]

Tibell, L. 1999. Calicioid lichens and fungi. In: Ahti, T., Jørgensen, P.M., Kristinsson, H., Moberg, R., Søchting, U. and Thor, G. (eds.). Nordic Lichen Flora. Volume 1. Introductory Parts. Calicioid Lichens and Fungi. Nordic Lichen Society, Uddevalla. 94 pp. [key to 13 species, 11 on N. Am. list, descriptions, notes, color photographs]

Tibell, L. 1975. The Caliciales of boreal North America. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 21(2): 1-128. [key, 10 species, descriptions, photographs of anatomy]

Puntillo, D. 1989. Chiavi analitiche delle Caliciales italiane (Licheni). Webbia 43: 145-168. [key, 9 species, 9 on N. Am. list]

Tibell, L. 1996. Caliciales. Flora Neotropica, 69, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 78 pp. [key, 10 species, 8 on N. Am. list, descriptions, some photographs]

Tibell, L. and K. Kalb, K. 1992. Calicium in the tropical and subtropical Americas. Nova Hedwigia 55: 11-36. [key, 9 species, 7 on N. Am. list, full descriptions, fine illustrations of habitus]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 6 species, notes; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Calopadia (2)

Santesson, R. 1952. Foliicolous lichens I. A revision of the taxonomy of the obligately foliicolous, lichenized fungi. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 12: 1-590. [key to 7 species as Lopadium 1-7, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Lücking, R. 1992. Foliicolous Lichens - A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Lichen Flora of Costa Rica, Central America. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia, 104, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 179 pp. [key, 6 species, 2 on N. Am. list, illustration of spore and ascus, notes, key to genera with campylidia]

Vezda, A. 1986. Neue Gattungen der Familie Lecideaceae s. lat. (Lichenes). Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica 21: 199-219. [Calopadia described as a new genus; illustration of conidia and conidiomata, key to 8 genera with campylidia]

Caloplaca (134)

[Caloplaca general:]

[see major European flora; see regional flora]

[Caloplaca – arctic and alpine areas:]

Thomson, J.W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens 2. The Microlichens. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 675 pp. [key, 39 species, about 36 on N. Am. list, descriptions}

Hansen, E.S., Poelt, J. and Søchting, U. 1987. Die Flechtengattung Caloplaca in Grönland. Meddelelser om Grönland, Bioscience 25: 1-52. [key, 43 species, about 32 N. Am. species, descriptions]

Poelt, J. and Hinteregger, E. 1993. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Flechtenflora des Himalaya. VII. Die Gattungen Caloplaca, Fulgensia und Ioplaca (mit englischem Bestimmungsschlüssel). Bibliotheca Lichenologica 50. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 247 pp. [key in English to 104 Himalayan species, about 26 on N. Am. list, descriptions in German]

Magnusson, A.H. 1952. Lichens from Arkiv för Botanik, Series II, 2: 45-249. [key to 29 species of Caloplaca in the broad sense from northern Sweden, 16 species in the narrow sense on the N. Am. list, a few transferred]

Søchting. U. 1989. Lignicolous species of the lichen genus Caloplaca from Svalbard. in Dissing, H., Hansen, L., Knudsen, H., Olson, L.W. and Søchting, U. (eds.). Mycological studies dedicated to Morten Lange. Opera Botanica 100: 241-257. [key, 13 species, 12 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations of habitus and anatomy]

[Caloplaca subgroups:]

Wetmore, C.M. 1994. The lichen genus Caloplaca in North and Central America with brown or black apothecia. Mycologia 86: 813-838. [key to 17 species, 16 on N. Am. list, descriptions, discussion of other related N. Am. and European species] [a expanded version of the key that includes many non-American species-- and has hyperlinks to distribution maps and photographs--is available online at http://www.tc.umn.edu/~wetmore/albb.html ]

Wetmore, C.M. and Kärnefelt, E.I. 1998. The lobate and subfruticose species of Caloplaca in north and central America. Bryologist 101: 230-255 [key to 19 lobate species {"section Gasparrinia"), 16 in N. Am, descriptions, photographs] [a expanded version of the key that includes many non-American species-- and has hyperlinks to distribution maps and photographs--is available online at http://www.tc.umn.edu/~wetmore/Gasp.html ]

Nordin, I. 1972. Caloplaca, sect. Gasparrinia i Nordeuropa: taxonomiska och ekologiska studier. Skriv Service AB, Uppsala, 184 pp. [key to 14 Nordic species with orange or yellow ± placidioid thalli, 10 on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs of habitus]

Wetmore, C.M. 1996. The Caloplaca sideritis group in North and Central America. Bryologist 99: 292-314. [key, 15 species with gray or white thalli (lacking anthraquinones) and apothecia with anthraquinones, 9 on N. Am. list, descriptions, color photographs, notes on 14 species not in study area] [a expanded version of the key that includes many non-American species-- and has hyperlinks to distribution maps and photographs--is available online at http://www.tc.umn.edu/~wetmore/Alsid.html ]

Magnusson, A.H. 1944. Some species of Caloplaca from North America. Botaniska Notiser 1944: 63-79. [key, 24 species with rust- or yellow-colored apothecia, descriptions, this treatment accounts for many of the entries in the N. Am. list that do not appear in any other work]

Arup, U. 1995. Littoral species of Caloplaca in North America: a summary and key. Bryologist 98: 129-140. [key, 20 species, brief descriptions, color photographs of habitus]

Arup, U. 1994. The genus Caloplaca on seashore rocks in eastern North America. Bryologist 97: 377-392. [key, 5 species, descriptions, photographs]

Arup, U. 1995. Eight species of Caloplaca in coastal western North America. Bryologist 98: 92-111. [descriptions and comparisons of 8 species. photographs]

Arup, U. 1992. Caloplaca marina and C. rosei, two difficult species in North America. Bryologist 95: 148-160. [2 species, descriptions, photographs of habitus]

Arup, U. 1992. Caloplaca stantonii sp. nov. and its relationship to Caloplaca bolacina and other lobate to squamulose species in North America. Bryologist 95: 449-457. [key separates 2 species from C. squamosa group, descriptions, illustrations]

Arup, U. 1993. Caloplaca flavogranulosa sp. nov. and C. citrina, two sorediate species on seashore rocks in western North America. Bryologist 96: 598-603. [2 species, descriptions, illustrations]

Arup, U. 1993. Caloplaca luteominia and C. bolanderi in western North America. Bryologist 96: 463-470. [descriptions, illustrations]

Magnusson, A.H.. 1944. Studies in the Ferruginea-group of the genus Caloplaca. Göteborgs Kongliga Vetenskaps och Vitterhets Samhalles Nya Handlingar, Ser. B, 3: 1-71. [key to 33 European species with rust-colored apothecia, 13 on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Renobales, G. 1996. Contribución al conocimiento de los líquenes calcícolas del occidente de Vizcaya y parte oriental de Cantabria (N-España). GuineanA, 2, Servicio Editorial de la Universidad del País Vasco, Bilbao. 310 pp. [key, 30 lime-loving species, 15 on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Poelt, J. and Pelleter, U. 1984. Zwergstrauchige Arten der Flechtengattung Caloplaca. Plant Systematics and Evolution 148: 51-88. [key to 10 sub- and dwarf-fruticose species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations, C. cladodes, C. coralloides]

Navarro-Rosinés, P. and Hladun, N.L. 1996. Las especies saxícolo-calcícolas del grup de Caloplaca lactea (Teleoschistaceae, líquenes) in la regiones mediterránea y medioeuropea. Bulletin de la société Linnéenne de Provence 47: 139-166. [key, 7 species in the C. lactea group; only C. lactea on the N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of anatomy]

Wetmore, C.M. and Kärnefelt, E.I. 1999. What is Caloplaca cinnabarina? Bryologist 102: 683-691. [6 species, C. cinnabarina, C. rosei and C. rubelliana on N. Am. list; descriptions, color photographs of thalli]

Wetmore, C.M. 2001. The Caloplaca citrina group in North and Central America. Bryologist 104: 1-11. [4 sorediate orange or yellow species, descriptions, notes, range maps, poor quality color photographs of thalli (corrected color plate in Bryologist 104: 613-14)]

Laundon, J.R. 1974. Leproplaca in the British Isles. Lichenologist 6: 102-105. [key, 2 leprose species (as Leproplaca), C. chrysodeta]

[Caloplaca – species not in keys listed above:]      

van den Boom, P.P.G. and Etayo, J. 1995. A new epiphytic species of the lichen genus Caloplaca from southwestern Europe. Mycotaxon 56: 125-132. [C. oleicola]

Søchting, U. and Tønsberg, T. 1997. Caloplaca xanthostigmoidea (Räs.) Zahlbr., a common lichen in cool regions of the northern hemisphere. In: Tibell, L. and Hedberg, I. (eds.). Lichen Studies Dedicated to Rolf Santesson. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses, Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Uppsala, pp. 247-253. [description, illustrations]

[Caloplacopsis]                    (see Candelariella)

[Campylothelium]               (see Polymeridium, Laurera)

Candelaria (2)

Poelt, J. 1974. Zur Kenntnis der Flechtenfamilie Candelariaceae. Ein Beitrag mit besonderer Berucksichtigung einiger sudamerikanischer Arten. Phyton (Austria) 16: 189-210. [key, 6 species, 2 on N. Am. list]

Maas Geesteranus, R. A. 1947. Revision of the lichens of the Netherlands I. Parmeliaceae. Blumea 6: 1-99. [C. concolor]

Hillmann, J. 1936. Parmeliaceae. In Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 9,5(3): 1-309. [C. concolor]

Candelariella (22)

Hakulinen, R. 1954. Die Flechtengattung Candelariella Mueller Argoviensis. Annales Botanici Societatis Zoologicae Botanicae Fennicae "Vanamo" 27(3): 1-127. [world? key, 27 species, 17 on N. Am. list, descriptions, some illustrations]

Thomson, J.W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens 2. The Microlichens. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 675 pp. [key, 11 species, descriptions, photos of habitus]

Poelt, J. and Vezda, A. 1977. Bestimmungsschlüssel europäischer Flechten. Ergänzungsheft I. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 9. J. Cramer, Valduz. 258 pp. [key, 23 species, 13 on N. Am. list, C. plumbea (not in first two references)]

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskette} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [discusses the likely synonymy of species not included in the first three references; also one or two taxa not on N. Am. list; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Harris, R.C. and Buck, W.R. 1978. Lichens of the Mackinac Straits Region. II. Candelariella Mull. Arg. Michigan Botanist 17: 155-161. [key, 4 corticolous species, C. efflorescens a new species, comparisons with C. reflexa and C. vitellina, illustrations]

Candelina (2)

Westberg, M., and Nash, T.H., III. 2002. Candelina. In Nash, T.H., III, Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., and Bungartz, F. (eds.). Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, pp. 119-120. [key to 2 N. Am. species; full species and generic descriptions]

Poelt, J. 1974. Zur Kenntnis der Flechtenfamilie Candelariaceae. Phyton (Austria) 16: 189-210. [Candelina described as a new genus; key, 3 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Canomaculina (4)

Kurokawa, S. 1991. Rimeliella, a new lichen genus related to Rimelia of the Parmeliaceae. Annals of the Tsukuba Botanical Garden 10: 1-14.[key, 8 species, as Rimeliella, 4 on N. Am. list, descriptions (except C. conferenda)]

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1977. New species in the lichen genus Parmotrema Mass. Mycotaxon 5: 432-448. [C. conferenda and C. neotropica as Parmotrema]

Elix, J.A. 1997. The lichen genera Canomaculina and Rimeliella (Ascomycotina, Parmeliaceae). Mycotaxon 65: 475-479. [generic description, Rimeliella placed into synonymy with Canomaculina]

Elix, J.A. and Hale, M.E. 1987. Canomaculina, Myelochroa, Parmelinella, Parmelinopsis and Parmotremopsis, five new genera in the Parmeliaceae (lichenized Ascomycotina). Mycotaxon 29: 233-244. [Canomaculina a new genus; generic comparisons, key to genera of Parmelina in the broad sense]]

Canoparmelia (7) [9]    

[see also keys to Parmelia and Pseudoparmelia written before 1986]

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1976. A monograph of the lichen genus Pseudoparmelia Lynge (Parmeliaceae). Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 31: 1-62. [8 N. Am. species in key as Pseudoparmelia (76 taxa), descriptions, photographs of aspect]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 6 species; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 109 pp. [key, 6 species; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Hale, M.E., Jr. and Kurokawa, S. 1964. Studies on Parmelia subgenus Parmelia. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 36: 121-191. [7 N. Am. species in world key to Parmelia section Cyclocheila (about 47 taxa)]

Elix, J.A., Johnston, J., and Verdon, D. 1986. Canoparmelia, Paraparmelia and Relicinopsis, three new genera in the Parmeliaceae (lichenized Ascomycotina). Mycotaxon 27: 271-282. [three new genera described, comparisons with other Pseudoparmelia segregates]

Heiman, K. and Elix, J.A. 1999. A new species of Canoparmelia from North America (lichenized Ascomycotina, Parmeliaceae). Mycotaxon 70: 163-166. [C. amabilis, description, photograph of thallus]

Carbonea (5)

Clauzade, G. and Roux, C. 1985. Likenoj de Okcidenta Europo. Ilustrita Determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Botanique du Centre-Ouest, Nouvelle Série, Numéro Spécial 7. Royan, France. 893 pp. [Carbonea key: 4 species, 3 on N. Am. list; Lecidea key: C. assimilis]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [Carbonea key: 2 lichenicolous species, C. vitellinaria on N. Am. list; Lecidea key: C. aggregantula, brief descriptions; in Esperanto]

Thomson, J.W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens 2. The Microlichens. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 675 pp. [key, 3 species]

Hertel, H. 1967. Revision einiger calciphiler Formenkreise der Flechtengattung Lecidea. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 24: 1-155. [Carbonea a new subgenus of Lecidea; key, 2 species, 2 on N. Am. list, L. atronivea, L. vorticosa]

Knoph J.-G., Rambold G. and Triebel D. (no date). Lecanoraceae: Carbonea (title erroneously given as "Lecanora subset subfusca group") {Online}. In: LIAS: A Global Information System for Lichenized and Non-Lichenized Ascomycetes. Botanische Staatssammlung München. Available: http://www.mycology.net//lias/index.cfm {accessed 1999 September 30}. [online interactive multiple-access world key; 17 species of Carbonea, 5 on N. Am. list; due to incomplete data entry, the key returned no species for the character state "North America"]

Catapyrenium (12) [11]  

[see also keys to the Dermatocarpon hepaticum group written before 1987 and to Placidium]

Breuss, O. 1996. Ein verfeinertes Gliederungskonzept für Catapyrenium (lichenisierte Ascomyceten, Verrucariaceae) mit einem Schlüssel für die bisher bekannten Arten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, 98 B Suppl.: 35-50. ["world" key to Catapyrenium in the broad sense and to its segregates; unfortunately does not treat several of the N. Am. taxa in Thomson (1987, 1989); splits Catapyrenium in the broad sense into several genera, some new; 6 species in Catapyrenium in the narrow sense; 4 species in the narrow sense on the N. Am. list]

Breuss, O. and Hansen, E.S. 1988. The lichen genera Catapyrenium and Placidiopsis in Greenland. Plant Systematics and Evolution 159: 95-105. [key, 7 species, 5 on N. Am. list; most with brief characterizations or comparative notes]

Breuss, O. and McCune, B. 1994. Additions to the pyrenolichen flora of North America. Bryologist 97: 365-370. [updated key to N. Am. species of Catapyrenium, in the broad sense, 18 species, notes on 9 species not in Thomson (1989); unfortunately does not mention or key several taxa in Thomson (1989)]

Thomson, J.W. 1989. Additions and revised key to Catapyrenium in North America. Bryologist 92: 190-193. [key, 16 species of Catapyrenium in the broad sense; 11 species in the sense of Breuss on N. Am. list, C. globosum, C. daedaleum, C. schaereri described; conservative treatment]

Thomson, J.W. 1987. The lichen genera Catapyrenium and Placidiopsis in North America. Bryologist 90: 27-39. [key, 12 species of Catapyrenium in the broad sense, 8 species Catapyrenium in the sense of Breuss (1996) on N. Am. list; descriptions, conservative treatment]

Breuss, O. and Bratt, C.C. 2000. Catapyrenioid lichens in California. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society, 7(2): 36-42. [key; 4 species of Catapyrenium in the narrow sense on the N. Am. list; comparitive notes; a useful discussion of characters within and between genera; some drawings]

Breuss, O. 1990. Die Flechtengattung Catapyrenium (Verrucariaceae) in Europa. Stapfia 23: 1-153. [key, 27 species, 3 species of Catapyrenium in the strict sense on N. Am. list, 6 now in new segregates, mainly Placidium; descriptions, photographs of habitus]

Breuss, O. 1998. On the taxonomy of "Catapyrenium" plumbeum (lichenized Ascomycetes, Verrucariaceae). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 100B: 671-676. [key to 3 similar species parasitic on Staurothele, none of which actually in Catapyrenium; C. plumbeum transferred to Verrucaria, comparisons in English; photograph]

Catillaria (17)

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [key, 16 species of Catillaria in the broad sense, 8 species in the narrow sense, several not in European keys, descriptions]

Thomson, J.W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens 2. The Microlichens. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 675 pp. [key, 7 species of Catillaria in the broad sense, 5 species in the strict sense, several of which not in European keys or Fink (1935), descriptions]

Kilias, H. 1981. Revision gesteinbewohnender Sippen der Flechtengattung Catillaria Massal. in Europa (Lecanorales, Lecideaceae). Herzogia 5: 209-448. [key, 15 saxicolous European species of Catillaria in the strict sense, 4 on N. Am. list, generic definition, descriptions, illustrations]

Coppins, B.J. 1989. On some species of Catillaria s. lat. and Halecania in the British Isles. Lichenologist 21: 217-227. [generic comparisons]

Magnusson, A.H. 1952. Lichens from Torne Lappmark. Arkiv för Botanik, Series II, 2: 45-249. [key to 32 species, 3 on N.Am. list]

Catinaria (2)

Thomson, J.W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens 2. The Microlichens. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 675 pp. [C. atropurpurea]

Poelt, J. and Vezda, A. 1981. Bestimmungsschlüssel europäischer Flechten. Ergänz-ungsheft II. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 16. J. Cramer, Valduz. 390 pp. [key, 8 species, (C. atropurpurea)]

Zahlbruckner, A. 1935. Florida-Flechten, gesammelt von S. Rapp. Annales Mycologici 33: 33-45. [C. subcoralina as Phyllopsora, p. 43-44]

Catolechia (1)

[see also pre-1978 keys to Buellia]

Hafellner, J. 1978. Catolechia Flotow ex Massalongo emend. Körber und Epilichen Clements ex Hafellner--zwei nahe verwandte Flechtengattungen. Nova Hedwigia 30: 673-695. [generic definition, C. wahlenbergii, illustrations]

Hafellner, J., Mayrhofer, H., Poelt, J. 1979. Die Gattungen der Flechtenfamilie Physciaceae. Herzogia 5: 39-79. [generic description and comparisons]

Sheard, J.W. 1964. The genus Buellia de Notaris in the British Isles. Lichenologist 2: 225-262. [C. wahlenbergii in key as Buellia, description]

Cavernularia (2)

McCune, B. and Geiser, L. 1997. Macrolichens of the Pacific Northwest. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, 386 pp. [key, 2 species, color photo and description of C. hultenii]

Goward, T., McCune, B. and Meidinger, D. 1994. The lichens of British Columbia, Illustrated keys. Part 1 - Foliose and squamulose species. B.C. Ministry of Forests, Special Report Series no. 8, i-iii, 1-181. Free downloadable version available: http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/docs/Srs/Srs08.htm bound version available: http://www.publications.gov.bc.ca [key, 2 species, small line drawings of both]

Cecidonia (1)

Triebel, D. and Rambold, G. 1988. Cecidonia und Phacopsis (Lecanorales): zwei lichenicole Pilzgattungen mit cecidogenen Arten. Nova Hedwigia 47(3-4): 279-309. [Cecidonia a new genus; 2 species, C. umbonella on N. Am. list, illustrations]

Triebel, D. 1989. Lecideicole Ascomyceten. Eine Revision der obligat lichenicolen Ascomyceten auf lecideoiden Flechten. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 35. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 278 pp. [2 species, C. umbonella on N. Am. list, described, spore drawings, one overall key]

Wirth, V. 1995. Die Flechten Baden-Württembergs, Teil 1 and 2. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart. 1006 pp. [C. umbonella, description, color photograph of thallus]

[Celidium]                         (see Arthonia)

Celothelium (1)

Aguirre-Hudson, B. 1991. A taxonomic study of the species referred to the ascomycete genus Leptorhaphis. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany 21: 85-192. [world? key, 6 species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 2 species, 1 on N. Am. list; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Cephalophysis (1)

[see also pre-1985 keys to Lecidea]

Thomson, J.W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens 2. The Microlichens. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 675 pp. [key to genera, C. leucospila]

Kilias, H. 1985. Cephalophysis (Hertel) Kilias gen. nov., eine weitere Gattung der Teloschistaceae mit einzelligen Sporen. Herzogia 7: 181-190. [monospecific genus described]

Hertel, H. 1967. Revision einiger calciphiler Formenkreise der Flechtengattung Lecidea. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 24: 1-155. [new monospecific subgenus, C. leucospila as Lecidea ultima, key to subgenera of Lecidea, key to 25 species]

Hertel, H. 1975. Ein vorläufiger Bestimmungsschlüssel fur die kryptothallinen, schwarzfrüchtigen, saxicolen Arten der Sammelgattung Lecidea (Lichenes) in der Holarktis. Decheniana 127: 37-78. [1 species in key to 61 Lecidea in the broad sense, (C. leucospila as L. ultima)]

Cetraria (9)

[the N. Am. checklist accepts a narrow definition of the genus, as delimited in the first reference]

Kärnefelt, I., Mattsson, J.-E. and Thell, A. 1993. The lichen genera Arctocetraria, Cetraria, and Cetrariella (Parmeliaceae) and their presumed evolutionary affinities. Bryologist 96: 394-404. [world key to Cetraria narrowly defined, 15 species, 9 on N. Am. list; new delimitation of Cetraria, comparisons, descriptions of "mycological" characters, ascus illustrations, new generic segregates from Cetraria]

Kärnefelt, I. 1979. The brown fruticose species of Cetraria. Opera Botanica 46: 1-150. [14 species in key to Cetraria (broadly defined), 6 species of Cetraria strictly defined on the N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs]

Kärnefelt, I. 1986. The genera Bryocaulon, Coelocaulon and Cornicularia and formerly associated taxa. Opera Botanica 86: 1-90. [C. odontella, C. aculeata, C. muricata (the latter 2 as Coelocaulon), detailed illustrations; generic delimitation and comparisons]

[Kärnefelt 1979 and 1986 together also cover all 9 N. Am. species]

Randlane, T., Saag, A. and Thell, A. 1997. A second updated world list of cetrarioid lichens. Bryologist 100: 109-122. [a list of names and synonyms; summarizes present taxonomy and nomenclature in the genus]

[Cetrariastrum]                 (see Everniastrum)

Cetrariella (2)

[see also keys to Cetraria]

Kärnefelt, I. 1979. The brown fruticose species of Cetraria. Opera Botanica 46: 1-150. [2 species key to 14 species of Cetraria in the broad sense, 2 on N. Am. list, full descriptions, detailed comparisons of the 2 species, photographs]

Kärnefelt, I. Three new species of brown fruticose Cetraria. Botaniska Notiser 130: 125-129, [tables compares the two species, as Cetraria]

Kärnefelt, I., Mattsson, J-E. and Thell, A. 1993. The lichen genera Arctocetraria, Cetraria, and Cetrariella (Parmeliaceae) and their presumed evolutionary affinities. Bryologist 96: 394-404. [new genus, generic comparisons]

Thomson, J.W. 1984. America Arctic Lichens 1. The Macrolichens. Columbia University Press, New York, 504 pp. [good species comparison in key to Cetraria, descriptions]

Cetrelia (5)

Culberson, W.L. and Culberson, C.F. 1968. The lichen genera Cetrelia and Platismatia (Parmeliaceae). Contributions of the United States National Herbarium 34: 449-558. [world key, 14 species, 4 on N. Am. list, (plus C. monachorum as a chemical variant of C. cetrarioides); descriptions]

Randlane, T. and Saag, A. 1991. Chemical and morphological variation in the genus Cetrelia in the Soviet Union. Lichenologist 23: 113-126. [world key and equivalent identification table, 17 species, 5 on N. Am. list]

Culberson, W.L. and Culberson, C.F. 1978. Cetrelia cetrarioides and C. monachorum (Parmeliaceae) in the New World. Bryologist 81: 517-523. [discusses chemical separation of C. monachorum from C. cetrarioides]

Chaenotheca (16) [20] 

Selva, S.B. and Tibell, L. 1999. Lichenized and non-lichenized calicioid fungi from North America. Bryologist 102: 377-397. [keys to 19 N. Am. species of Chaenotheca, descriptions of 3 newly reported species.]

Tibell, L. 1999. Calicioid lichens and fungi. In: Ahti, T., Jørgensen, P.M., Kristinsson, H., Moberg, R., Søchting, U. and Thor, G. (eds.). Nordic Lichen Flora. Volume 1. Introductory Parts. Calicioid Lichens and Fungi. Nordic Lichen Society, Uddevalla. 94 pp. [key to 17 species, all 17 on N. Am. list, descriptions, notes, good color photographs]

Tibell, L. 1975. The Caliciales of boreal North America. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 21(2): 1-128. [15 species found in keys to Chaenotheca and Coniocybe, descriptions]

Middelborg, J. and Mattsson, J. 1987. Crustaceous lichenized species of the Caliciales in Norway. Sommerfeltia 5: 1-70. [key, 15 species, 14 on N. Am. list, 1 transferred, descriptions]

Tibell, L. 1980. The lichen genus Chaenotheca in the northern hemisphere. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 23(l): 1-65. [key, 14 species, 12 on N. Am. list descriptions, illustrations, does not include species later transferred from Coniocybe]

Tibell, L. 1987. Australasian Caliciales. Symbolae Botanicae Upsaliensis 27(1): 1-279. [key, 12 species, 9 on N. Am. list, detailed descriptions, fine illustrations]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 3 species, C. floridana described as new; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

McCune, B. 1985. Sterile, yellowish lichen crusts on soil in North America. Evansia 2: 23-26. [sterile C. furfuracea versus sterile Psilolechia lucida]

Rikkinen, J. 1998. Chaenotheca olivaceorufa (Caliciales) new to North America. Bryologist 101: 558-559. [description, illustration]

Chaenothecopsis (14) [27]  

Selva, S.B. and Tibell, L. 1999. Lichenized and non-lichenized calicioid fungi from North America. Bryologist 102: 377-397. [keys to 20 N. Am species the North American species of Chaenothecopsis; descriptions of 6 new or newly reported species; photographs of newly described species; 6 additional species newly described or reported in the same issue of the Bryologist are not included in the keys]

Titov, A. and Tibell, L. 1993. Chaenothecopsis in the Russian Far East. Nordic Journal of Botany 13: 313-329. [key to 17 species, 10 on N. Am. list, some new, descriptions, illustrations]

Tibell, L. 1999. Calicioid lichens and fungi. In: Ahti, T., Jørgensen, P.M., Kristinsson, H., Moberg, R., Søchting, U. and Thor, G. (eds.). Nordic Lichen Flora. Volume 1. Introductory Parts. Calicioid Lichens and Fungi. Nordic Lichen Society, Uddevalla. 94 pp. [key to 16 species, 12 on N. Am. list, descriptions, notes, good color photographs]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [5 species in key; C. norstictica described as new; C. rappii and C. pilosa are in key but not described; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Tibell, L. 1975. The Caliciales of boreal North America. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 21(2): 1-128. [key, 8 species, C. epithallina, descriptions]

Selva, S.B. 1988. The Caliciales of Northern Maine. Bryologist 91: 2-17. [8 species in main key, descriptions]

Tibell, L. 1996. Flora Neotropica Monograph 69: Caliciales. New York Botanical Garden. [key, 7 species, 4 on N. Am. list, C. pilosa, descriptions]

Tibell, L. 1987. Australasian Caliciales. Symbolae Botanicae Upsaliensis 27(1): 1-279. [key, 15 species, 6 on N. Am. list, full descriptions, fine illustrations]

Rikkinen, J. 1999. Two new species of resinicolous Chaenothecopsis (Mycocaliciaceae) from western North America. Bryologist 102: 366-369. [2 newly described N. Am. species; drawings]

Peterson, E.B. and Rikkinen, J. 1999. Range extensions of selected pin-lichens and allied fungi in the Pacific Northwest. Bryologist 102: 370-376. [brief characterizations, range and habitat notes for 12 N. Am. species, 4 newly reported]

Chiodecton (5)

Thor, G. 1990. The lichen genus Chiodecton and five allied genera. Opera Botanica 103: 1-92. [modern generic delimitation; 16 species in overall key, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations; 3 N. Am. names neither excluded nor treated]

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [key, 6 species, 4 still on N. Am. list, descriptions; old generic concepts]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [note indicating that C. malmei is the only true Chiodecton species actually in North America; the others are in limbo; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Chionosphaera (1?)

Diederich, P. 1996. The Lichenicolous Heterobasidiomycetes. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 61. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 198 pp. [key, 2 species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations, generic key]

Chromatochlamys (1)

Mayrhofer, H. and Poelt, J. 1985. Die Flechtengattung Microglaena sensu Zahlbruckner in Europa. Herzogia 7: 13-79. [key, 3 species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions, spore drawings]

Boissiere, J.C. and Montavont, J.P. 1994. Lichens de France méconnus: Chromatochlamys muscorum (Fr.) Mayrh. et Poelt et Caloplaca nivalis (Körb.) Th. Fr. Bulletin d’Informations de l’Association Française de Lichénologie 19(2): 9-12. [not reviewed]

[Chrysopsora]                (Not in North America)

Chrysothrix (2)

Laundon, J.R. 1981. The species of Chrysothrix. Lichenologist 13: 101-121. [world key, 4 species, 2 in N. Am, descriptions, drawings of anatomy]

Cladidium (1)

Ryan, B. 1989. The genus Cladidium (lichenized Ascomycotina). Mycotaxon 34: 697-712. [C. bolanderi, illustrations, comparisons]

Hafellner, J. 1984. Studien in Richtung einer naturlicheren Gliederung der Sammelfamilien Lecanoraceae und Lecideaceae. In: Hertel, H. and Oberwinkler, F. (eds.). Beiträge zur Lichenologie. Festschrift J. Poelt. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia 79. J. Cramer, Vaduz pp. 241-371. [Cladidium a new generic name; generic delimitation, illustration of anatomy]

Ryan, B.D. and Nash III, T.H. 1997. Placodioid taxa of Lecanoraceae sensu Zahlbr. (lichenized Ascomycotina) in North America: taxa excluded from Lecanora subg. Placodium. Nova Hedwigia 64(3-4): 393-420. [key to confusable groups and genera]

Cladina (14)

[see also keys to Cladonia]

Ahti, T. 1961. Taxonomic studies on reindeer lichens (Cladonia, subgenus Cladina). Annales Botanici Societatis Zoologicae Botanicae Fennicae "Vanamo" 32(l): 1-160. [key, 38 species, 12 on N. Am. list; detailed descriptions and comparisons, photographs of thalli]

Thomson, J.W. 1968 ("1967"). The lichen genus Cladonia in North America. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 172 pp. [as subsection of Cladonia, key, 11 species, descriptions, photographs of thalli]

Ahti, T. 2000. Cladoniaceae. Flora Neotropica, 78. Organization for Flora Neotropica and New York Botanical Garden, Bronx. 362 pp. [key to 16 neotropical species, 9 on N. Am. list; detailed descriptions, photographs; useful in the southern U. S. ]

Ahti, T. 1984. The status of Cladina as a genus segregated from Cladonia. In: Hertel, H. and Oberwinkler, F. (eds.). Beiträge zur Lichenologie. Festschrift J. Poelt. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia 79.. J. Cramer, Vaduz pp. 25-61. [generic delimitation, world list of species, chemistry, distribution; C. stygia]

Ahti, T. 1986. New species of reindeer lichens (Cladina). Annales Botanici Fennici 23: 221-227. [C. conspicua, illustration]

Ahti, T. and Hyvonen, S. 1985. Cladina stygia, a common, overlooked species of reindeer lichen. Annales Botanici Fennici 22: 223-229. [C. stygia, illustrations]

Cladonia (127)

[covering the genus Cladonia as a whole:]

Thomson, J.W. 1968 ("1967"). The lichen genus Cladonia in North America. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 172 pp. [key contains 103 species of Cladonia in the narrow sense, descriptions, photographs of thalli [key to subsections and series]

Hammer, S. 1995. A synopsis of the genus Cladonia in the Northwestern United States. Bryologist 98: 1-28. [key, 52 species, chemistry, brief characterizations and comparisons; C. andereggii and C. extracorticata described as new]

Hammer, S. 1991. A preliminary synopsis of the species of Cladonia in California and adjacent Oregon. Mycotaxon 40: 169-197. [diagnostic key and synoptic key only, 32 species]

Ahti, T. 2000. Cladoniaceae. Flora Neotropica, 78. Organization for Flora Neotropica and New York Botanical Garden, Bronx. 362 pp. [key to 164 neotropical species, approx. 80 on N. Am. list; detailed descriptions, illustrations for approx. 2/3 of species; useful in the southern U. S.]

Hodgetts, N.G. 1992. Cladonia: A Field Guide. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough. 39 pp. [illustrated key to small groups of approx. 63 British species, approx. 55 on N. Am. list; within each group, each species is briefly described and illustrated with line drawings; useful in northeastern N. Am.]

Brodo, I.M. and Ahti, T. 1996. Lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. 2. The Cladoniaceae. Canadian Journal of Botany 74(7): 1147-1180. [34 species, descriptions, comparisons of parts of C. gracilis group and sect. Perviae, C. albonigra and C. schofieldii described as new; new chemotypes, about 6 species not in Hammer (1995)]

Brodo, I.M. and Ahti, T. (no date). Cladoniaceae: Cladonia s.l. (subset Queen Charlotte Islands) {Online}. In: LIAS: A Global Information System for Lichenized and Non-Lichenized Ascomycetes. Botanische Staatssammlung München. Available: http://www.mycology.net//lias/index.cfm {accessed 1999 September 30}. [online, interactive, multiple-access key based on Brodo and Ahti (1996)]

Brodo, I.M. and Ahti, T. 1995. Key to Cladina and Cladonia on the Queen Charlotte Islands and neighboring areas (online). Farlow Herbarium, Harvard University, Cambridge. Available: http://www.huh.harvard.edu/collections/lichens/queencharlotte.html {accessed 12 March 2000} [traditional key to approximately 65 N. Am. species]

Ahti, T., and Hammer, S. 2002. Cladonia. In Nash, T.H., III, Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., and Bungartz, F. (eds.). Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, pp. 131-158. [key to 50 N. Am. species; generic and full species descriptions]

Vainio, E.A. 1887. Monographia Cladoniarum universalis, I, II, III. Acta Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica 4: 1-510; 10: 1-499; 14: 1-268. [world key, 124 species, excluding segregates, plus many subspecific taxa that are now species; less than 50 on N. Am. list, descriptions; in Latin]

[covering subgroups of Cladonia:]

Stenroos, S. 1989. Taxonomy of the Cladonia coccifera group. 1 and 2. Annales Botanici Fennici 26: 157-168; 307-317. [world key to C. coccifera group, 12 species, 6 on N. Am. list, comparative table, drawings of podetia]

Dey, J.P. 1973. Cladonia psoromica, a new lichen species from western North Carolina. Bryologist 76: 418-421. [key to subsection Uncialis for eastern N. Am., 8 species]

Ahti, T. 1973. Taxonomic notes on some species of Cladonia, subsect. uncialis. Annales Botanici Fennici 10: 163-184. [world key to C. boryi group (those with abundant minute needle-like crystals in young parts of the podetia and with fibrous supportive tissue in the medulla), 9 species, 6 on N. Am. list, brief characterizations]

Ahti, T. 1980. Taxonomic revision of Cladonia gracilis and its allies. Annales Botanici Fennici 17: 195-243. [world key C. gracilis group, 7 species and several subspecies, 5 species on N. Am. list, descriptions, a few photographs]

Culberson, W.L. 1969. The chemistry and systematics of some species of the Cladonia cariosa group in North America. Bryologist 72: 377-386. [key to the N. Am. C. cariosa group, 9 species, notes, chemistry]

Harris, R.C. 1975. Lichens of the Mackinac Straits region. I. The Cladonia cariosa group. Michigan Botanist 14: 44-48. [key to 4 Michigan species, 5 or 6 species discussed; table of chemical variation in the group; some chemotypes different from Culberson, 1969]

Hammer, S. 1993. A revision of Cladonia section Perviae in the western United States. Bryologist 96: 299-309. [key to section Perviae, 7 species, descriptions, illustrations]

Orange, A. 1992. A key to the Cladonia chlorophaea group in Europe, using microcrystal tests. British Lichen Society Bulletin 70: 36-42. [key to C. chlorophaea group, 12 species, 10 on N. Am. list, useful photographs of microcrystals of many lichen substances]

Stenroos, S. 1988. The family Cladoniaceae in Melanesia. 3. Cladonia sections Helopodium, Perviae and Cladonia. Annales Botanici Fennici 25: 117-148. [sections Helopodium, Perviae and Cladonia; key, 21 species, 14 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of podetia]

[covering a few new species]

Ahti, T. 1998. A revision of Cladonia stricta [Ülevaade liigist Cladonia stricta]. Folia Cryptogamica Estonica 32: 5-8. [C. trassii and C. uliginosa described as new, C. stricta description]

Tønsberg, T. and Goward., T. 1992 Cladonia norvegica new to North America. Evansia 9: 56-58. [descriptive note, comparisons]

Clathroporina (3)

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [new generic concept based mainly on thalline characters; key, 3 N. Am. species, C. isidiifera described; ; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

McCarthy, P. M. 1995. A reappraisal of Clathroporina Müll. Arg. (Trichotheliaceae). Lichenologist 27: 321-350. [generic concept based on spore septation, proposes merging Clathroporina into Porina; world key, 4 species, 0 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Clauzadea (2)               (segregated from Lecidea in 1984)

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W., and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [key, 3 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Hafellner, J. 1984. Studien in Richtung einer naturlicheren Gliederung der Sammelfamilien Lecanoraceae und Lecideaceae. In: Hertel, H. and Oberwinkler, F. (eds.). Beiträge zur Lichenologie. Festschrift J. Poelt. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia 79. J. Cramer, Vaduz pp. 241-371. [Clauzadea a new genus, description, illustration of anatomy]

Clauzadeana (1)

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W., and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [C. macula; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Rambold, G. 1989. A monograph of the saxicolous lecideoid lichens of Australia (excl. Tasmania). Bibliotheca Lichenologica 34. J. Cramer, Berlin. 345 pp. [C. macula, illustration of habitus]

Roux, C. 1983. Clauzadeana Roux, nova likengenro (Clauzadeana Roux, nouveau genre de lichen). Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence 35: 99-102. [description of new genus in Esperanto, Latin, and French, illustrations; none on N. Am. list]

Clavascidium (1)

(see also pre-1996 references for Catapyrenium)

Breuss, O. 1996. Ein verfeinertes Gliederungskonzept für Catapyrenium (lichenisierte Ascomyceten, Verrucariaceae) mit einem Schlüssel für die bisher bekannten Arten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, 98 B Suppl.: 35-50. ["world" key to Catapyrenium in the broad sense and to its segregates, but unfortunately does not treat several of the N. Am. taxa in Thomson (1987, 1989); splits Catapyrenium in the broad sense into several genera, some new; 4 species in Clavascidium in the strict sense, 1 species on N. Am. list]

Breuss, O. and McCune, B. 1994. Additions to the pyrenolichen flora of North America. Bryologist 97: 365-370. [updated key to N. Am. species of Catapyrenium, in the broad sense, 18 species, comparative notes on 9 species not in Thomson (1987); C. umbrinum in key as Catapyrenium]

Breuss, O. 1990. Studien über die Flechtengattung Catapyrenium (Verrucariaceae) I. Die Flechtengattung Catapyrenium in Europa--Ergänzungen. Linzer Biologische Beiträge 22: 69-80. [C. umbrinum a new species, description.]

Cliostomum (6)

Ekman, S. 1997. The genus Cliostomum revisited. In: Tibell, L. and Hedberg, I. (eds.). Lichen Studies Dedicated to Rolf Santesson. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 32(1): 17-28. [world key, 7 species, 6 on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Gowan, S.P. 1990. Cliostomum (lichen-forming Ascomycotina) in North America and Europe. Mycologia 82(6): 766-771. [key, 4 species, 4 on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs of thalli}

Clypeococcum (2)

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [key, 4 species, 2 on N. Am. list, spore illustrations]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1977. Three new genera of lichenicolous fungi. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 75: 195-209. [Clypeococcum a new genus, description, no species on N. Am. list, illustration of type]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1982. Notes on British lichenicolous fungi: IV. Notes from the Royal Botanical Garden Edinburgh 38: 165-183. [C. hypocenomycis a new species, description, illustrations]

Coccocarpia (4)

Arvidsson, L. 1982. A monograph of the lichen genus Coccocarpia. Opera Botanica 67: 1-96. [world key, 21 species, 4 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Marcano, V., Méndez, A.M., Mohali, S., Galiz, L. and Palacios-Prü, E. 1995. El genero Coccocarpia Pers. (Ascomicetes liquenizados) en Venezuela. Tropical Bryology 10: 215-227. [key, 9 species, 3 on N. Am. list, brief descriptions]

Coccotrema (2)

Brodo, I.M. 1973. The lichen genus Coccotrema in North America. Bryologist 76: 260-270. [key, 2 species, descriptions, illustrations]

[Coelocaulon]                    (see Cetraria, Bryocaulon)

Coenogonium (7)

Uyenco, F.R. 1963. The species of Coenogonium in the United States. Bryologist 66: 217-224. [key, 6 species, descriptions]

Davis, J. S. 1994. Coenogonium missouriense, a new lichen species from Missouri. Bryologist 97: 186-189. [description, illustrations]

Collema (35)

Degelius, G. 1974. The lichen genus Collema with special reference to the extra-European species. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 20(2): 1-215. [world key, 77 species, 34 on N. Am. list, descriptions of most species not in Degelius (1954), some illustrations]

Degelius, G. 1954. The lichen genus Collema in Europe. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 13(2): 1-499. [key, 35 species, 22 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Degelius, G. 1979. Studies in the lichen family Collemataceae IV. Collema fecundum, a new species from North America. Botaniska Notiser 132: 569-572. [description, photograph of thallus]

[Collemodes]                     (see Collema)

Collemopsidium (3)

Grube, M., and Ryan, B.D. 2002. Collemopsidium. In Nash, T.H., III, Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., and Bungartz, F. (eds.). Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, pp. 162-164. [key to 3 N. Am. species; generic and full species descriptions]

[Combea]                           (see Schizopelte)

Coniocybe (1)

[the one remaining species on the N. Am. checklist appears to have been overlooked in modern treatments]

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [key, 3 species, 1 still on N. Am. checklist, description]

Tibell, L. 1984. A reappraisal of the taxonomy of Caliciales. In: Hertel, H. and Oberwinkler, F. (eds.). Beiträge zur Lichenologie. Festschrift J. Poelt. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia 79. J. Cramer, Vaduz pp. 597-713. [synonymizes the genus with Chaenotheca!]

[Coniocybopsis]                  (see Microcalicium)

Conotrema (1)

Gilenstam, G. 1969. Studies in the lichen genus Conotrema. Arkiv fur Botanik 7: 149-179. [key to 4 known species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of anatomy]

[Cora]                                (see Dictyonema)

[Coriscium]                        (see Omphalina)

Cornicularia (1)

Kärnefelt, I. 1986. The genera Bryocaulon, Coelocaulon and Cornicularia and formerly associated taxa. Opera Botanica 86: 1-90. [world revision, 11 species of Cornicularia in the broad sense, all but 1 transferred out, 1 on N. Am. list; key to genera and species, description, illustration]

Thomson, J.W. 1984. America Arctic Lichens 1. The Macrolichens. Columbia University Press, New York, 504 pp. [C. normoerica in key to Cornicularia (traditional sense), fine illustration]

Cornutispora (2) [3]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1976. New and interesting microfungi from Slapton, South Devonshire: Deuteromycotina III. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 67: 51-59. [C. lichenicola a new species, description., illustrations]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1981. The lichenicolous Coelomycetes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 9: 1-98. [illustration only of C. lichenicola]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [genus in overall key, brief description of C. lichenicola]

Corticifraga (2)

Hawksworth, D.L. and Santesson, R. 1990. A revision of the lichenicolous fungi previously referred to Phragmonaevia. In: Jahns, H.M. (ed.). Contributions to Lichenology in Honour of A. Henssen. Bibliotheca Lichenologica. No. 38. J. Cramer, Berlin-Stuttgart pp. 121-143. [Corticifraga newly described as a genus,, key, 2 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Roux, C. and Bellemère, A. 1991. Systématique des champignons lichénicoles non lichénisés: nouveautés et changements importants depuis la parution de Nelikenigintaj fungoj likenlogaj. Bulletin d’Informations de l’Association Française de Lichénologie 16(2): 71-83. [characterization of the genus and 2 species, both on N. Am. list; in French]

Cresponea (5)

[see also pre-1993 keys to Lecanactis]

Egea, J.M. and Torrente, P. 1993. Cresponea, a new genus of lichenized fungi in the order Arthoniales (Ascomycotina). Mycotaxon 48: 301-331. [key, 11 species, 5 on N. Am. list, descriptions, a few illustrations; table comparing similar genera]

Egea, J.M. and Torrente, P. 1994. El Género de Hongos Liquenizados Lecanactis (Ascomycotina). Bibliotheca Lichenologica 54.J. Cramer, Berlin and Stuttgart. 205 pp. [generic keys for taxa similar to Lecanactis, including Cresponea, comparative tables]

Crocynia (2)

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskette} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [key, 2 species, descriptions; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Harris, R. C. 1987. Four lichens new to North America collected on the 1985 ABLS Foray in Florida. Evansia 4: 26-27. [descriptive note on 2 N. Am. species]

Cryptolechia (1)

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W., and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [in generic key, C. carneolutea; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Cryptothecia (2)

[see also Chiodecton]

Thor, G. 1991. The placement of Chiodecton sanguineum (syn. Chiodecton rubrocinctum) and Cryptothecia striata sp. nov. Bryologist 94: 278-283. [both N. Am. species described, spore illustration]

Makhija, U. and Patwardhan, P.G. 1994. A contribution towards a monograph of the lichen genus Cryptothecia (family Arthoniaceae). In: Sarma, T.A., Saini, S.S., Trivedi, M.L. and Sharma, M. (eds.). Current Researches in Plant Sciences. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal singh, Dehra Dun, India pp. 57-72. [world key, 40 species, only C. striata for N. Am.; C. rubrocincta is discussed but excluded; only 8 new species described and illustrated]

Thor, G. 1997. The genus Cryptothecia in Australia and New Zealand and the circumscription of the genus. In: Tibell, L. and Hedberg, I. (eds.) Lichen Studies Dedicated to Rolf Santesson. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 32(1): 267-289. [generic delimitation, key, 10 species, no N. Am. species; retains C. rubrocincta without comment]

Cryptothele (2)

Henssen, A. and Büdel, B. 1984. Phyllisciella, a new genus of the Lichinaceae. In Hertel, H. and Oberwinkler, F. (eds.). Beiträge zur Lichenologie. Festschrift J. Poelt. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia 79. J. Cramer, Vaduz pp. 381-398. [generic comparison and discussion, partial description, illustrations of anatomy]

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [1 species in key to Pyrenopsis, as P. phylliscina]

Culbersonia [1]

Esslinger, T.L. 2001 ("2000"). Culbersonia americana, a rare new lichen (Ascomycota) from western America. Bryologist 103: 771-773. [new genus and species; photographs of thallus]

Cybebe (1)

[Cybebe is in recent European flora under Chaenotheca, in older ones under Coniocybe]

Tibell, L. 1999. Calicioid lichens and fungi. In: Ahti, T., Jørgensen, P.M., Kristinsson, H., Moberg, R., Søchting, U. and Thor, G. (eds.). Nordic Lichen Flora. Volume 1. Introductory Parts. Calicioid Lichens and Fungi. Nordic Lichen Society, Uddevalla. 94 pp. [in key to the genera, 1 species on N. Am. list, description, notes, color photograph]

Tibell, L. 1984. A reappraisal of the taxonomy of Caliciales. In: Hertel H. and Oberwinkler, F. (eds.). Beiträge zur Lichenologie. Festschrift J. Poelt. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia 79. J. Cramer, Vaduz pp. 597-713. [description of Cybebe, a new monospecific genus]

Middelborg, J. and Mattsson, J. 1987. Crustaceous lichenized species of the Caliciales in Norway. Sommerfeltia 5: 1-70. [Cybebe put back into synonymy, in key for Chaenotheca]

[Cypheliopsis]                   (see Thelomma)

Cyphelium (11)

[either of the first two references plus the fourth will cover all N. Am. species except C. brachysporum]

Tibell, L. 1971. The genus Cyphelium in Europe. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 65: 138-164. [key to 11 species, 8 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Tibell, L. 1999. Calicioid lichens and fungi. In: Ahti, T., Jørgensen, P.M., Kristinsson, H., Moberg, R., Søchting, U. and Thor, G. (eds.). Nordic Lichen Flora. Volume 1. Introductory Parts. Calicioid Lichens and Fungi. Nordic Lichen Society, Uddevalla. 94 pp. [key to 7 species, all 7 on N. Am. list, descriptions, notes, good color photographs]

Tibell, L. 1969. The genus Cyphelium in Northern Europe. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 63: 465-485. [key, 7 species, all on N. Am. list, descriptions, spore illustrations]

Puntillo, D. 1989. Chiavi analitiche delle Caliciales italiane (Licheni). Webbia 43: 145-168. [key, 7 species, 7 on N. Am. list]

Weber, W.A. 1967. A synopsis of the North American species of Cyphelium. Bryologist 70: 197-203. [key, 12 species, 7 on N. Am list, remainder now transferred, C. brunneum, notes]

Cystobasidium (2)

Diederich, P. 1996. The Lichenicolous Heterobasidiomycetes. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 61, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 198 pp. [key, 2 species, both on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations, key to genera]

Cystocoleus (1)

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W., and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [C. ebeneus, fine illustration comparing with Racodium; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Schade, A. 1932. Die Verbreitung von Racodium rupestre Pers. und Coenogonium nigrum (Huds.) Zahlbr. in Sachsen. Beihefte zum Botanisches Centralblatt 49(Ergänzungsband): 421-437. [description as C. niger, illustration]

Trotet, G. 1970. Sur un lichen peu courant: Cystocoleus Thwait. découvert en Poitou. Révue Bryologique et Lichénologique 37: 967-971. [descriptive discussion, illustration]

Boissiere, J.C. and Montavont, J.P. 1994. Deux lichens intéressants et méconnus. Cystocoleus ebeneus (Dillwyn) Thwaites and Calicium trabinellum (Ach.) Ach. Bulletin d’Informations de l’Association Française de Lichénologie 19(1): 19-21. [short description, photograph of thallus and of "cortical" structure of filament]

 

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z Contents

Dacampia (1)

Henssen, A. 1995. Studies on the biology and structure of Dacampia (Dothideales), a genus with lichenized and lichenicolous species. Cryptogamic Botany 5: 149-158. [2 species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions embedded in text, illustrations]

Thomson, J.W. 1995. Dacampia hookeri new to the American Arctic. Bryologist 98: 50-51. [brief description, drawing of anatomy, photograph of infected lichen]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [3 species in key to Pleospora, 1 on N. Am. list, spore illustrations]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1986. Notes on British lichenicolous fungi: V. Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh 43: 497-519. [comparative note, 3 species, 1 on N. Am. list]

Dactylina (4)

Thomson, J.W. 1984. America Arctic Lichens 1. The Macrolichens. Columbia University Press, New York, 504 pp. [key, 4 species, descriptions, fine illustrations]

Thomson, J. W. and C. D. Bird. 1978. The lichen genus Dactylina in North America. Canadian Journal of Botany 56(14): 1602-1624. [key, 4 species, descriptions]

Kärnefelt, I. and Thell, A. 1996. A new classification for the Dactylina/Dufourea complex. Nova Hedwigia 62: 487-511. [generic description and comparisons; 6 species of Dactylina in the broad sense, 4 N. Am. species, descriptions; of the 6 species, 2 transferred and 2 treated as subspecies, but the changes are not reflected on N. Am. list checklist]

Golubkova, N.S., Dombrovskaja, A.V., Zhurbenko, M.P., Kotlov, Y.V. and Krusanova, Z.G. 1996. Handbook of the Lichens of Russia. 6. Alectoriaceae, Parmeliaceae, Stereocaulaceae. Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg. 204 pp. [key, 6 species, 4 on N. Am. list, descriptions (in Russian)]

Dactylospora (13)

Hafellner, J. 1979. Karschia. Revision einer Sammelgattung an der Grenze von lichenisierten und nichlichenisierten Ascomyceten. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia 62: 1-248. [23 Dactylospora species in overall key, 7 on N. Am. list descriptions, drawings]

Triebel, D. 1989. Lecideicole Ascomyceten. Eine Revision der obligat lichenicolen Ascomyceten auf lecideoiden Flechten. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 35. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 278 pp. [one overall key, 6 species described, some new, 4 on N. Am. list, drawings of spores and of anatomy for new species]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [16 species in key to lichenicolous Buellia, 9 on N. Am. list]

Degelia (1)

[see also Parmeliella keys written before 1991]

Jørgensen, P.M. 2000. Survey of the lichen family Pannariaceae on the American continent north of Mexico. Bryologist: 103: 670-704. [key to genera and species, 1 N. Am. species; descriptions of genera and species, notes, photographs of thalli of all taxa]

Jørgensen, P.M. and James, P. W. 1990. Studies in the family Pannariaceae. IV: The genus Degelia. in Jahns, H.M. (ed.). Contributions to Lichenology in Honour of A. Henssen. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 38. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart, pp. 253-276. [world key, 9 species, 1 on N. Am. list, some descriptions (but not D. plumbea), some illustrations, comparisons]

Jørgensen, P.M. 1978 The lichen family Pannariaceae in Europe. Opera Botanica 45: 1-123. [description of D. plumbea as Parmeliella]

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W., and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [key, 3 species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Arvidsson, L. and Galloway, D.J. 1981. Degelia, a new lichen genus in the Pannariaceae. Lichenologist 13: 27-50. [generic description, key, 3 species, 0 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations; illustration of variation in ascal staining]

"Dendriscocaulon" (2)

Henssen, A. 1963. Eine Revision der Flechtenfamilien Lichinaceae und Ephebaceae. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 18(1): 1-123. [D. intricatulum as Polychidium, key, description, illustration]

Thomson, J.W. 1984. America Arctic Lichens 1. The Macrolichens. Columbia University Press, New York, 504 pp. [D. umhausense as Polychidium, description]

James, P.W. and Hensson, A. 1976. The morphological and taxonomic significance of cephalodia. In Brown, D.H., Hawksworth, D.L. and Bailey, R.H. (eds.). Lichenology: Progress and Problems. Academic Press, London, pp. 27-77. [discussion of independent status of genus versus treatment as cephalodia of Lobaria]

Dendrodochium (1)

Hawksworth, D.L. 1979. The lichenicolous Hyphomycetes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 6: 183-300. [1 species, D. subeffusum, key to genera]

Dendrographa (2)

Sundin, R. and Tehler, A. 1996. The genus Dendrographa (Roccellaceae). Bryologist 99: 19-31. [world key, 2 species, descriptions, illustrations]

Wright, D. 1996. What happened to Dendrographa minor?. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society 3(2): 11-12. [key, 2 N. Am. species, descriptive discussion]

[Dermatina]                   (= Pezicula, not in N. Am.; see Mycoporum)

[Dermatiscum]                   (see Dermiscellum)

Dermatocarpon (10)

[the first, second, and fourth references combined or the second, third, and fourth references combined cover all N. Am. species, see also Ryan’s computer-based keys under "Twenty most useful"]

Poelt, J. 1969. Bestimmungsschlüssel europäischer Flechten. Cramer, Lehre, 757 pp. [key to 17 species, 8 on N. Am. list, best coverage by a European flora]

Degelius, G. 1934. Über Dermatocarpon rivulorum (Arn.) DT. et Sarnth. und D. arnoldianum Degel. n. sp. Nyt Magazin for Naturvidenskaberne 75: 151-161. [key to 6 species of section Entosthelia, now all on N. Am. list of Dermatocarpon in the strict sense; descriptions and photographs of 2 species]

Breuss, O. 1995 Bemerkungen zur Sektion Polyrhizion der Flechtengattung Dermatocarpon (Verrucariaceae). Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde 4: 137-145 [key to section, 5 species, 3 on N. Am. list of Dermatocarpon in the strict sense; descriptions, D. reticulatum]

Breuss, O. and McCune, B. 1994. Additions to the pyrenolichen flora of North America. Bryologist 97: 365-370. [D. lorenzianum]

Rosentreter, R. and McCune, B. 1992. Vagrant Dermatocarpon in western North America. Bryologist 95: 15-19. [variants of D. miniatum and D. reticulatum, illustrations]

Zschacke, H. 1933-1934. Epigloeaceae, Verrucariaceae und Dermatocarpaceae. In Rabenhorst’s Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 9,1(1): 44-695. [key, 13 species in sections Entosthelia and Polyrhizion, 6 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Dermiscellum (1)

Hafellner, J., Mayrhofer, H. and Poelt, J. 1979. Die Gattungen der Flechtenfamilie Physciaceae. Herzogia 5: 39-79. [new genus, D. catawbense, generic comparisons]

[Desmazieria]                    (see Niebla, Ramalina)

Dibaeis (2)

Thomson, J.W. 1967. The lichen genus Baeomyces in North America north of Mexico. Bryologist 70: 285-298. [2 species as Baeomyces, key, descriptions, microcrystal tests]

Gierl, C. and Kalb, K. 1993. Die Flechtengattung Dibaeis. Eine Übersicht über die rosafrüchtigen Arten von Baeomyces sens. lat. nebst Anmerkungen zu Phyllobaeis gen. nov. Herzogia 9: 593-645. [world key, 14 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations (including stained asci)]

Ihlen, P.G. 1998. The lichenicolous fungi on species of the genera Baeomyces, Dibaeis, and Icmadophila in Norway. Lichenologist 30: 27-57. [key, 19 lichenicolous species, descriptions, illustration]

Dictyonema (3)

Parmasto, E. 1978. The genus Dictyonema ("Thelephorolichenes"). Nova Hedwigia 29: 99-144. [key, 5 "species," 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [keys, 3 species, 1 as Cora, descriptions]

Henssen, A. 1963. Eine Revision der Flechtenfamilien Lichinaceae und Ephebaceae. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 18(l): 1-123. [D. moorei, illustration]

[Didymosphaeria]               (see Polycoccoum)

Dimelaena (5)

Sheard, J.W. 1974. The genus Dimelaena in North America north of Mexico. Bryologist 77: 128-141. [key, 4 species, descriptions, photographs of thalli]

Sheard, J.W. and Mayrhofer, H. 1984. Two new species of the lichenized ascomycete genus Dimelaena Norm. Bryologist 87: 246-248. [D. weberi a new species, description]

Dimerella (2)

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W., and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [key, 2 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Lettau, G. (1932-37). Monographische Bearbeitung einiger Flechtenfamilien. Repertorium specierum novarum regni vegetabilis, Beihefte 69: 1-150. [descriptions only of 3 species as Microphiale, 2 on N. Am. list]

Diploicia (1)

Poelt, J. and Vezda, A. 1981. Bestimmungsschlüssel europäischer Flechten. Ergänz-ungsheft II. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 16. J. Cramer, Valduz. 390 pp. [key, 2 species, 1 on N. Am. list]

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W., and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [D. canescens, good description; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Bratt, C.C. 1984. Diploicia canescens (Dicks.) Mass. new to North America. Bryologist 87: 160-161. [brief characterization]

Diploschistes (11)

Lumbsch, H. Th. 1989. Die holarktischen Vertreter der Flechtengattung Diploschistes (Thelotremataceae). Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 66: 133-196. [key, 14 holarctic species, 10 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Lumbsch, H.T. and Guderley, R. (no date). Thelotremataceae: Diploschistes {Online}. In: LIAS: A Global Information System for Lichenized and Non-Lichenized Ascomycetes. Botanische Staatssammlung München. Available: http://www.mycology.net//lias/index.cfm (under Thelotremataceae) {accessed 1999 September 30}. [online interactive multiple-access world key to Diploschistes, 29 species, 11 on N. Am. list]

Abu-zinada, A.H., Hawksworth, D.L. and Bokhary, H.A. 1986. The lichens of Saudi Arabia, with a key to the species reported. Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research, Special Publication 2: 1-54. [D. arabiensis a new species, description, color photograph]

Diplotomma (7)

[see also keys to Buellia]

Szatala, O. 1956. Neue Flechten. V. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici, series nova 7: 271-282. [world key, about 46 species, 6 on N. Am. list, in Latin]

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W., and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [one of the few flora to accept the genus; generic description; key, 4 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Nordin, A 1996. Buellia species (Physciaceae) with pluriseptate spores in Norden. In: Hultgard, U.-M., Martinsson, K. and Moberg, R. (eds.) The Nordic Flora--Towards the Twenty-First Century. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Symbolae Botanicae Upsaliensis 31(3): 327-354. [key, 7 species, as Buellia, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Dirina (2)

Tehler, A. 1983. The genera Dirina and Roccellina (Rocellaceae). Opera Botanica 70: 1-86. [world key, 7 species, 2 on N. Am. list (one of these as a subspecies], descriptions, illustrations]

Dirinaria (9)

Awasthi, D.D. 1975. A monograph of the lichen genus Dirinaria. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 2. J. Cramer, Leutershausen, Germany. 108 pp. [world key, 26 species, 9 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 8 species; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 109 pp. [key, 8 species, brief notes; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

[Discothecium]                  (see Endococcus)

Distopyrenis (4)

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [world key, 9 species, including 3 undescribed, 4 on N. Am. list; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Aptroot, A. 1991. A Monograph of the Pyrenulaceae (Excluding Anthracothecium and Pyrenula) and the Requienellaceae, with Notes on the Pleomassariaceae, the Trypetheliaceae and Mycomicrothelia (Lichenized and Non-lichenized Ascomycetes). Bibliotheca Lichenologica 44. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 178 pp. [Distopyrenis a new genus, description; world key, 3 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

[Ditremis]                          (see Anisomeridium)

[Dufourea]                         (see Dactylina)

 

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z Contents

Echinoplaca (2)

Kalb, K. and Vezda, A. 1988. Neue oder bemerkenswerte Arten der Flechtenfamilie Gomphillaceae in der Neotropis. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 29. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 80 pp. [key to 14 neotropical species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions and illustrations for several non-N. Am. species]

Santesson, R. 1952. Foliicolous lichens I. A revision of the taxonomy of the obligately foliicolous, lichenized fungi. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 12: 1-590. [key, 9 species, E. pellicula]

Sérusiaux, E. 1979. Foliicolous lichens from southeastern United States. Bryologist 82: 88-93. [E. intercedens]

Lücking, R. 1997. Additions and Corrections to the Knowledge of the Foliicolous Lichen Flora of Costa Rica. The Family Gomphillaceae. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 65. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 109 pp. [19 species in overall key, 0 on N. Am. list, some descriptions, spore drawings, photographs] might still include

Echinothecium (2)

Alstrup, V. and Cole, M.S. 1998. Lichenicolous fungi of British Columbia. Bryologist 101: 221-229. [E. aerophilum newly described, on N. Am. list, spore illustration]

Keissler, K. von. 1930. Die Flechtenparasiten. In Rabenhorst’s Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 8: 1-712. [E. reticulatum, p. 327]

Hafellner, J. and Calatayud, V. 1999. Lichenostigma cosmopolites, a common lichenicolous fungus on Xanthoparmelia species. Mycotaxon 72: 107-114. [comparison of E. reticulatum with Lichenostigma cosmopolites, with which it is frequently confused]

Edrudia (1)

Jordan, W. P. 1980. Edrudia, a new genus from California (Lichenes: Teloschistaceae). Bryologist 83: 64-67. [E. constipans, illustrations]

Eiglera (1)

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W., and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [monospecific genus, description; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Hafellner, J. 1984. Studien in Richtung einer naturlicheren Gliederung der Sammelfamilien Lecanoraceae und Lecideaceae. In: H. Hertel and F. Oberwinkler (eds.). Beiträge zur Lichenologie. Festschrift J. Poelt. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia 79. J. Cramer, Vaduz pp. 241-371. [Eiglera a new genus, description, drawings of anatomy]

Endocarpon (9) [13]

[The first and third references together treat all taxa on the N. Am. list as of 2002]

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskette} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [9 N. Am species are described, 8 in key, plus 2 undescribed are mentioned; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Poelt, J. 1969. Bestimmungsschlüssel europäischer Flechten. Cramer, Lehre. 757 pp. {English translation available from Dr. Doyle Anderegg Doyle@uidaho.edu in a version with certain genera replaced by revised text from Poelt and Vezda (1977).} [key, 17 species, 10 on N. Am. list]

Breuss, O. 2002. Endocarpon. In Nash, T.H., III, Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., and Bungartz, F. (eds.). Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, pp. 181-187. [key to 10 species, 8 on N. Am. list; full species and generic descriptions; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/PublicationsforSale.htm]

Breuss, O. and McCune. B. 1994. Additions to the pyrenolichen flora of North America. Bryologist 97: 365-370. [E. adsurgens, comparative note only]

Endococcus (5)

[The first three references together cover all names on the checklist]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1979. Studies in the genus Endococcus (Ascomycotina, Dothideales). Botaniska Notiser 132: 283-290. [key, 12 species, 3 (4) on N. Am. list, some illustrations; P. perpusillus included in P. propinquus]

Matzer, M., Mayrhofer, H. and Wippel, A. 1996. Dimelaena radiata (Physciaceae, Lecanorales) and its lichenicolous fungus Endococcus buelliae (Verrucariales). Bryologist 99: 450-456. [description, illustration, comparisons]

Triebel, D. 1989. Lecideicole Ascomyceten. Eine Revision der obligat lichenicolen Ascomyceten auf lecideoiden Flechten. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 35. J. Cramer, Berlin-Stuttgart. 278 pp. [one overall key, 3 species, all on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of spores and asci]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [key, 11 species, 3 on N. Am. list, spore illustrations]

[Endopyrenium]                 (see Catapyrenium, Heteroplacidium)

Enterographa (3)

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 4 species, 2 of which lack names; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 109 pp. [key, 2 species, E. lecanoroides a new species, description; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Torrente, P. and Egea, J.M. 1989. La Familia Opegraphaceae en el Area Mediterránea de la Península Ibérica y Norte de Africa. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 32. J. Cramer, Berlin. 282.pp. [key, 5 species, 1 on N. Am. list, E. zonata, drawings of anatomy]

Redinger, K. 1938. Restitution und kritische Revision der Flechtengattungen Enterographa Fée und Sclerophyton Eschw. Feddes Repertorium 43: 49-77. [key, 29 species of Enterographa in the broad sense; E. quassiicola on the N. Am. list, description]

Tønsberg, T. and Brodo, I.M. 1992. Enterographa zonata and Opegrapha gyrocarpa new to North America. Bryologist 95:225-226. [brief characterization]

Eopyrenula (2)

Aptroot, A. 1991. A Monograph of the Pyrenulaceae (Excluding Anthracothecium and Pyrenula) and the Requienellaceae, with Notes on the Pleomassariaceae, the Trypetheliaceae and Mycomicrothelia (Lichenized and Non-lichenized Ascomycetes). Bibliotheca Lichenologica 44. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 178 pp. ["world" key (but see next entry), 3 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Coppins, B.J., James, P.W. and Hawksworth, D.L. 1992. New species and combinations in the Lichen Flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Lichenologist 24: 351-369. [3 new species, none in Aptroot (1991), 0 on N. Am. list, illustrations]

Harris, R.C. 1973. The corticolous pyrenolichens of the Great Lakes Region. Michigan Botanist 12: 3-68. [one overall key; description of genus and of E. intermedia (as E. leucoplaca); drawing of spore]

Ephebe (6)

Henssen, A. 1963. Eine Revision der Flechtenfamilien Lichinaceae und Ephebaceae. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 18(l): 1-123. [separate keys for fertile and sterile specimens, 12 species, 6 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

[Ephebeia]                        (see Ephebe)

Epicladonia (1)

Hawksworth, D.L. 1981. The lichenicolous Coelomycetes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 9: 1-98. [Epicladonia a new genus, description; key, 3 species, including E. simplex, descriptions]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [key, 3 species, 1 on N. Am. list, spore drawings]

Epilichen (2)

Hafellner, J. 1979. Karschia. Revision einer Sammelgattung an der Grenze von lichenisierten und nichtlichenisierten Ascomyceten. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia 62: 1-248. [2 species in general key, generic description, E. scabrosus]

Triebel, D. 1989. Lecideicole Ascomyceten. Eine Revision der obligat lichenicolen Ascomyceten auf lecideoiden Flechten. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 35. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 278 pp. [1 species, E. stellata newly described, drawings of spores, in overall key]

Hafellner, J. 1978. Catolechia Flotow ex Massalongo emend. Körber und Epilichen Clements ex Hafellner--zwei nahe verwandte Flechtengattungen. Nova Hedwigia 30:

673-695. [generic description and comparisons, E. scabrosus, illustrations]

Thomson, J.W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens 2. The Microlichens. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 675 pp. [E. scabrosus, fine illustration of thallus]

Erioderma (3)

Jørgensen, P.M. 2000. Survey of the lichen family Pannariaceae on the American continent north of Mexico. Bryologist: 103: 670-704. [key to genera and species, 3 N. Am. species; descriptions of genera and species, notes, photographs of thalli of all taxa]

Swinscow, T.D.V. and Krog, H. 1988. Macrolichens of East Africa. British Museum (Natural History}, London, 390 pp. [key to 5 species, E. sorediatum, E. pedicellatum, and E. mollissimum on N. Am. list, descriptions of species and genus]

Keuk, G. 1977. Ontogenetisch-systematische Studie über Erioderma im Vergleich mit anderen cyanophilen Flechtengattungen. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 6. J. Cramer, Vaduz. 175 pp. [key, 13 "studied" species, E. pedicellatum on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations, detailed description of genus]

Maass, W.S.G. 1983. New observations on Erioderma in North America. Nordic Journal of Botany 3: 567-576. [distribution and ecology of all 3 N. Am. species, but no descriptions or keys]

Esslingeriana (1)

Esslinger, T.L. 1971. Cetraria idahoensis, a new species of lichen endemic to western North America. Bryologist 74: 364-369. [E. idahoensis, description and photographs]

Elix, J.A. 1993. Progress in the generic delimitation of Parmelia sensu lato lichens (Ascomycotina: Parmeliaceae)and a synoptic key to the Parmeliaceae. Bryologist 96: 359-383. [description of monospecific genus]

Euopsis (2)

[see also Pyrenopsis]

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W., and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [key, 2 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Henssen, A., Büdel, B. and Titze, A. 1988. Euopsis and Harpidium, genera of the Lichinaceae (Lichenes) with rostrate asci. Botanica Acta, Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft 101: 83-89. [ascus structure, anatomy, and ontogeny only]

Evernia (5)

Bird, C.D. 1974. Studies on the lichen genus Evernia in North America. Canadian Journal of Botany 52: 2427-2434. [key, 5 N. Am. species, brief characterizations and comparisons, photographs of thalli]

Everniastrum (2?)

Sipman, H.J.M. 1980. Studies on Colombian cryptogams. X. The genus Everniastrum Hale and related taxa (Lichenes). Proceedings of the Koninglijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Series C, 83: 333-354. [key to Colombian foliose lichens with linear lobes and marginal cilia, 12 species, 9 Everniastrum, 2 on N. Am. list, both illustrated, descriptions, comparisons; Cetrariastrum a new genus, description]

Sipman, H. 1986. Notes on the lichen genus Everniastrum (Parmeliaceae). Mycotaxon 26: 235-251. [world key, 27 species, 2 on N. Am. list, description of genus and comparison with Cetrariastrum]

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1976. Synopsis of a new lichen genus, Everniastrum Hale (Parmeliaceae). Mycotaxon 3: 345-353. [world key, 21 species, 2 on N. Am. list]

Culberson, W.L. and Culberson, C.F. 1981. The genera Cetrariastrum and Concamerella (Parmeliaceae): A chemosystematic synopsis. Bryologist 84: 273-314. [23 species of Cetrariastrum; the 2 N. Am. species of Everniastrum are keyed under C. cirrhatum group]

Everniicola (1)

Hawksworth, D.L. 1982. Notes on British lichenicolous fungi: IV. Notes from the Royal Botanical Garden Edinburgh 40: 375-397. [E. flexispora described as a new genus and species; illustration]

Alstrup, V. and Hawksworth, D.L. 1990. The lichenicolous fungi of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grönland., Bioscience 31: 1-90. [1 in main key, E. flexispora, description, illustration]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1983. A key to the lichen-forming, parasitic, parasymbiotic and saprophytic fungi occurring on lichens in the British Isles. Lichenologist 15: 1-44. [1 species in overall key, 1 on N. Am. list]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [genus in overall key, brief description of E. flexispora]

 

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z Contents

Farnoldia (3)

[see also Melanolecia keys written before 1983]

Hertel, H. 1967. Revision einiger calciphiler Formenkreise der Flechtengattung Lecidea. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 24: 1-155. [3 N. Am. species in key as Lecidea, descriptions, some illustrations]

Fröberg, L. 1989. The Calcicolous Lichens on the Great Alvar of Öland, Sweden. Institutionen för Systematisk Botanik, Lund. 109 pp. [descriptions and drawings of 2 species, both on N. Am. list; ecological notes]

Hertel, H. 1983. Über einige aus Lecidea und Melanolecia (Ascomycetes lichenisati) auszuschliessende Arten. Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München 19: 441-447. [Farnoldia newly described, new combinations]

Fayodia (2)

Singer R. 1969 Mycoflora australis. Beheift zur Nova Hedwigia 29: 1-405. [F. striatula, description p. 146]

Lange, J. E. 1930. Studies in the agarics of Denmark. Part VIII. Omphalia. Pleurotis. Clitocybe. Dansk Botansk Arkiv 6(5): 1-61. [F. leucophylla described and illustrated as Omphalia (but spines on spores omitted), key to 32 Omphalia]

Lange, M. and Sivertsen, S. 1966. Some species of Lyophyllum, Rhodocybe, and Fayodia with rough spores. Nomenclature and taxonomic position. Botanisk Tidsskrift 62: 197-211. [partial description of F. leucophylla]

Singer, R. 1986. The Agaricales in modern taxonomy, 4th ed. pp. 428-30. [detailed generic description]

Fellhanera (4)

[the first two listings below together cover all 4 listed species; see also Bacidia or Catillaria keys written before 1986]

Sérusiaux, E. 1996. Foliicolous lichens from Madeira, with the description of a new genus and two new species and a world-wide key of foliicolous Fellhanera. Lichenologist 28: 197-227. [detailed key, 33 species, 3 on N. Am. list]

Ekman, S. 1996. The corticolous and lignicolous species of Bacidia and Bacidina in North America. Opera Botanica 127: 1-148. [F. floridana, description]

Lücking, R. 1997. Additions and corrections to the knowledge of the foliicolous lichen flora of Costa Rica. The genus Fellhanera, with notes on Bacidia pauciseptata. Tropical Bryology 13: 141-173. [10 new species described, 15 others treated but not described, 1 on N. Am. list]

Fellhaneropsis (1)

Coppins, B.J. and James, P.W. 1978. New or interesting British lichens II. Lichenologist 10: 179-207. [F. vezdae (as Bacidia), description, drawings]

Sérusiaux, E. 1996. Foliicolous lichens from Madeira, with the description of a new genus and two new species and a world-wide key of foliicolous Fellhanera. Lichenologist 28: 197-227. [Fellhaneropsis a new genus, description; 1 sp. on N. Am. list, brief characterization]

[Fistulariella]                    (see Ramalina)

Flavocetraria (2)

Kärnefelt, I. and Thell, A. 1994. The genus Flavocetraria Kärnefelt and Thell (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycotina) and its affinities. In: Stenroos, S. (ed.) Focus on Lichen Taxonomy and Biogeography: A Festschrift in Honour of Teuvo Ahti. Acta Botanica Fennica, 150, Finnish Botanical Publishing Board, Helsinki, pp. 79-86. [new genus, generic comparisons, 2 species, both on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Thomson, J.W. 1984. America Arctic Lichens 1. The Macrolichens. Columbia University Press, New York, 504 pp. [2 species in key to Cetraria in the broad sense, descriptions, fine illustrations]

Flavoparmelia (3)

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1976. A monograph of the lichen genus Pseudoparmelia Lynge (Parmeliaceae). Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 31: 1-62. [3 N. Am. species in key as Pseudoparmelia, descriptions, photographs of aspect]

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1986. Flavoparmelia, a new genus in the lichen family Parmeliaceae (Ascomycotina). Mycotaxon 25: 603-605. [generic description only]

Flavopunctelia (4)

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1980. Taxonomy and distribution of the Parmelia flaventior group (lichens: Parmeliaceae). Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 47: 75-84. [key, 4 species, 4 on N. Am. list, brief characterizations, comparisons]

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1984. Flavopunctelia, a new genus in the Parmeliaceae (Ascomycotina). Mycotaxon 20: 681-682. [generic description]

Krog, H. 1982. Punctelia, a new genus in the Parmeliaceae. Nordic Journal of Botany 2: 287-292. [4 species (4 on N. Am. list) as subgenus Flavopunctelia in key to 22 Punctelia]

[Foraminella]              (see Parmeliopsis)

[Forsselia]                         (see Lichinella, Pterygiopsis)

Frutidella (1)

[see also keys to Lecidea and Lecidella written before 1994]

Kalb, K. 1994. Frutidella, eine neue Flechtengattung für Lecidea caesioatra Schaerer. Hoppea, Denkschriften der Regensburgischen Botanischen Gesellschaft 55: 581-586. [description and illustration of monospecific genus, 1 on N. Am. list]

[in Purvis et al. (1992) and Clauzade and Roux (1985) as Lecidea; in Poelt and Vezda (1981) as Lecidella]

Fulgensia (3)

Clauzade, G. and Roux, C. 1985. Likenoj de Okcidenta Europo. Ilustrita Determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Botanique du Centre-Ouest, Nouvelle Série, Numéro Spécial 7. Royan, France. 893 pp. [detailed key to 11 species, 3 on N. Am. list, spore drawings]

Poelt, J. and Vezda, A. 1977. Bestimmungsschlüssel europäischer Flechten. Ergänzungsheft I. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 9. J. Cramer, Valduz. 258 pp. [detailed key to 12 species, 3 on N. Am. list]

Thomson, J.W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens 2. The Microlichens. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 675 pp. [key to 2 species, 3 species described]

Poelt, J. and Hinteregger, E. 1993. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Flechtenflora des Himalaya. VII. Die Gattungen Caloplaca, Fulgensia und Ioplaca (mit englischem Bestimmungsschlüssel). Bibliotheca Lichenologica 50. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 247 pp. [key, 3 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Gilbert, O.L. 1978. Fulgensia in the British Isles. Lichenologist 10: 33-46. [key, 2 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of spores]

McCune, B. 1985. Sterile, yellowish lichen crusts on soil in North America. Evansia 2: 23-26. [2 species in key]

Fuscidea (13)

[See Ryan’s computer keys and major European flora; see also Lecidea, especially Lowe (1939)]

Oberhollenzer, H. and Wirth, V. 1984. Beiträge zur Revision der Flechtengattung Fuscidea. In: Hertel, H. and Oberwinkler, F. (eds.). Beiträge zur Lichenologie. Festschrift J. Poelt. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia 79. J. Cramer, Vaduz, pp. 537-595. [9 species, 5 on N. Am. list, descriptions, good illustrations, generic description]

Inoue, M. 1981. A taxonomic study on the Japanese species of Fuscidea (Lichens). Hikobia Supplement 1: 161-176. [key to 6 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Inoue, M. 1981. A preliminary revision of extra-Japanese species of Fuscidea (Lichens). Hikobia Supplement 1: 177-181. [key, 14 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Tønsberg, T. 1992. The sorediate and isidiate, corticolous, crustose lichens in Norway. Sommerfeltia 14: 1-331. [4 in overall key, 4 on N. Am. list, detailed descriptions, some photographs

Brodo, I.M. and Wirth, V. 1998. Lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. 4. The genus Fuscidea (Fuscideaceae). - In: Glenn, M.G, Harris, R.C., Dirig, R. and Cole, M.S. (eds.). Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson. Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, New York, pp. 149-162. [key to 4 British Colombian species, 3 described, photographs of thalli, F. thomsonii described as a new species; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/]

Fuscopannaria (10)[25]

[see also keys to Pannaria written before 1994]

Jørgensen, P.M. 2000. Survey of the lichen family Pannariaceae on the American continent north of Mexico. Bryologist: 103: 670-704. [key to genera and species, 25 N. Am. species, 9 new to science and 3 transferred; descriptions of genera and species, notes, photographs of thalli of all taxa]

Jørgensen, P. M. 2000. On the sorediate counterparts of the lichen Fuscopannaria leucosticta. Bryologist 103: 104-107. [world key to 10 species, 6 on N. Am. list; F. sorediata, new species, description and photographs of thallus]

Jørgensen, P.M. 1994. Studies in the lichen family Pannariaceae VI: the taxonomy and phytogeography of Pannaria Del. s. lat. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 76: 197-206. [Fuscopannaria described as a new genus; photographs of stained asci]

 

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z Contents

[Gasparrinia] (see Caloplaca)

[Geisleria] (see Strigula)

Geltingia (1)

Rambold, G. and Triebel, D. 1990. Gelatinopsis, Geltingia and Phaeopyxis: three helotialean genera with lichenicolous species. Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh 46: 375-389. [key to 9 lichenicolous helotialean fungal species; description of genus and of G. associata, drawings of asci, comparative table]

Alstrup, V. and Hawksworth, D.L. 1990. The lichenicolous fungi of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grönland., Bioscience 31: 1-90. [Geltingia described as a new genus; 3 species in main key, 1 on N. Am. list (not described), the other two described as new, illustrations]

[Glaucomaria] (see Lecanora)

Gloeoheppia [1]

Schultz,M. 2002. Gloeoheppia. In Nash, T.H., III, Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., and Bungartz, F. (eds.). Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, pp. 202-203. [full species and generic descriptions, photograph of thallus; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/PublicationsforSale.htm]

Henssen, A. 1995. The new lichen family Gloeoheppiaceae and its genera Gloeoheppia, Pseudopeltula and Gudelia (Lichinales). Lichenologist 27: 261-290. [descriptions, illustrations; 1 on N. Am. list]

Glyphis (1)

Nakanishi, 1966. The family Graphidaceae in Japan. Journal of Science of the Hiroshima University, series B, Division 2 (Botany) 11: 52-126. [key to genera, 1 species, G. cicatricosa, description, drawings of spores and apothecial anatomy]

Awasthi, D.D. 1991. A Key to the Microlichens of India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 40. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 340 pp. [detailed key to 3 species, 1 on N. Am. list]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [G. cicatricosa in key to genera; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 109 pp. [G. cicatricosa in key to genera of the Graphidaceae; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Glypholecia (1)

Thomson, J.W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens 2. The Microlichens. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 675 pp. [key to genera, description and illustration of G. scabra]

Thomson, J.W. 1979. Lichens of the Alaskan Arctic Slope. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 314 pp. [key to genera, description of G. scabra]

Golubkova, N.S. 1988. The Lichen Family Acarosporaceae in the U.S.S.R. Komarov Botanical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R. (`Nauka'), Leningrad. 136 pp. [G. scabra only, in Russian]

Gomphillaceae    (key for the determining the genera of the family)

Vezda, A. 1987. Flechtensystematische Studien XII. Die Familie Gomphillaceae und ihre Gliederung. Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica 22: 179-198. [Gomphillaceae]

Lücking, R. 1997. Additions and Corrections to the Knowledge of the Foliicolous Lichen Flora of Costa Rica. The Family Gomphillaceae. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 65. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 109 pp. [foliicolous Gomphillaceae]

Gomphillus (2)

Buck, W.R. 1998. Lichen flora of eastern North America: the genus Gomphillus (Gomphillaceae). In: Glenn, M.G., Harris, R.C., Dirig, R., and Cole, M.S. (eds.): Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson. Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, New York pp. 71-76. [key, 2 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, fine illustrations of morphology; article available online from the Eastern Lichen Network at http://www.nybg.org/bsci/lichens/eln/articles.html/; book available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/]

Kalb, K. and Vezda, A. 1988. Neue oder bemerkenswerte Arten der Flechtenfamilie Gomphillaceae in der Neotropis. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 29. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 80 pp. [key to 3 neotropical species, 2 on N. Am. list, illustration only of G. calicioides]

Esslinger, T.L. 1975. A new North American species of the lichen genus Gomphillus. Mycotaxon 1: 189-192. [G. americanus, photographs, comparison with G. calycioides]

Vezda, A. 1987. Flechtensystematische Studien XII. Die Familie Gomphillaceae und ihre Gliederung. Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica 22: 179-198. [key to genera in family, illustration only of hyphophores of G. americanus]

Vezda, A. 1979. Flechten systematische Studien XI. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Familie Asterothyriaceae (Discolichens). Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica 14: 43-94. [illustration of hyphophores ascomatal anatomy of G. calycioides]

Gongylia (1)

Vezda, A. 1959. K taxonomii rozsireni a ekologii lisejniku Belonia russula Krb. ve stredni Evrope. (Zur Systematik, Verbreitung und Ökologie der Flechte Belonia russula Kbr. in Mitteleuropa.) Prirodovedny Casopsi Slezsky 20: 241-253. [key to 5 European species of Belonia and 7 of Gongylia, only G. muscorum on N. Am. list, in German and Czech]

[Gonohymenia]                  (see Lichinella)

Granulopyrenis (1)

Aptroot, A. 1991. A Monograph of the Pyrenulaceae (Excluding Anthracothecium and Pyrenula) and the Requienellaceae, with Notes on the Pleomassariaceae, the Trypetheliaceae and Mycomicrothelia (lichenized and non-lichenized ascomycetes). Bibliotheca Lichenologica 44. J. Cramer, Berlin. 178 pp. [Granulopyrenis described as a new genus; world key, 3 species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [world key to 4 species plus one unnamed, 1 on N. Am. list, notes; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Graphidioid species

Staiger, B., and Kalb, K. 1999. Acanthothecis and other graphidioid lichens with warty periphysoids or paraphysis-tips. Mycotaxon 73: 69-134. [key to all known graphidioid species with warty periphyses or paraphysis-tips, 34 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings for about 50%; descriptions and delimitations of subgroups]

Graphina (23)

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 16 species plus 4 unnamed; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 109 pp. [key to 14 species plus 2 undescribed, brief notes; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [key, 18 species, 13 still on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Wirth, M. and Hale, M.E., Jr. 1978. Morden-Smithsonian expedition to Dominica: the lichens (Graphidaceae). Smithsonian Contributions in Botany 40: 1-64. [key, 22 species, 7 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of apothecia]

Wirth, M. and Hale, M.E., Jr. 1963. The lichen family Graphidaceae in Mexico. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 36: 63-119. [21 Graphina species in key to family, 5 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of apothecia and spores]

Graphis (39)

Wirth, M. and Hale, M.E., Jr. 1978. Morden-Smithsonian expedition to Dominica: the lichens (Graphidaceae). Smithsonian Contributions in Botany 40: 1-64. [key, 27 species, 13 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of apothecia]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key to 25 named and 4 unnamed Florida species; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 109 pp. [key to 24 named and 4 unnamed species, some notes, some descriptions; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [key, 24 species, 19 still on list, descriptions]

Nakanishi, M. 1966. Taxonomical studies on the family Graphidaceae of Japan. Journal of Science of the Hiroshima University, series B. Div. 2 (Bot.), 11: 51-126. [key, 17 species, 7 on N. Am. list, descriptions, comparisons, drawings of spores and anatomy]

Wirth, M. and Hale, M.E., Jr. 1963. The lichen family Graphidaceae in Mexico. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 36: 63-119. [14 Graphis species in key to family, 5 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of apothecia and spores]

Egea, J.M. and Torrente, P. 1997. Graphis saxorum (lichenized Ascomycotina, Graphidaceae) a new species from California and Baja California. Bryologist 100: 207-209. [one species described and illustrated]

Graphium (1)

Alstrup, V. and Hawksworth, D.L. 1990. The lichenicolous fungi of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grönland., Bioscience 31: 1-90. [Graphium aphthosae newly described, in main key]

Guignardia [1]

Hoffmann, N. & Hafellner, J. 2000. Eine Revision der lichenicolen Arten der Sammelgattungen Guignardia und Physalospora. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 77, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 190 pp. [world key to lichenicolous pyrenomycetes with hyaline, non-septate spores; drawings only of G. bidwellii]

Gyalecta (10)

Vezda, A. 1958. Ceskoslovenske druhy rodu Gyalecta a Pachyphiale s klicem a prehledem evropskych druhu. (Die tschechoslowakischen Gyalecta- und Pachyphiale-Arten nebst Bestimmungsschlüssel und Übersicht der europaischen Arten.). Sborn. Vyskoe Skoly Zemedelske a Lesnicke v Brne. Rada C: Spisy Fakul. Lesnicke 1958(1): 21-56. [key, 37 species, 9 on N. Am. list, spore drawings, in German]

Lettau, G. (1932-37). Monographische Bearbeitung einiger Flechtenfamilien. Repertorium specierum novarum regni vegetabilis, Beihefte 69: 1-150. [descriptions only of 33 species, 8 on N. Am. list]

Hansen, E.S., Poelt, J. and Vezda, A. 1987. The lichen genera Gyalecta, Gyalidea and Sagiolechia in Greenland. Herzogia 7: 367-374. [6 species, all on N. Am. list, brief characterizations]

Gyalectidium (1)[2]

Santesson, R. 1952. Foliicolous lichens I. A revision of the taxonomy of the obligately foliicolous, lichenized fungi. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 12: 1-590. [key to 3 species, G. filicium on N. Am. list, description, drawing of thalli}

Buck, W.R. and Sérusiaux, E. 2000. Gyalectidium yahriae, sp. nov. (lichenized Ascomycetes, Gomphillaceae) from Florida and Papua New Guinea. Bryologist 103: 134-138. [description of one new species; SEM photographs of anatomy and morphology]

Lücking, R. 1997. Additions and Corrections to the Knowledge of the Foliicolous Lichen Flora of Costa Rica. The Family Gomphillaceae. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 65. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 109 pp. [3 species in overall key, 1 on N. Am. list, photograph of thallus]

Awasthi, D.D. 1991. A Key to the Microlichens of India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 40. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 340 pp. [key, 2 species, 1 on N. Am. list]

[Gyalectina]            (see Cryptolechia)

Gyalidea (3)

Vezda, A. 1966. Flechtensystematische Studien IV. Die Gattung Gyalidea. Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica 1: 311-340. [world key, 13 species, 3 in N. Am., descriptions, detailed drawings]

Vezda, A. and J. Poelt 1991. Die Flechtengattung Gyalidea Lett. ex Vezda (Solorinellaceae): Eine Übersicht mit Bestimmungsschlüssel. Nova Hedwigia 53: 99-113 [world key, 24 species, all N. Am. species in, but not described]

Hansen, E.S., Poelt, J. and Vezda, A. 1987. The lichen genera Gyalecta, Gyalidea and Sagiolechia in Greenland. Herzogia 7:367-374. [G. lecideopsis]

Gyalideopsis (5)

[the first two listings together cover all N. Am. species]

Vezda, A. 1979. Flechtensystematische Studien XI. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Familie Asterothyriaceae (Discolichenes). Folio Geobotanica Phytotaxonomica 14: 43-94. [key, 16 species, 3 on N. Am. list, fine illustrations]

Kalb, K. and Vezda, A. 1988. Neue oder bemerkenswerte Arten der Flechtenfamilie Gomphillaceae in der Neotropis. Bibliotheca Lichenographica 29. J. Cramer, Berlin, Berlin-Stuttgart. 80 pp. [key to 18 neotropical species, 3 on N. Am. list, G. vainioi and several non-N. Am. species described and illustrated]

James, P.W. 1975. The genus Gyalideopsis Vezda in Britain. Lichenologist 7: 155-161. [key, 3 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Noble, W. 1982. The lichens of the coastal Douglas-fir dry subzone of British Columbia. Ph.D. thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 942 pp. [reprinted version of Noble’s species treatments; G. piceicola as G. alnicola, description; available from Bruce McCune at Bruce.McCune@science.oregonstate.edu]

Gymnoderma (1)

Yoshimura, I. and Sharp, A.J. 1968. A revision of the genus Gymnoderma. American Journal of Botany 55: 635-640. [key, 3 species, 1 on N. Am. list, chemistry, drawings]

Thomson, J.W. 1967. The lichen genus Cladonia in North America. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 172 pp. [G. lineare as Cladonia, description, in overall key]

Gypsoplaca (1)

Timdal, E. 1990. Gypsoplacaceae and Gypsoplaca, a new family and genus of squamiform lichens. in Jahns, H.M. (ed.). Contributions to Lichenology in Honour of A. Henssen. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 38. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart, pp. 419-427. [monospecific, description, illustration]

Poelt, J. and Gärtner, G. 1992. Gypsoplaca macrophylla, eine Flechte winterkalter Halbwüsten in den Alpen. Herzogia 9: 229-237. [description, illustrations]

[Gyrophora]                      (see Umbilicaria)

Gyrostomum (1)

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [1 species, description]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens, Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [1 N. Am. species in generic key for Graphidaceae; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 109 pp. [1 N. Am. species in generic key for Graphidaceae; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Awasthi, D.D. 1991. A Key to the Microlichens of India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 40. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 340 pp. [1 species, 1 on N. Am. list, description]

Thor, G. 1995. Additional lichen records from Australia. 23. Three lichens new to Australia and a new locality for a Collema species. Australasian Lichenological Newsletter 37: 19-23. [Gyrostomum scyphuliferum]

 

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z Contents

   He     Ho     Hy

Haematomma (8)

Staiger, B. and Kalb, K. 1995. Haematomma-studien. I. Die Flechtengattung Haematomma. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 59. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart, pp. 1-198 [world monograph; key in English, 35 species; descriptions in German, spore drawings and color photographs of thalli; comparisons with Loxospora and Ophioparma]

Culberson, W.L. 1963. A summary of the lichen genus Haematomma in North America. Bryologist 66: 224-236. [artificial key to 7 N. Am. species, including species now in Ophioparma and Loxospora, key to sections (now separate genera); 3 species in section Haematomma; notes]

Kalb, K., Hafellner, J. and Staiger, B. 1995. Haematomma-studien. II. Lichenicole Pilze auf Arten der Flechtengattung Haematomma. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 59. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. pp. 199-222. [key to 14 fungal parasites on Haematomma, descriptions of new species only]

Hafellia (4)

Sheard, J.W. 1992. The lichenized ascomycete genus Hafellia in North America. Bryologist 95: 79-87. [key, 5 species, 4 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of spores]

Marbach, B. 2000. Corticole und lignicole Arten der Flechtengattung Buellia sensu lato in den Subtropen und Tropen. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 74. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart, 384 pp. [key to 17 species of Hafellia, 3 on N. Am. list; detailed descriptions, drawings of anatomy for each species]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [3 N. Am species in key to Buellia; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Hafellnera (1) [recently transferred to Schaereria]

Clauzade, G. and Roux, C. 1985. Likenoj de Okcidenta Europo. Ilustrita Determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Botanique du Centre-Ouest, Nouvelle Série, Numéro Spécial 7. Royan, France. 893 pp. [monospecific genus in key to genera of Lecidea s. lat., detailed descriptions and anatomical drawings]

Lumbsch, H.T. 1997. Systematic studies in the suborder Agyriineae (Lecanorales). Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 83: 1-73. [puts the genus back into Schaereria]

Halecania (2)

[see also keys to Lecania written before 1989]

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W., and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [key, 5 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, spore drawing; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Fryday, A.M. and Coppins, B.J. 1996. Three new species in the Catillariaceae from the central highlands of Scotland. Lichenologist 28: 507-512. [key to 8 British species of Helecania, 2 on N. Am. list]

Mayrhofer, M. 1987. Studien über die saxicolen Arten der Flechtengattung Lecania in Europa. Herzogia 7: 381-406. [Halecania a new genus; key 6 species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations, H. alpivaga]

Coppins, B.J. 1989. On some species of Catillaria s. lat. and Halecania in the British Isles. Lichenologist 21: 217-227. [H. viridescens a new species, description, illustrations]

Tønsberg, T. 1992. The sorediate and isidiate, corticolous, crustose lichens in Norway. Sommerfeltia 14: 1-331. [overall key, H. viridescens, detailed description]

Harpidium [1]

Schultz, M., Printzen, C. and Scheidegger, C. 2001 ("2000"). Harpidium nashii sp. nov., a new species and a genus new to North America. Bryologist 103: 802-805. [1 species; photographs of anatomy and morphology]

Hassea (1)

Hasse, H.E. 1913. The lichen flora of southern California. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 17: 1-132. [series of nested natural keys, monospecific (?) genus, 1 species described]

Hawksworthiana (1)

Hawksworth, D.L. 1980. Notes on British lichenicolous fungi: III. Notes from the Royal Botanical Garden, Edinburgh 38: 165-183. [description and illustration of H. peltigericola as Ramularia]

Braun, U. 1995. A monograph of Cercosporella, Ramularia, and allied genera (phytopathogenic hyphomycetes), Vol. 1, IHW-Verlag, Eching bei München. 333 pp. [monospecific genus in key to genera, description, illustration.]

Helminthocarpon (1)

Awasthi, D.D. and Joshi, M. 1979. The lichen genera Helminthocarpon, Cyclographa, and Cyclographina (gen. nov.). Norwegian Journal of Botany 26: 165-177. [revision, 2 species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations ]

Rogers, R.W. 1980. The Genera of Australian Lichens (Lichenized Fungi). University of Queensland Press, St. Lucia, London, New York. 124 pp. [key to genera, description of genus]

Helocarpon (1)

Lowe, J.L. 1939. The genus Lecidea in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. Lloydia 2: 225-304. [in key as Lecidea crassipes, description]

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W., and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [in key to Micarea as M. crassipes; description; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm ]

Heppia (3)[4]

Büdel, M., Schultz, M., and Nash, T.H., III. 2002. Heppia. In Nash, T.H., III, Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., and Bungartz, F. (eds.). Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, pp. 204-207. [key to all 4 species on N. Am. list; full species and generic descriptions]

Henssen, A. 1994. Contribution to the morphology and species delimitation in Heppia sensu stricto (lichenized Ascomycotina). In: Stenroos, S. (ed.) Focus on Lichen Taxonomy and Biogeography: A Festschrift in Honour of Teuvo Ahti. Acta Botanica Fennica, 150, Finnish Botanical Publishing Board, Helsinki, pp. 57-73. [world key, 6 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations; resurrects H. adglutinata and H. conchiloba]

Wetmore, C.M. 1971 ("1970"). The lichen family Heppiaceae in North America. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 57: 158-209. [H. euploca only in overall key of 13 species, descriptions, photographs of thalli; includes H. adglutinata and H. conchiloba in concept of H. lutosa]

[Herpothallon]                   (see Cryptothecia)

Herteliana (1)

Ekman, S. 1996. The corticolous and lignicolous species of Bacidia and Bacidina in North America. Opera Botanica 127: 1-148. [H. alaskensis, description p. 127, generic comparison p. 40]

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W., and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [description of genus, no species on N. Am. list; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Heterocarpon (1)

Harada, H. 1991. Heterocarpon Müll. Arg., an overlooked lichenicolous genus. Systema Ascomycetum 10: 1-6. [H. ochroleucum in monospecific genus, description, illustrations]

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [treated incorrectly as a lichen, description]

Heterocyphelium (1)

Tibell, L. 1987. Australasian Caliciales. Symbolae Botanicae Upsaliensis 27(1): 1-279. [monospecific genus, full description, fine illustration]

Tibell, L. 1996. Caliciales. Flora Neotropica, 69, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 78 pp. [monospecific genus, description, photograph of habitus]

Tibell, L. 1984. A reappraisal of the taxonomy of Caliciales. In: H. Hertel and F. Oberwinkler (eds.). Beiträge zur Lichenologie. Festschrift J. Poelt. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia 79. J. Cramer, Vaduz pp. 597-713. [description of monospecific genus]

Heterodermia (26)[28]

Culberson, W.L. 1966. Chemistry and taxonomy of the lichen genera Heterodermia and Anaptychia in the Carolinas. Bryologist 69: 472-487. [key, 14 species, all still on N. Am. list, chemistry and comparisons]

Kurokawa, S. 1962. A monograph of the genus Anaptychia. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 6: 1-115. [79 species in series of keys to Anaptychia in the broad sense, 19 species on N. Am. list of Heterodermia, descriptions, photographs and drawings; presently accepted generic delimitations do not follow Kurokawa’s infrageneric taxa]]

Moberg, R. and Nash, T.H., III. 1999. The genus Heterodermia in the Sonoran Desert. Bryologist 102: 1-14. [key, 18 species, 15 species on N. Am. list; descriptions, a few photographs of thalli]

Schramm, R. and Nash, T.H., III. (1999). Physciaceae: Heterodermia (subset Sonoran Desert?) {Online}. In: LIAS: A Global Information System for Lichenized and Non-Lichenized Ascomycetes. Botanische Staatssammlung München. Available: http://www.mycology.net//lias/index.cfm (under Physciaceae){accessed 1999 September 30}. [online interactive multiple-access key; also available in downloadable format; 18 species in key; probably based on Moberg and Nash, 1999]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 10 species; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, Bronx, New York 109 pp. [key, 10 species, H. crocea described as a new species; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Schumm, F. 2000. Hilfsschlüssel zu sorediösen, unterseits unberindeten Heterodermia-Arten (inkl. einiger soredienfreier, sonst habituell ähnlicher Arten, Flechten, Physciaceae). Mitteilungen der Mikroskopischen Arbeitsgemeinschaft Stuttgart 2000: 66-86. [detailed world key to the 30 sorediate species with an ecorticate lower surface; 14 on N. Am. list; an updated version (dated 2001 January 02) is available online as as a .pdf file at http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/schumm {accessed 2001 September 13}]

Schumm, F. 2001. Hilfsschlüssel zum Bestimmen der Arten der Gattung Heterodermia mit Podocarpa-Wuchsform {Online in .pdf format}. Available: http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/schumm {accessed 2001 September 13} [detailed world key to the 32 small shrubby species; 8 on N. Am. list]

Esslinger, T.L. and Bratt, C. 1998. The Heterodermia erinacea group in North America, and a remarkable new disjunct distribution. In: Glenn, M.G., Harris, R.C., Dirig, R. and Cole, M.S.(eds.). Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson. Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, New York pp. 25-36. [key to 3 ciliate small shrubby species, H. erinacea and H. namaquana on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/]

Trass, H. 1992. Synopsis of the lichen genus Heterodermia (Ascomycotina, Physciaceae sive Pyxinaceae). Folia Cryptogamic Estonica 29: 2-24. [world synopsis, comparative table for 81 species, 25 on N. Am. list]

Aptroot, A. 1987. Pyxinaceae (Lichens). Flora of the Guianas, Series E (Fungi and Lichens) 1: 1-59. [key, 12 species, 9 on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Swinscow, T. D. V. and H. Krog. 1976. The genera Anaptychia and Heterodermia in East Africa. Lichenologist 8: 103-138. [key, 25 species, 9 on N. Am. list, descriptions, a few illustrations]

Heteroplacidium (3)

Breuss, O. 1996. Ein verfeinertes Gliederungskonzept für Catapyrenium (lichenisierte Ascomyceten, Verrucariaceae) mit einem Schlüssel für die bisher bekannten Arten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 98 B Suppl.: 35-50. ["world" key to Catapyrenium in the broad sense and to its segregates; splits Catapyrenium, in the broad sense, into several genera; Heteroplacidium described as a new genus., 9 species, 3 on N. Am. list]

Breuss, O. and McCune, B. 1994. Additions to the pyrenolichen flora of North America. Bryologist 97: 365-370. [3 species in updated key to 18 species of N. Am. Catapyrenium, in the broad sense, descriptive notes, H. congestum]

Hobsonia (1)

Lowen, R., Brady, B.L., Hawksworth, D.L. and Paterson, R.R.M. 1986. Two new lichenicolous species of Hobsonia. Mycologia 78: 842-846. [descriptions and illustrations of both known lichenicolous species of this genus; H. christiansenii on N. Am. list]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [key, 2 species, H. christiansenii on N. Am. list]

Homostegia (2) [3]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [key, 3 species, 2 on N. Am. list, spore drawings]

Alstrup, V. and Cole, M.S. 1998. Lichenicolous fungi of British Columbia. Bryologist 101: 221-229. [Homostegia dermatocarpae described as a new species; illustration, comparisons]

Keissler, K. von. 1930. Die Flechtenparasiten. In Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 8: 1-712. [H. piggotii, description, illustrations]

Hubbsia (2)

Tehler, A., Lohtander, K., Myllys, L. and Sundin, R. 1997. On the identity of the genera Hubbsia and Reinkella (Roccellaceae). In: Tibell, L. and Hedberg, I. (eds.) Lichen Studies Dedicated to Rolf Santesson. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 32(1): 255-265. [world key 2 species, both on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations; key to fruticose genera in Roccellaceae]

Weber, W.A. 1965. Hubbsia, a new genus of Roccellaceae (Lichenized fungi) from Mexico. Svensk Botaniska Tidskrift 59: 59-64. [description of new genus and H. californica as H. lumbricoides, illustrations]

Tehler, A. 1990. A new approach to the phylogeny of Euascomycetes with a cladistic outline of Arthoniales focussing on Roccellaceae. Canadian Journal of Botany 68: 2458-2492. [contains a detailed description of H. californica]

Follmann, G. 1997. Hubbsia langei, a new Roccellaceae from the Atacama Desert, north Chile, and the identity of two Reinkella species. In: Kappen, L. (ed.). New Species and Novel Aspects in Ecology and Physiology of Lichens. In Honour of O. L. Lange. PP. 11-24. [H. parishii, description,, photograph of thallus, comparisons with H. california]

[Huilia]                              (see Porpidia, Amygdalaria)

Hydrothyria (1)

McCune, B. and Geiser, L. 1997. Macrolichens of the Pacific Northwest. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, 386 pp. [monospecific genus in key to genera, description of thallus, color photograph]

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [monospecific genus in keys to genera, description includes apothecia and spores]

Hymenelia (6)

[see also keys to Ionaspis]

Lutzoni, F.M. and Brodo, I.M. 1995. A generic redelimitation of the Ionaspis-Hymenelia complex (lichenized Ascomycotina). Systematic Botany 20: 224-258. [generic key to Aspicilia, Eiglera and newly redelimited Hymenelia and Ionaspis; descriptions of the last three genera, comparative tables]

Jørgensen, P.M. 1989. Notes on the lichen genus Ionaspis in Scandinavia. Graphis Scripta 2: 118-121. [key to 11 "Ionaspis" species, 5 of which now on N. Am. checklist as Hymenelia; brief but useful characterizations]

Magnusson, A. H. 1933. A monograph of the lichen genus Ionaspis. Meddelanden fran Göteborgs Botaniska Trädgard (Acta Horti Gotoburgensis (Gothoburgensis)) 8: 1-47. [difficult key, 17 "Ionaspis" species, 5 now on N. Am. list as Hymenelia, descriptions]

Thomson, J.W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens 2. The Microlichens. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 675 pp. [4 in key to "Ionaspis," descriptions]

Hyperphyscia (3)

Thomson, J.W. 1963. The lichen genus Physcia in North America. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 7: 1-172, 47 maps, 23 pl. [key , 3 species, 3 N. Am. species, as Physcia section Macrosperma; also in large artificial key to Physcia; descriptions, photographs of thalli]

Moore, B.J. 1968. The macrolichen flora of Florida. Bryologist 71: 161-266. [key, 3 N. Am. species as "Physcopsis", descriptions]

Hafellner, J., Mayrhofer, H. and Poelt, J. 1979. Die Gattungen der Flechtenfamilie Physciaceae. Herzogia 5: 39-79. [generic description and comparisons]

Hypocenomyce (7) [9] [10?]

[the first two references with either the third or the fourth cover all N. Am. species]

Timdal, E. 1984. The genus Hypocenomyce (Lecanorales, Lecideaceae), with special emphasis on the Norwegian and Swedish species. Nordic Journal of Botany 4: 83-108. [world key, 10 species, 6 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Timdal, E. 2002. Hypocenomyce. In Nash, T.H., III, Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., and Bungartz, F. (eds.). Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, pp. 223-228. [key to 8 species on N. Am. list; full species and generic descriptions; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/PublicationsforSale.htm]

Lisická, E. 1995. Die Flechtengattung Hypocenomyce (Ascomycotina, Lecideaceae) in der Slowakei. Preslia 67: 123-130. [key, 5 species, 4 on N. Am. list; descriptions; treats H. leucococca]

Moberg, R. 1986. Lichenes selecti exsiccati upsaliensis Fasc. 1. Thunbergia 2: 3. [H. leucococca newly described]

Timdal, E. 2001. Hypocenomyce oligospora and H. sierrae, two new lichen species. Mycotaxon 77: 445-453. [descriptions, comparative table, photographs of thalli]

Hypogymnia (23) [25]

Goward, T. 1988. Hypogymnia oceanica, a new lichen (Ascomycotina) from the Pacific Northwest of North America. Bryologist 91: 229-232. [key to 18 N. Am. species]

Ohlsson, K.E. 1973. New and interesting macrolichens of British Columbia. Bryologist 76: 366-387. [key to 14 N. Am. species, chemistry, brief characterizations]

McCune, B. 2002. Hypogymnia. In Nash, T.H., III, Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., and Bungartz, F. (eds.). Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, pp. 229-238. [key to 12 species, 11 on N. Am. list; new species: H. gracilis, H. schizidiata (drawings); full species and generic descriptions; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/PublicationsforSale.htm]

Goward, T. and B. McCune. 1993. Hypogymnia apinnata sp. nov., a new lichen (Ascomycotina) from the Pacific Northwest of North America. Bryologist 96: 450-453. [description, photographs of thallus]

Elix, J. A. 1979. A taxonomic revision of the lichen genus Hypogymnia in Australasia. Brunonia 2: 175-245. [key to 11 species, 4 in N. Am., descriptions, illustrations, H. subphysodes, H. lugubris, H. pulverata treated]

Pike, L.H. and Hale, M.E., Jr. 1982. Three new species of Hypogymnia from western North America (Lichenes: Hypogymniaceae). Mycotaxon 16: 157-161. [H. occidentalis, H. mollis, H. heterophylla, descriptions, photographs of thalli]

Brodo, I.M. 1989. Hypogymnia pulverata, new to North America. Lichenologist 21: 184-186. [description]

Hasse, H.E. 1913. The lichen flora of southern California. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 17: 1-132. [H. subcapitata in key to Parmelia, brief description]

Hypotrachyna (26) [29]

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1975. A revision of the lichen genus Hypotrachyna (Parmeliaceae) in tropical America. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 25: 1-73. [key, 77 species, 21 on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs of thalli]

Hale, M.E., Jr. and Kurokawa, S. 1964. Studies on Parmelia subgenus Parmelia. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 36: 121-191. [23 N. Am. species in world key to Parmelia section Hypotrachyna (about 80 taxa)]

Groner, U. and Dietrich, M. 1996. Hypotrachyna taylorensis (Parmeliaceae) a European species in the New World. Bryologist 99: 457-459. [description, illustrations]

McCune, B. 1998. Hypotrachyna riparia, a new lichen from western North America. Bryologist 101: 448-450. [description, illustration]

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1972. Parmelia pustulifera, a new lichen from the southeastern United States. Brittonia 24: 22-27. [H. pustulifera described and illustrated]

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1976. Hypotrachyna showmanii, a new lichen from eastern North America. Bryologist 79: 78-80. [description and illustration]

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z Contents

Icmadophila (1)

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W. and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [genus in overall key, genus and species described in detail; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Frey, E. 1933. Cladoniaceae (unter Ausschluss der Gattung Cladonia), Umbilicariaceae. In Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 9, 4(1): 1-426. [extensive description, illustrations ]

Gierl, C. and Kalb, K. 1993. Die Flechtengattung Dibaeis. Eine Übersicht über die rosafrüchtigen Arten von Baeomyces sens. lat. nebst Anmerkungen zu Phyllobaeis gen. nov. Herzogia 9: 593-645. [generic comparisons, ontogeny, ascus illustration]

Ihlen, P.G. 1998. The lichenicolous fungi on species of the genera Baeomyces, Dibaeis, and Icmadophila in Norway. Lichenologist 30: 27-57. [key, 19 lichenicolous species, descriptions, illustrations]

Illosporium (1)

Hawksworth, D.L. 1979. The lichenicolous Hyphomycetes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 6: 183-300. [key, 2 species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Immersaria (2)

Calatayud, V. and Rambold, G. 1998. Two new species of the lichen genus Immersaria (Porpidiaceae). Lichenologist 30: 231-244. [table compares 6 known species, 2 on N. Am. list; new delimitation of genus and comparison with Bellemerea]

Rambold, G. 1989. A monograph of the saxicolous lecideoid lichens of Australia (excl. Tasmania). Bibliotheca Lichenologica 34. J. Cramer, Berlin. 345 pp. [new genus, I. athroocarpa, description]

Thomson, J.W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens 2. The Microlichens. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 675 pp. [I. carbonoidea in key to Lecidea, description]

Thomson, J.W. 1972. Two new species of Lecidea and one of Lecanora from the north slope of Alaska. Bryologist 75: 354-359. [I. carbonoidea as a Lecidea, description, photographs of thalli]

Imshaugia (2)

[see also keys to Parmeliopsis written before 1985]

Hinds, J.W. 1999. Lichen flora of eastern North America: the genera Parmeliopsis and Imshaugia. Mycotaxon 72: 271-278. [key, 2 species plus 4 in Parmeliopsis, all in N. Am., descriptions, photographs of thalli; comparisons, range maps, history of genus]

Meyer, S.L.F. 1982. Segregation of the new lichen genus Foraminella from Parmeliopsis. Mycologia 74: 592-598. [treats 2 species now in Imshaugia as Parmeliopsis; table compares the 2 species and with 3 species now in Parmeliopsis but treated here as Foraminella drawings of spores and conidia]

Meyer, S.L.F. 1985. The new lichen genus Imshaugia (Ascomycotina, Parmeliaceae). Mycologia 77: 336-338. [description of genus, separation from Parmeliopsis]

Involucropyrenium (1)

Breuss, O. 1996. Ein verfeinertes Gliederungskonzept für Catapyrenium (lichenisierte Ascomyceten, Verrucariaceae) mit einem Schlüssel für die bisher bekannten Arten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 98 B Suppl.: 35-50. ["world" key to Catapyrenium in the broad sense and to its segregates; splits Catapyrenium in the broad sense into several genera, Involucropyrenium described as a new genus; 4 species, 1 on N. Am. list]

Breuss, O. and McCune, B. 1994. Additions to the pyrenolichen flora of North America. Bryologist 97: 365-370. [I. waltheri in updated key to 18 species of N. Am. Catapyrenium, in the broad sense, descriptive note]

Breuss, O. 1990. Die Flechtengattung Catapyrenium (Verrucariaceae) in Europa. Stapfia 23: 1-153. [I. waltheri described and in key to 27 species of Catapyrenium in the broad sense, photograph]

Ionaspis (6)

[see also keys to Hymenelia]

Lutzoni, F.M. and Brodo, I.M. 1995. A generic redelimitation of the Ionaspis-Hymenelia complex (lichenized Ascomycotina). Systematic Botany 20: 224-258. [generic key to Aspicilia, Eiglera and newly redelimited Hymenelia and Ionaspis; descriptions of the last three genera, comparative tables]

Jørgensen, P.M. 1989. Notes on the lichen genus Ionaspis in Scandinavia. Graphis Scripta 2: 118-121. [key to 11 "Ionaspis" species, 3 on N. Am. list as Ionaspis; brief but useful characterizations]

Lutzoni, F. M. 1994. Ionaspis alba (Ascomycotina, Hymeneliaceae), a new lichen species from eastern North America. Bryologist 97: 393-395. [description, photograph]

Magnusson, A. H. 1933. A monograph of the lichen genus Ionaspis. Meddelanden fran Göteborgs Botaniska Trädgard (Acta Horti Gotoburgensis (Gothoburgensis)) 8: 1-47. [difficult key, 17 "Ionaspis" species, 4 on N. Am. list as Ionaspis, descriptions]

 

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z Contents

Japewia (3)

[see also keys to Lecidea written before 1990 and some since]

Tønsberg, T. 1990. Japewia subaurifera, a new lichen genus and species from north-west Europe and western North America. Lichenologist 22: 205-212. [key, 3 species, 3 on N. Am. list, table compares species, J. subaurifera described; illustrations]

Jarxia (2)

Hawksworth, D.L. 1989. Jarxia, a new genus of Didymosphaeria-like fungi from the West Indies. Studies in Mycology 31: 93-97. [description genus and of J. thelenula; drawings of anatomy]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 2 N. Am. species, J. ilicicola described; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Julella (9)

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [world key, 14 named and 4 unnamed species; 9 N. Am. species, 3 of which newly described; notes; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Aptroot, A. van den Boom, P.P.G. 1995. Strigula lateralis sp. nov. with notes on the genus Julella (Ascomycetes). Mycotaxon 56: 1-8. [world key, 3 corticolous species of Julella, all found on N. Am. list; a "lumping" treatment]

Barr, M.E. 1990. Some dictyosporous genera and species of Pleosporales in North America. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 62: 1-92. [key, 2 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions of J. lactea and J. vitrispora, drawings of anatomy; description of genus and history of generic names ]

 

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z Contents

Kaernefeltia (2)

Thell, A. and Goward, T. 1996. The new cetrarioid genus Kaernefeltia and related groups in the Parmeliaceae (lichenized Ascomycotina). Bryologist 99: 125-136. [2 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations; generic comparison table]

Kärnefelt, I. 1986. The genera Bryocaulon, Coelocaulon and Cornicularia and formerly associated taxa. Opera Botanica 86: 1-90. [both N. Am. species in key as Cetraria, both described, detailed illustrations]

Karschia (1)

Triebel, D., Rambold, G. and Nash, T.H., III. 1991. On lichenicolous fungi from continental North America. Mycotaxon 42: 263-296. [K. inops, description]

Hafellner, J. 1979. Karschia. Revision einer Sammelgattung an der Grenze von lichenisierten und nichlichenisierten Ascomyceten. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia 62: 1-248. [world monograph of Karschia in the broad sense, with keys; 2 species of Karschia in the strict sense, none on N. Am. list, many segregate genera, descriptions, drawings; note that several more species or Karschia are now known]

[Kiliasia]                           (see Toninia)

Koerberia (2)

Henssen, A. 1963. A study of the genus Koerberia. Canadian Journal of Botany 41: 1347-1357. [key, 2 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations of thalli and anatomy]

Henssen, A. 1963. The North American species of Massalongia and generic relationships. Canadian Journal of Botany 41: 1331-1346. [keys to similar genera in sterile and fertile states]

Koerberiella (1)

Brodo, I.M. 1995. Koerberiella (Porpidiaceae, Ascomycotina), a new genus of lichens for North America. Bryologist 98: 609-611. [K. wimmeriana described, illustrations of morphotypes, characterization of genus]

Rambold, G., Hertel, H. and Triebel, D. 1990. Koerberiella wimmeriana (Lecanorales, Porpidiaceae) and its lichenicolous fungi. Lichenologist 22: 225-240. [monospecific genus described, comparative table for similar genera]

Kohlmeyera (1)

Kohlmeyer, J. and Kohlmeyer, E. 1979. Marine mycology: The higher fungi (pp. 74-78; 360-366). Academic Press, New York. 690 pp. [key to 2 species of Turgidosculum, K. complicatula as T. complicatulum, description, illustrations]

Schatz, S. 1980. Taxonomic revision of two pyrenomycetes associated with littoral-marine green algae. Mycologia 72: 110-117. [description of monospecific genus and of K. complicatula, illustration; Turgidosculum also described and illustrated]

Galloway, D.J. 1985. Flora of New Zealand Lichens. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer, Wellington. lxxiii + 662 pp. [K. complicatula as Turgidosculum complicatulum, description]

Brodo, I.M. 1977 ("1976"). Lichenes Canadenses Exsiccati: Fascicle II. Bryologist 79: 385-405. [descriptive and taxonomic note on K. complicatula as Mastodia tessellata, illustrations]

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z Contents

   Le     Lecanora     Lecidea     Lep     Let     Li     Lo

Laeviomyces (1) [2]

Cole, M.S. and Hawksworth, D.L. 2001. Lichenicolous fungi, mainly from the USA, including Patriciomyces gen. nov. [world key, 4 species, 2 on N. Am. list; L. lecanoricola newly described and illustrated]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1981. The lichenicolous Coelomycetes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 9: 1-98. [Laeviomyces described as a new genus; 2 species, L. pertusariicola on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings]

[Lahmia]           (see Arthrorhaphis)

Lasallia (3)

Llano, G.A. 1950. A monograph of the lichen family Umbilicar1aceae in the western hemisphere. Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 281 pp. [key for Western Hemisphere, 4 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions, some illustrations]

Wei, J. and Jiang, Y. 1993. The Asian Umbilicariaceae. Mycosystema Monographicum Series No. 1, International Academic Publishers, Beijing. 217 pp. [key, 10 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Llano, G.A. 1965. Review of Umbilicaria Hoffm., and of the Lasallias. Hvalradets Skrifter, Scientific Results of Marine Research 48: 112-124. [discussion of variability within species of Lasallia]

Lauderlindsaya (1)

David, J.C. and Hawksworth, D.L. 1989. Lauderlindsaya, a new genus in the Verrucariales for Sphaerulina chlorococca (Leighton) R. Santesson. Sydowia 41: 108-121. [description and illustrations for L. borreri, newly named genus and species]

Hensson, A. 1976. Studies in the developmental morphology of lichenized ascomycetes. In Brown, D.H., Hawksworth, D.L. and Bailey, R.H. (eds.). Lichenology: Progress and Problems. Academic Press, London, pp. 107-138. [as Sphaerulina chlorococca: development, structure, taxonomy; illustrations]

Diederich, P. Sérusiaux, E. 1993. A nomenclatural note on Lauderlindsaya (Ascomycotina, Verrucariales). Lichenologist 25: 97-100. [taxonomic history of 3 species, expresses view that L. borreri is a parasite on Normandina]

Laurera (2)

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 2 N. Am. species; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 109 pp. [key, 3 N. Am. species, 1 now transferred; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Letrouit-Galinou, M-A. 1957. Revision monographique du genre Laurera (Lichens, Trypéthéliacées). Révue Bryologique et Lichénologique 26: 207-264. [world key, 24 species, L. megasperma on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of thalli and anatomy]

Makhija, U. and Patwardhan, P.G. 1988. The lichen genus Laurera (family Trypetheliaceae) in India. Mycotaxon 31: 565-590. [key, 17 species, many new, L. megasperma on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of stroma anatomy and of spores]

Upreti, D.K. and Singh, A. 1987. Lichen genus Laurera from the Indian subcontinent. Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique 57: 367-383. [key, 10 species, L. megasperma on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of thalli]]

Lecanactis (4)

Egea, J.M. and Torrente, P. 1994. El Género de Hongos Liquenizados Lecanactis (Ascomycotina). Bibliotheca Lichenologica 54.J. Cramer, Berlin and Stuttgart. 205 pp. [worldwide key to 23 species, 4 on N. Am. list, descriptions, some illustrations, key to genera similar to Lecanactis]

Lecania (25)

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [key, 12 species, 10 still on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Mayrhofer, M. 1988. Studien über die saxicolen Arten der Flechtengattung Lecania in Europa II. Lecania s. str. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 28. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 133 pp. [key, 19 species, 4 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of anatomy]

Noble, W. 1982. The lichens of the coastal Douglas-fir dry subzone of British Columbia. Ph.D. thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Part II reprinted and updated in 1997, 238 pp. [reprinted version of Noble’s species treatments; key, 5 N. Am. species, descriptions; available from Bruce McCune at Bruce.McCune@science.oregonstate.edu]

van den Boom, P.P.G. 1992. The saxicolous species of the lichen genus Lecania in the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxemburg. Nova Hedwigia 54(1-2): 229-254. [key to 11 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Magnusson, A.H. 1952. Lichens from Torne Lappmark. Arkiv för Botanik, Series II, 2: 45-249. [key, 10 Arctic species, 4 of Lecania in the strict sense on the N. Am. list, a few transferred]

Hasse, H.E. 1914. Additions to the lichen flora of Southern California, No. 9. Bryologist 17: 61-63. [description of L. hassei, as Placolecania]

Tavares, I. 1997. Lecania cyathiformis, a forgotten California lichen. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society. 4(1): 11. [L. cyathiformis, spores are 4-celled]]

Nylander, W. 1884. Lichenes novi e Freto Behringii. Flora (Regensburg) 1884: 211-223. [description in Latin of L. disceptans as Lecanora on p. 212]

Ekman, S. 1996. The corticolous and lignicolous species of Bacidia and Bacidina in North America. Opera Botanica 127: 1-148. [descriptive notes on L. naegelii, L. stigmatella, L. subfuscula--all transferred from Bacidia]

Lecanographa (5)

Egea, J.M. and Torrente, P. 1994. El Género de Hongos Liquenizados Lecanactis (Ascomycotina). Bibliotheca Lichenologica 54. J. Cramer, Berlin and Stuttgart. 205 pp. [worldwide key to 24 species of Lecanographa, 5 on N. Am. list, descriptions, few illustrations; key to genera that are similar to Lecanactis]

Lecanora (178)

[At the present time the genus broadly includes crustose lichens with simple hyaline spores, thalline apothecial margins, and Lecanora-type asci (except for Rhizoplaca and Protoparmelia). There are no papers devoted specifically to the L. polytropa group (saxicolous species containg usnic acid but lacking atraonorin). For these and for Lecanora in the broad sense, consult regional floras.]

[Lecanora strictly defined:]

Brodo, I.M. 1984. The North American species of the Lecanora subfusca group. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 79: 63-186.[subfusca group in the narrow sense: containing atranorin, having crystals in the margins of the apothecia, lacking dense pruina on the disks] [key, 35 N. Am. species; descriptions, illustrations]

Lumbsch, T.H. and Guderley, R. (no date). Lecanoraceae: Lecanora (subset L. subfusca group) {Online}. In: LIAS: A Global Information System for Lichenized and Non-Lichenized Ascomycetes. Botanische Staatssammlung München. Available: http://www.mycology.net//lias/index.cfm {accessed 1999 September 30}. [subfusca group, pallida/subcarnea group, rupicola group, plus others not in N. America] [online interactive multiple-access world key to Lecanora in the strict sense; 193 taxa, N. Am. species not counted, but 71 taxa were returned under the character state "North America"]

Poelt, J. and Vezda, A. 1981. Bestimmungsschlüssel europäischer Flechten. Ergänzungsheft II. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 16. J. Cramer, Valduz. 390 pp. [subfusca-group in the broad sense] [detailed key, about 50 species, about 30 on N. Am. list]

Guderley, R. 1999. Die Lecanora subfusca-Gruppe in Süd- und Mittelamerika. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 87: 131-257. [subfusca-group] [key to 60 species, 6 of which lack names; 13 on N. Am. list; descriptions and photographs of each]

Brodo, I.M. Owe-Larsson, B. Lumbsch, H.T. 1994. The sorediate, saxicolous species of the Lecanora subfusca group in Europe. Nordic Journal of Botany 14: 451-461. [sorediate species of subfusca-group] [key, 4 species treated plus other sorediate species in key, 2 on N. Am. list, but more possible, descriptions, photographs]

Harris, R.C., Brodo, I.M. and Tønsberg, T. 2000. Lecanora thysanophora, a common leprose lichen in eastern North America. Bryologist 103: 790-793. [sorediate species of subfusca-group] [1 new species; photograph of thallus; range map]

Lumbsch, H.T., Plümper, M., Guderley, R. and Feige, G.B. 1997. The corticolous species of Lecanora sensu stricto with pruinose apothecial discs. In: Tibell, L. and Hedberg, I. (eds.) Lichen Studies Dedicated to Rolf Santesson. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 32(1): 131-161. [pallida (albella) group and carpinea group] [world key, 12 species with strongly pruinose apothecia, 5 on N. Am. list, descriptions, comparisons, photos]

Imshaug, H.A. and Brodo, I.M. 1966. Biosystematic studies on Lecanora pallida and some related lichens in the Americas. Nova Hedwigia 12: 1-59. [pallida (albella) group] [key, 6 N. Am. species with strongly pruinose apothecia, descriptions]

[Lecanora dispersa group]

Poelt, J., Leuckert, C. and Roux, C. 1995. Die Arten der Lecanora dispersa-Gruppe (Lichenes, Lecanoraceae) auf kalkreichen Gesteinen im Bereich der Ostalpen -- Eine Vorstudie. In: Farkas, E.E., Lücking, R. and Wirth, V. (eds.). Scripta Lichenologica--Lichenological Papers Dedicated to Antonín Vezda. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 58. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart, pp. 289-333. [key, 11 species, 4 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations; English translation available from I.M. Brodo at ibrodo@mus-nature.ca ]

[Lecanora varia group, in the wide sense, including the symmicta- and expallens-group]

Sliwa, L and Wetmore, C.L. 2000. Notes on the Lecanora varia group in North America. Bryologist 103: 475-492. [key to 15 N. Am. species and species groups]

Printzen, C. 2001. Corticolous and lignicolous species of Lecanora (Lecanoraceae, Lecanorales) with usnic or isousnic acid in the Sonoran Desert Region. Bryologist 104: 382-409. [key to 17 species, 15 in N. Am.; detailed descriptions, comparisons, photographs of habitus and apothecial anatomy]

Lecanora in the broad sense

Lumbsch, H.T. and Brodo, I.M. 2000. Preliminary key to Lecanora species likely to occur in New England [online]. Farlow Herbarium, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Available: http://www.huh.harvard.edu/collections/lichens/Lecanora_New_England.html {accesed 2001 September 14} [key to 64 species]

La Greca, S. and Lumbsch, H.T. 2001. Three species of Lecanora new to North America, with notes on other poorly known lecanoroid lichens. Bryologist 104: 204-211. [5 species, characterizations and comparisons; photographs of thalli]

[Lecanora subgenus Placodium]

Poelt, J. 1958. Die lobaten Arten der Flechtengattung Lecanora Ach. sensu ampl. in der Holarktis. Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München 2(19-20): 411-589. [overall key; key to and within subgroups, about 90 species in various modern genera, about 15 on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Ryan, B.D. and Nash, T.H., III. 1997. Placodioid taxa of Lecanoraceae sensu Zahlbr. (lichenized Ascomycotina) in North America: taxa excluded from Lecanora subg. Placodium. Nova Hedwigia 64(3-4): 393-420. [key to genera and groups similar to L. subgenus Placodium, taxonomic discussions of each]

Ryan, B.D. 1989. A monograph of Lecanora subgen. Placodium sect. Endochloris (lichenized Ascomycotina). Bryologist 92: 513-522. [world key, 4 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs of thalli]

Weber, W.A. 1975. Two new species of Lecanora, Section Petrasterion, with a key to North American species. Bryologist 78: 206-210. [key, 6 N. Am. species, 5 still on list, descriptions and photographs of L. phaedrophthalma (as L. christoi) and of L. mellea]

Ryan, B.D. 1998. A monograph of Lecanora subgen. Placodium sect. Arctoxanthae (lichenized Ascomycotina). In: Glenn, M.G., Harris, R.C., Dirig, R., and Cole, M.S. (eds.): Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson. Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, New York pp. 105-131. [key, 3 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/]

Ryan, B.D. and Nash, T.H., III. 1993. Lecanora sect. Placodium (Lichenized Ascomycotina) in North America: Lecanora mazatzalensis Ryan and Nash, sp. nov., and Lecanora laatokkaensis (Räsänen) Poelt. Cryptogamic Botany 3: 264-269. [2 species treated; descriptions, photographs of thalli]

Ryan, B.D. and Nash, T.H., III. 1993. Lecanora section Placodium (lichenized Ascomycotina) in North America: new taxa in the L. garovaglii group. Bryologist 96: 288-298. [key to L. garovaglii group, 3 species, descriptions, illustrations]

[Lecanoropsis]            (see Lecanora)

Lecidea (137)

[the genera of lecideoid lichens)

Clauzade, G. and Roux, C. 1985. Likenoj de Okcidenta Europo. Ilustrita Determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Botanique du Centre-Ouest, Nouvelle Série, Numéro Spécial 7. Royan, France. 893 pp. [key to the lecideoid genera on p. 436]

Rambold, G. 1989. A monograph of the saxicolous lecideoid lichens of Australia (excl. Tasmania). Bibliotheca Lichenologica 34. J. Cramer, Berlin. 345 pp. [key to the lecideoid genera; illustrations of ascus types and apothecial structure]

Hertel, H. and Rambold, G. 1985. Lecidea sect. Armeniacae: lecideoide Arten der Flechtengattungen Lecanora und Tephromela (Lecanorales). Botanische Jahrbücher für systematik Pflanzengeschichte und flanzengeographie 107: 469-501. [discusses generic characters; illustrations of asci and anatomy ]

[Lecidea in the broad sense]

Magnusson, A.H. 1935 ("1936"). On saxicolous species of the genus Lecidea proper to North America. Meddelanden fran Göteborgs Botaniska Trädgard (Acta Horti Gotoburgensis (Gothoburgensis))10: 1-52. [key, 50 lecideoid species, many now in other genera, 38 species on N. Am. list of Lecidea, descriptions, drawings of thalli or apothecial anatomy]

Lowe, J.L. 1939. The genus Lecidea in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. Lloydia 2: 225-304. [key, 88 lecideoid species, most now in other genera, about 30 on N. Am. list of Lecidea, descriptions]

Anderson, R.A. 1964. The genus Lecidea (Lichenized Fungi) in f Mountain National Park, Colorado. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Colorado, Boulder. 209 pp. [key, 51 lecideoid species, most now in other genera, 7 on N. Am. list of Lecidea, descriptions; available from UMI Dissertation Services at http://www.umi.com/hp/Support/DExplorer/ dissertation number 6504174]

Magnusson, A.H. 1952. Key to the species of Lecidea in Scandinavia and Finland I. Saxicolous species. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 46: 178-198. [key, 235 lecideoid species, , most now in other genera, about 30 species on N. Am. list of Lecidea]

Magnusson, A.H. 1952. Lichens from Torne Lappmark. Arkiv för Botanik, Series II, 2: 45-249. [key, about 180 northern Scandinavian lecideoid species, most now in other genera, about 20 species on N. Am. list of Lecidea]

Hertel, H. 1975. Ein vorläufiger Bestimmungsschlüssel fur die kryptothallinen, schwarzfrüchtigen, saxicolen Arten der Sammelgattung Lecidea (Lichenes) in der Holarktis. Decheniana 127: 37-78. [key, 61 lecideoid species, about 13 still in Lecidea in the strict sense on N. Am. list]

Wong, P.Y. and Brodo, I.M. 1992. The Lichens of Southern Ontario, Canada. Syllogeus, 69, Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa. 79 pp. [key, 21 lecideoid species, 10 species on the N. am. N. Am. list of Lecidea; available from the publisher at http://nature.ca/prodserv/cat/product_e.cfm?ID=258&Browse=Scientific%20Publication&searchText=]

Thomson, J.W., Scotter, G.W. and Ahti, T. 1969. Lichens of the Great Slave Lake Region, Northwest Territories, Canada. Bryologist 72: 137-177. [key, 38 lecideoid species, most now in other genera, 9 on N. Am list for Lecidea]

Lynge, B. 1940. Lichens of North East Greenland. II. Microlichens. Skrifter om Svalbard og Ishavet 81: 1-143. [key (in Latin), 52 species of Lecidea in the broadest sense, most now in other genera, about 10 on N. Am. list of Lecidea, notes, some descriptions (in Latin)]

Vainio, E.A. 1934. Lichenographia Fennica IV. Lecideales II. Acta Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica 57(2): 1-532. [key to 222 lecideoid species; only a few percent in Lecidea in the strict sense. (not compared with. N. Am. list), descriptions, in Latin]

Inoue, M. 1982. The genera Lecidea, Lecidella and Huilia (Lichens) in Japan. 1. Lecidea. Journal of Science of the Hiroshima University, Series B, Div. 2 (Botany), 18: 1-55. [key, 17 species, 9 species in the strict sense, on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Rambold, G. 1989. A monograph of the saxicolous lecideoid lichens of Australia (excl. Tasmania). Bibliotheca Lichenologica 34. J. Cramer, Berlin. 345 pp. [key to 64 lecideoid species, 16 in Lecidea in the strict sense, 5 on N. Am. list of Lecidea, descriptions]

Schwab, A.J. 1986. Rostfarbene Arten der Sammelgattung Lecidea (Lecanorales). Revision der Arten Mittel-und Nordeuropas. Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München 22: 221-476. [key, 17 lecideoid species with rusty thalli, 6 species, on N. Am. list of Lecidea, descriptions, drawings of anatomy]

Hertel, H. 1984. Über saxicole, lecideoide Flechten der Subantarktis. In: H. Hertel and F. Oberwinkler (eds.). Beiträge zur Lichenologie. Festschrift J. Poelt. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia 79. J. Cramer, Vaduz pp. 399-499. [key, 84 lecideoid species, only 14 of which in northern hemisphere, 3 Lecidea in the strict sense on N. Am. list; emended diagnosis of genus]

Hertel, H. 1967. Revision einiger calciphiler Formenkreise der Flechtengattung Lecidea. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 24: 1-155. [3 N. Am. Lecidea species in key to about 30 species of Lecidea in the strict sense, descriptions, some illustrations]

Magnusson, A.H. 1952. Key to the species of Lecidea in Scandinavia and Finland. II. Non-saxicolous species. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 46: 313-323. [key, about 125 species of Lecidea in the broadest sense, most now in other genera, only a handful on N. Am. list of Lecidea]

Hertel, H. 1977. Gesteinsbewohnende Arten der Sammelgattung Lecidea (Lichenes) aus Zentral-, Ost- und Sudasien. In: Hellmich, W. (ed.). Khumbu Himal; Ergebnisse des Froschungsunternehmens Nepal Himalaya, Band 6/3 (Botanik). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 145-378. [artificial key to about 80 lecideoid species, 30 Lecidea species in the narrow sense, 13 on the N. Am. list for Lecidea; descriptions, thalli of about half the species illustrated]

[Lecidea in the strict sense]

Hertel, H. 1995. Schlüssel für die Arten der Flechtenfamilie Lecideaceae in Europa. In: Farkas, E.E., Lücking, R. and Wirth, V. (eds.). Scripta Lichenologica-- Lichenological Papers Dedicated to Antonín Vezda. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, no. 58, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart pp. 137-180. [ key, 52 species of Lecidea narrowly defined., 18 species on N. am. list, notes include chemistry and ecology]

Hertel, H. (no date). A key to Lecideaceae (subset Europe) {downloadable file and program}. In: LIAS: A Global Information System for Lichenized and Non-Lichenized Ascomycetes. Botanische Staatssammlung München. Available: http://www.mycology.net//lias/index.cfm {downloaded and accessed 1999 September 30}. [interactive multiple-entry European key, 52 species of Lecidea in the strict sense, plus 3 species in related genera; 19 species on the N. Am. list of Lecidea]

Culberson, C.F. and Hertel, H. 1979. Chemical and morphological analyses of the Lecidea lithophila-plana group (Lecideaceae). Bryologist 82: 189-197. [table compares L. plana, L. lithophila, L. hassei]

Hertel, H. 1970. Parasitische lichenisierte Arten der Sammelgattung Lecidea in Europa. Herzogia 1: 405-438. [key, 17 parasitic species of Lecidea, 0 on N. Am. list, some described, notes]

Lecidella (21)

Knoph, J.-G. and Leuckert, C. 1994. Chemosystematic studies in the saxicolous species of the lichen genus Lecidella (Lecanorales, Lecanoraceae) in America. Nova Hedwigia 59(3-4): 455-508. [world key to saxicolous species, 13 on N. Am. list, chemistry, notes]

Knoph, J-G. 1990. Untersuchungen an gesteinbewohnenden xanthonhaltigen Sippen der Flechtengattung Lecidella (Lecanoraceae, Lecanorales) unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von aussereuropäischen Proben exklusive Amerika. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 36. J. Cramer, Berlin. 183 pp. [key to 15 mostly non-European, non-American, saxicolous Lecidella species containing xanthones, 10 on N. Am. list;, descriptions]

Magnusson, A.H. 1945. Contribution to the taxonomy of the Lecidea goniophila group. Meddelanden fran Göteborgs Botaniska Trädgard (Acta Horti Gotoburgensis (Gothoburgensis)) 16: 125-134. [key, 12 European species, 7 on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Knoph, J-G., Schmidt, R. and Elix, J.A. 1995. Untersuchungen einiger Arten der Gattung Lecidella mit Hochdruckflüssigkeitschromatographie unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von epiphytischen Proben. In Knoph, J.G., Schrüfer, K and Sipman, H.J.M. (eds.): Studies in Lichenology with Emphasis on Chemotaxonomy, Geography and Phytochemistry. Festschrift Christian Leuckert. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 57. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart, pp. 307-326. [Chemistry for 8 epiphytic species, 6 on N. Am. list]

Leuckert, C. and Knoph, J.-G. 1992. European taxa of saxicolous Lecidella containing chloroxanthones: identification of patterns using thin-layer chromatography. Lichenologist 24: 383-397. [identification table based on chemistry, 9 species, 7 on N. Am. list; special TLC techniques]

Knoph, J.-G., Leuckert, C. and Hertel, H. 1995. Chemotypes and distribution patterns of saxicolous species of Lecidella (Lecanoraceae, Lecanorales). Cryptogamic Botany 5: 45-54. [summary table giving chemistry for saxicolous species]

Lowe, J.L. 1939. The genus Lecidea in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. Lloydia 2: 225-304. [3 species not elsewhere treated, as Lecidea, in long key; descriptions]

Leuckert, C., Knoph J.-G. and Hertel, H. 1992. Chemotaxonomische Studien in der Gattung Lecidella (Lecanorales, Lecanoraceae). II. Europäischen Arten der Lecidella asema-Gruppe. Herzogia 9: 1-17. [chemistry, 4 N. Am species]

Hertel, H. 1970. Parasitische lichenisierte Arten der Sammelgattung Lecidea in Europa. Herzogia 1: 405-438. [4 Lecidella species in key, all on N. Am. list]

Hertel, H. 1975. Ein vorläufiger Bestimmungsschlüssel fur die kryptothallinen, schwarzfrüchtigen, saxicolen Arten der Sammelgattung Lecidea (Lichenes) in der Holarktis. Decheniana 127: 37-78. [key, 5 species, 2 on N. Am. list]

Hertel, H. 1967. Revision einiger calciphiler Formenkreise der Flechtengattung Lecidea. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 24: 1-155. [2 N. Am. species in key to about 30 species of Lecidea in the broad sense]

Hertel, H. 1977. Gesteinsbewohnende Arten der Sammelgattung Lecidea (Lichenes) aus Zentral-, Ost- und Sudasien. In: Hellmich, W. (ed.). Khumbu Himal; Ergebnisse des Froschungsunternehmens Nepal Himalaya, Volume 6, Part 3. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 145-378. [artificial key to about 80 lecideoid species, 7 Lecidella species, 3 on the N. Am. list; descriptions, thalli of about half the species illustrated]

Lecidoma (1)

Schneider, G. 1979. Die Flechtengattung Psora sensu Zahlbruckner. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 13. J. Cramer, Vaduz. 291 pp. [L. demissum as Lepidoma in long key of Psora-like species; description, anatomical drawings]

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W., and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [description of genus and of L. demissum; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

[Leciographa]                    (see Opegrapha)

Leciophysma (2)

Henssen, A. 1965. A review of the genera of the Collemataceae with simple spores (excluding Physma). Lichenologist 3: 29-41. [key, 2 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations; keys to genera]

Thomson, J.W. 1984. America Arctic Lichens 1. The Macrolichens. Columbia University Press, New York, 504 pp. [key, 2 species, descriptions, fine illustrations]

Leioderma (1)

Jørgensen, P.M. 2000. Survey of the lichen family Pannariaceae on the American continent north of Mexico. Bryologist: 103: 670-704. [key to genera and species, 1 N. Am. species; descriptions of genera and species, notes, photographs of thalli of all taxa]

Jørgensen, P.M. and Galloway, D.J. 1989. Studies in the family Pannariaceae III. The genus Fuscoderma, with additional notes and a revised key to Leioderma. Lichenologist 21: 295-301. [revised world key, 5 species, 1 on N. Am. list]

Galloway, D.J. and Jørgensen, P.M. 1987. Studies in the lichen family Pannariaceae II. The genus Leioderma Nyl. Lichenologist 19: 345-400. [world key, 7 species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations; table comparing similar genera]

Lemmopsis [1]

Schultz, M. 2002. Lemmopsis. In Nash, T.H., III, Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., and Bungartz, F. (eds.). Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, pp. 261-262. [L. arnoldiana on N. Am. list; full species and generic descriptions; photograph of thallus; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/PublicationsforSale.htm]

Lempholemma (8)

[See also regional and national floras]

Henssen, A. 1968. Thyrea radiata, eine Lempholemma-Art mit Hormocystangien. Berichten der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft 81: 176-182. [description of L. radiata, drawings of anatomy]

Schiman-Czeika, H. 1988. Beobachtungen an Lempholemma-Arten aus dem Ostalpenraum (Lichenes, Lichinaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 158(2-4): 283-288. [5 species briefly described, 2 on N. Am. list]

Henssen, A. 1969. An interesting new species of Lempholemma from Canada. Lichenologist 4: 99-104 [L. vesiculiferum newly described., copious illustrations]

[Lepidoma]            (see Lecidoma)

Lepraria (13)

Leuckert, C., Kümmerling, H. and Wirth, V. 1995. Chemotaxonomy of Lepraria Ach. and Leproloma Nyl. ex Crombie, with particular reference to Central Europe. In: Farkas, E.E., Lücking, R. and Wirth, V. (eds.). Scripta Lichenologica--Lichenological Papers Dedicated to Antonín Vezda. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, no. 58, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart pp. 245-259. [summarizes a whole series of papers originally in German, 15 species of Lepraria, 10 on N. Am. list, comparative table for chemistry,]

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskette} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [table compares chemistry; all species; several non-European and/or undescribed taxa listed for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Laundon, J.R. 1992. Lepraria in the British Isles. Lichenologist 24: 315-350. [regional key, 10 species including 1 Leproloma, 9 on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Lohtander, K. 1994. The genus Lepraria in Finland. Annales Botanici Fennici 31: 223-231. [key, 11 species, 9 on N. Am. list descriptions, L. borealis new]

Orange, A. 1995. The British species of Lepraria and Leproloma: chemistry and identification. British Lichen Society Bulletin 76: 1-9 [key for use without TLC, 14 species, 10 on N. Am. list; table compares chemistry]

Saag, L. and Saag, A. 1999. The genus Lepraria (Lichenes imperfecti) in Estonia. Folia Cryptogamica Estonica 34: 55-63. [key, 7 species on N. Am. list, detailed chemistry, table]

Tønsberg, T. 1992. The sorediate and isidiate, corticolous, crustose lichens in Norway. Sommerfeltia 14: 1-331. [12 species described, 6 on N. Am. list plus 4 new and not on Am. list]

Lindblom, L. 1995. Släktet Lepraria i Skane {The genus Lepraria in the province of Skane, southernmost Sweden}. Graphis Scripta 7: 49-60. [key to 11 Swedish species, 8 on N. Am. list and 2 more should be, descriptions, in Swedish]

Orange, A. 1997. Chemical variation in Lepraria eburnea. Lichenologist 29: 9-13. [L. frigida placed in synonymy with L. eburnea; description]

Canals, A., Hernández-Mariné, M., Gómez-Bolea, A. and Llimona, X. 1997. Botryolepraria, a new monotypic genus segregated from Lepraria. Lichenologist 29: 339-345. [L. lesdainii transferred to a new genus, but not yet changed on the N. Am. checklist]

Leprocaulon (5)

Marcano, V., Galiz, L., Mohali, S., Morales Méndez, A. and Palacios-Prü, E. 1997. Revision del genero Leprocaulon Nyl. ex Lamy (Lichens imperfecti) in Venezuela. Tropical Bryology 13: 47-56. [key to 3 species, all on N. Am. list, the 2 other N. Am. species placed into synonymy as chemical races; descriptions, chemical variation]

Lamb, I.M. and Ward, A. 1974. A preliminary conspectus of the species attributed to the imperfect lichen genus Leprocaulon Nyl. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 38: 499-553. [key, 8 species, 5 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations of thalli]

Leproloma (3)

Laundon, J.R. 1989. The species of Leproloma -the name for the Lepraria membranacea group. Lichenologist 21: 1-22. [world key, 4 species, 3 on N. Am. list, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Lohtander, K. 1995. The lichen genus Leproloma in Finland and some notes on the Lepraria neglecta group. Annales Botanici Fennici 32: 49-54. [3 species described, 3 on N. Am. list]

Leuckert, C. Kümmerling, H. and Wirth, V. 1995. Chemotaxonomy of Lepraria Ach. and Leproloma Nyl. ex Crombie, with particular reference to Central Europe. In: Farkas, E.E., Lücking, R. and Wirth, V. (eds.). Scripta Lichenologica--Lichenological Papers Dedicated to Antonín Vezda. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, no. 58, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart pp. 245-259. [summarizes a series of papers originally in German; 3 species of Leproloma, 3 on N. Am. list, comparative table for chemistry]

Leuckert, C. and Kummerling, H. 1991. Chemotaxonomische Studien in der Gattung Leproloma Nyl. ex Crombie (Lichenes). Nova Hedwigia 52(1-2): 17-32. [chemistry of 5 species, 3 on N. Am. list]

Orange, A. 1995. The British species of Lepraria and Leproloma: chemistry and identification. British Lichen Society Bulletin 76: 1-9. [key for use without TLC, 4 species of Leproloma, 3 on N. Am. list, table compares chemistry]

Tønsberg, T. 1992. The sorediate and isidiate, corticolous, crustose lichens in Norway. Sommerfeltia 14: 1-331. [2 species described, 2 on N. Am. list]

[Leproplaca]                     (see Caloplaca)

Leptochidium (1)

McCune, B. and Geiser, L. 1997. Macrolichens of the Pacific Northwest. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, 386 pp. [keyed with Leptogium; description, color photograph]

Thomson, J.W. 1984. America Arctic Lichens 1. The Macrolichens. Columbia University Press, New York, 504 pp. [1 species, description, fine illustration]

[Leptogidium]                   (see Polychidium)

Leptogium (53) [57]

Sierk, H.A. 1964. The genus Leptogium in North America north of Mexico. Bryologist 67: 245-317. [key, 43 species, descriptions, some photographs of thalli]

Jørgensen, P. M. 1994. Further notes on European taxa of the lichen genus Leptogium with emphasis on the small species. Lichenologist 26: 1-30. [provisional key to 17 small European species, 9 on N. Am. list notes]

Jørgensen, P. M., and Tønsberg, T. 1999. Notes on some small species of Leptogium from Pacific North America. Bryologist 102: 412-417. [L. cellulosum and L. tacomae newly described; brief characterizations of L. aquale and L. biatorinum; photographs]

Jørgensen, P. M. and Goward, T. 1994. Two new Leptogium species from western North America. In: Stenroos, S. (ed.) Focus on Lichen Taxonomy and Biogeography: A Festschrift in Honour of Teuvo Ahti. Acta Botanica Fennica, 150, Finnish Botanical Publishing Board, Helsinki, pp. 75-78. [L, polycarpum and L. subaridum newly described, photographs of thalli]

Jørgensen, P.M. 1997. Further notes on hairy Leptogium species. In: Tibell, L. and Hedberg, I. (eds.) Lichen Studies Dedicated to Rolf Santesson. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 32(1): 113-130. [worldwide key to 38 hairy species--so-called subgenus Mallotium--9 on N. Am. list; L. pseudofurfuraceum and several other new species described]

Jørgensen, P.M. 1975. Contributions to a monograph of the Mallotium-hairy Leptogium species. Herzogia 3: 433-466. [world key, 24 species, 7 on N. Am. list, descriptions of some]

Jørgensen, P. M. 1973. Über einige Leptogium-Arten vom Mallotium-type. Herzogia 2: 453-468. [key, to 8 European hairy species, 6 on N. Am. list]

Jørgensen, P. M. and James, P. W. 1983. Studies on some Leptogium species of western Europe. Lichenologist 15: 109-125. [regional key to L. azureum group, 5 species, 3 on N. Am. list, comparative table, photographs of thalli]

Wong, P.Y. and Brodo, I.M. 1992. The Lichens of Southern Ontario, Canada. Syllogeus, 69, Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa. 79 pp. [key to northern species of Leptogium, 10 on N. Am. list; available from the publisher at http://nature.ca/prodserv/cat/product_e.cfm?ID=258&Browse=Scientific%20Publication&searchText=#SBotany]

Leptorhaphis (5)

Aguirre-Hudson, B. 1991. A taxonomic study of the species referred to the ascomycete genus Leptorhaphis. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany 21: 85-192. [world key, 12 species, 5 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Harris, R.C. 1973. The corticolous pyrenolichens of the Great Lakes Region. Michigan Botanist 12: 3-68. [4 species in overall key, descriptions, spore drawings]

Swinscow, T.D.V. 1965. Pyrenocarpous lichens: 9. Notes on various species. Lichenologist 3: 72-83. [L. atomaria, L. epidermidis, illustrations]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [description of an unnamed species; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Leptosphaerulina (1)

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [1 species in generic key, 1 on N. Am. list]

[Leptotrema]            (see Ocellularia, Thelotrema, Myriotrema)

Letharia (2)

[see western macrolichen floras; for example, the following:}

McCune, B. and Geiser, L. 1997. Macrolichens of the Pacific Northwest. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, 386 pp. [key, 2 N. Am. species, descriptions, color photographs of thalli]

Lethariicola (1)

Lumbsch, H.T. and Hawksworth, D.L. 1990. The species of Lethariicola Grumm. (Odontotremataceae). In: Jahns, H. M. (ed.). Contributions to Lichenology in Honour of A. Henssen. Bibliotheca Lichenologica. No. 38. J. Cramer, Berlin-Stuttgart pp. 325-333. [world key, 2 species, L. cucularis on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [1 species, 1 on N. Am. list, spore illustration, key to genera]

Letrouitia (3)

Hafellner, J. 1981. Monographie der Flechtengattung Letrouitia (Lecanorales, Teloschistineae). Nova Hedwigia 35: 645-729. [world key, 15 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of spores]

Awasthi, D.D. and Srivastava, P. 1989. Lichen genera Brigantiaea and Letrouitia from India. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences (Plant Sciences) 99: 165-177. [key, 8 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, spore illustrations]

Awasthi, D.D. 1991. A key to the microlichens of India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 40. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 340 pp. [key, 8 species, 2 on N. Am. list]

Lettauia (2)

Ihlen, P.G. and Tønsberg, T. 1996. The lichenicolous genus Lettauia in North America. Bryologist 99: 32-33. [L. santessonii described as a new species; note on L. cladoniicola]

Hawksworth, D.L. and Santesson, R. 1990. A revision of the lichenicolous fungi previously referred to Phragmonaevia. In: H. M. Jahns (ed.). Contributions to Lichenology in Honour of A. Henssen. Bibliotheca Lichenologica. No. 38. J. Cramer, Berlin-Stuttgart pp. 121-143. [Lettauia described as a new genus., L. cladoniicola on N. Am. list; descriptions, illustrations]

Leucocarpia (1)

Vezda, A. 1969. Leucocarpia gen. nov., eine neue Gattung der Flechtenfamilie Verrucariaceae. Herzogia 1: 187-194. [L. biatorella: description, drawings of anatomy]

Buck, W,R. and Harris, R.C. 2001. Leucocarpia biatorella (Verrucariaceae), new to North America. Evansia 18: 82-83. [description]

Libertiella [1]

Lichenochora (3) [4]

Hafellner, J. 1989. Studien über lichenicole Pilze und Flechten VII. Über die neue Gattung Lichenochora (Ascomycetes, Phyllachorales). Nova Hedwigia 48(3-4): 357-370. [key, 6 species, 2 on N. Am. list, illustrations include drawings of spores]

Triebel, D., Rambold, G. and Nash, T.H., III. 1991. On lichenicolous fungi from continental North America. Mycotaxon 42: 263-296. [L. xanthoriae newly described]

Hoffmann, N. & Hafellner, J. 2000. Eine Revision der lichenicolen Arten der Sammelgattungen Guignardia und Physalospora. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 77, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 190 pp. [world key to lichenicolous pyrenomycetes with hyaline, non-septate spores; description and drawings of L.verrucicola]

Lichenoconium (8)

Hawksworth, D.L. 1977. Taxonomic and biological observations on the genus Lichenoconium (Sphaeropsidales). Persoonia 9: 159-198. [key, 10 species, 5 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of anatomy; note that L. parasiticum = L. lecanorae]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1981. The lichenicolous Coelomycetes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 9: 1-98. [key, 8 species, 5 on N. Am. list, drawings of anatomy]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1983. A key to the lichen-forming, parasitic, parasymbiotic and saprophytic fungi occurring on lichens in the British Isles. Lichenologist 15: 1-44. [6 species in overall key, 5 on N. Am. list, spore drawings]

Alstrup, V. and Cole, M.S. 1998. Lichenicolous fungi of British Columbia. Bryologist 101: 221-229. [L. edgewoodensis newly described., spore illustration]

Kalb, K., Hafellner, J. and Staiger, B. 1995. Haematomma-studien. II. Lichenicole Pilze auf Arten der Flechtengattung Haematomma. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, No. 59, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. pp. 199-222 pp. [L. laevisporum newly described, key to fungi growing on Haematomma]

Kondratyuk, S.Y. and Galloway, D.J. 1995. Two new lichenicolous fungi from Lobaria and Sticta (Stictaceae). In: Daniels, F.J.A., Schulz, M. and Peine, J. (eds.). Flechten Follmann. Contributions to lichenology in Honour of Gerhard Follmann. Geobotanical and Phytotaxonomical Study Group, Botanical Institute, University of Cologne, Cologne pp. 255-261. [L. follmannii newly described, illustrations]

Lichenodiplis (2)

Hawksworth, D.L. and Dyko, B.J. 1979. Lichenodiplis and Vouauxiomyces: two new genera of lichenicolous Coelomycetes. Lichenologist 11: 51-61. [L. lecanorae, L. lichenicola, descriptions, illustrations]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [key, 2 species, 2 on N. Am. list, drawings of conidia and conidiophores]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1981. The lichenicolous Coelomycetes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 9: 1-98. [key, 2 species, both on N. Am. list, notes]

Triebel, D., Rambold, G. and Nash, T.H., III. 1991. On lichenicolous fungi from continental North America. Mycotaxon 42: 263-296. [L. lecanorae; note compares conidia with spores of Muellerella lichenicola]

Lichenopeltella (2)

Spooner, B.M. and Kirk, P.M. 1990.Observations on some genera of Trichothyriaceae. Mycological Research 94: 223-230. [key to 10 British species (as Micropeltopsis), 3 lichenicolous species described, 2 on N. Am. list, anatomy of L. santessonii illustrated]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1982. Notes on British Lichenicolous Fungi: IV. Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh 40: 375-397. [L. peltigericola newly described as Actinopeltis, drawings of anatomy]

Lichenosticta (1)

Hawksworth, D.L. 1981. The lichenicolous Coelomycetes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 9: 1-98. [monospecific genus, L. alcicorniaria, description and illustration]

Lichenostigma (3)

Hafellner, J. 1982. Studien über lichenicole Pilze und Flechten II. Lichenostigma maureri gen. et spec. nov., ein in den Ostalpen haufiger lichenicoler Pilz (Ascomycetes, Arthoniales). Herzogia 6: 299-308. [description and illustrations of anatomy]

Navarro-Rosinés, P. and Hafellner, J. 1996. Lichenostigma elongata spec. nov. (Dothideales), a lichenicolous ascomycete on Lobothallia and Aspicilia species. Mycotaxon 57: 211-225. [L. radiosa newly described; copious illustrations]

Thor, G. 1985. A new species of Lichenostigma, a lichenicolous ascomycete. Lichenologist 17: 269-272. [L. rugosa described as a new species; comparisons, photographs]

Hafellner, J. and Calatayud, V. 1999. Lichenostigma cosmopolites, a common lichenicolous fungus on Xanthoparmelia species. Mycotaxon 72: 107-114. [description of 1 new species; in N. Am. but not yet on list; photographs]

Lichenothelia (6)

[the following two references together cover all species on the N. Am. list]

Henssen, A. 1987. Lichenothelia, a genus of microfungi on rocks. In: E. Peveling (ed.). Progress and Problems in Lichenology in the Eighties. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, No. 25., J. Cramer, Berlin-Stuttgart pp. 257-293. [18 species described in Latin only, mostly newly so, 4 on N. Am. list; photographs; no key]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1981. Lichenothelia, a new genus for the Microthelia aterrima group. Lichenologist 13: 141-153. [key, 2 species, L. metzleri, L. scopularia, descriptions, illustrations]

[Lichenothrix]                   (see Pyrenothrix)

Lichina (2)

Henssen, A. 1969. Three non-marine species of the genus Lichina. Lichenologist 4: 88-98. [3 species, 1 on N. Am. list, L. willeyi, descriptions, illustrations]

Henssen, A. 1973. New or interesting cyanophilic lichens I. Lichenologist 5: 444-451. [world key to non-marine Lichina, 5 species, L. willeyi on N. Am. list, discussion of genus]

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W. and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [key, 2 marine species, L. confinis on N. Am. list, descriptions; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Henssen, A. 1963. Eine Revision der Flechtenfamilien Lichinaceae und Ephebaceae. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 18(1): 1-123. [generic description, key to genera in family]

Lichinaceae and allies (key for determining the genera)

Schultz, M., and Büdel, B. 2002. Key to the genera of the Lichinaceae. Lichenologist 34: 39-62. [key to ca. 35 genera; discussion of characters; photos of morphology and anatomy]

Henssen, A. 1963. Eine Revision der Flechtenfamilien Lichinaceae und Ephebaceae. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 18(l): 1-123.

Lichinella (6)

[the first four references together cover all species on the N. Am. checklist]

Moreno, P.P. and Egea, J.M. 1992. El genero Lichinella Nyl. en el sureste de España y norte de Africa. Cryptogamie, Bryologie-Lichénologie 13: 237-259. [regional key, 7 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs of morphology and anatomy; expands Lichinella to include Gonohymenia]

Henssen, A. 1968. Eine neue Lichinella-Art aus Nordamerika (Lichenes). Nova Hedwigia 15: 543-550. [key, 3 species, 2 on N. Am. list, L. americana newly described.}

Henssen, A. 1970. New or interesting North American lichens--I. Bryologist 73: 617-623. [description of L. melamphylla as Gonohymenia, illustrations]

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [description of L. minnesotensis as Forsellia]

Henssen, A. 1963. Eine Revision der Flechtenfamilien Lichinaceae und Ephebaceae. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 18(l): 1-123. [key, 3 species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Lichinodium (3)

Henssen, A. 1974. New or interesting cyanophilic lichens II. Lichenologist 6: 106-111. [world key, 4 species, 3 on N. Am. list, L. saxicola described, illustration, generic comparison]

Henssen, A. 1968. A new Lichinodium species from British Columbia. Bryologist 71: 271-274. [key, 3 species 2 on N. Am. list, L. canadense described, illustrations, comparisons]

Arvidsson, L. 1979. Lichinodium sirosiphoideum found with apothecia. Lichenologist 11: 187-190. [description, illustrations]

Henssen, A. 1963. Eine Revision der Flechtenfamilien Lichinaceae und Ephebaceae. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 18(l): 1-123. [key, 2 species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Lithographa (1)

Hertel, H. and Rambold, G. 1990. Zur Kenntnis der Familie Rimulariaceae (Lecanorales). in Jahns, H.M. (ed.). Contributions to Lichenology in Honour of A. Henssen. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 38. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart, pp. 145-189. [world key, 3 species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of asci]

Flock, J.W. 1989. Lithographa, a lichen genus new to continental North America. Mycotaxon 34: 643-645. [L. tesserata, description, photograph of thallus]

Redinger, K. 1937. Graphidaceae. In Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 9,2 (1): 181-404. [key, 4 species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings]

Lithothelium (6)

Aptroot, A. 1991. A Monograph of the Pyrenulaceae (Excluding Anthracothecium and Pyrenula) and the Requienellaceae, with Notes on the Pleomassariaceae, the Trypetheliaceae and Mycomicrothelia (Lichenized and Non-lichenized Ascomycetes). Bibliotheca Lichenologica, Bd. 44, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 178 pp. [world key, 16 species, 5 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Harris, R.C. 1989. A sketch of the family Pyrenulaceae (Melanommatales) in Eastern North America. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 49: 74-107. [key to 5 N. Am. species as Plagiocarpa]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 2 Florida species, L. microsporum newly described; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

[either of the first two references plus the third cover all N. Am. species]

Harris, R.C. 1973. The corticolous pyrenolichens of the Great Lakes Region. Michigan Botanist 12: 3-68. [4 N. Am. species in overall key as Plagiocarpa, descriptions]

Llimoniella (1)[2]

Diederich, P. and Etayo, J. 2000. A synopsis of the genera Skyttea, Llimoniella, and Rhymbocarpus (lichenicolous Ascomycota, Leotiales). Lichenologist 32: 423-485. [world key to 6 species; 2 on N. Am. list, both of which are new; descriptions and illustrations of new species; detailed notes for all]

Hafellner, J. and Navarro-Rosinés, P. 1993. Llimoniella gen. nov. - eine weitere Gattung lichenicoler Discomyceten (Ascomycotina, Leotiales). Herzogia 9: 769-778. [new genus described, key to 2 species, neither on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs of anatomy]

Lobaria (12) [13]

Jordan, W.P. 1973. The genus Lobaria in North America north of Mexico. Bryologist 76: 225-251. [key, 11 species, descriptions]

Goffinet, B. and Goward, T. 1998. Is Nephroma silvae-veteris the cyanomorph of Lobaria oregana? In: Glenn, M.G, Harris, R.C., Dirig, R. and Cole, M.S. (eds.). Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson. Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, New York. pp. 41-52. [L. silvae-veteris, descriptive discussion and comparative table; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/]

Etayo, J. and Diederich, P. 1996. Lichenicolous fungi from the western Pyrenees, France and Spain. III. Species on Lobaria pulmonaria. Bulletin de la Société des Naturalistes Luxembourgeois 97: 93-118. [key to 21 species on Lobaria, about half the species are described and illustrated]

Lobothallia (4)

[see also keys to Aspicilia before 1991

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskette} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [key, 4 N. Am. species, descriptions; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Hafellner, J 1991. Die Gattung Aspicilia, ihre Ableitungen nebst Bemerkungen über cryptolecanorine Ascocarporganisation bei anderen Genera der Lecanorales (Ascomycetes lichenisati). Acta Botánica Malacitana 16(1): 133-140. [delimitation of genus]

Ryan, B.D. and Nash, T.H., III. 1997. Placodioid taxa of Lecanoraceae sensu Zahlbr. (lichenized Ascomycotina) in North America: taxa excluded from Lecanora subg. Placodium. Nova Hedwigia 64(3-4): 393-420. [key to placidioid groups and genera; partial generic description]

[Lopadiopsis]                   (see Gyalectidium)

Lopadium (5)

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskette} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [key, 5 N. Am. species, descriptions; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Lopezaria (1)

[see also keys to Catinaria written before 1990]

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens {diskette}. Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [L. versicolor in key to Catinaria, description; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Kalb, K. 1990. Lichenes Neotropici ausgegeben von Klaus Kalb. Fascikel XI (No. 451-475). Neumarkt/Opf. 12 pp. [Lopezaria newly described as genus (in Latin), anatomical drawings of L. versicolor]

Loxospora (4)

[the first two references together treat all species on the N. Am. list]

Culberson, W.L. 1963. A summary of the lichen genus Haematomma in North America. Bryologist 66: 224-236. [key to 10 species of Haematomma in the broad sense; 3 N. Am. species of Loxospora keyed as Haematomma section Elatinum, notes]

Brodo, I.M. and Culberson, W.L. 1986. Haematomma pustulatum sp. nov. (Ascomycotina, Haematommataceae): a common, widespread, sterile lichen of eastern North America. Bryologist 89: 203-205. [L. pustulata, description and illustration]

Staiger, B. and Kalb, K. 1995. Haematomma-studien. I. Die Flechtengattung Haematomma. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, No. 59, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 1-198 pp. [generic delimitation only, table compares with Haematomma and Ophioparma]

Loxosporopsis (1)

Brodo, I.M. and Henssen, A. 1995. A new isidiate crustose lichen in northwestern North America. In: Farkas, E.E., Lücking, R. and Wirth, V. (eds.). Scripta Lichenologica--Lichenological Papers Dedicated to Antonín Vezda. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, no. 58, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart pp. 27-41. [L. corallifera, new genus and species, descriptions, illustrations]

 

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z Contents

   Me     Mi     Mo     Mu     My

Macentina (1)

Orange, A. 1991. Macentina dictyospora (Verrucariaceae), a new lichenized species from Sweden. Lichenologist 23: 15-20. [world key, 6 species, M. dictyospora newly described]

Vezda, A. 1973. Foliicole Flechten aus der Republik Guinea. I. Acta Musei Silesiae (Opava), Series A 22: 67-90. [Macentina newly described as genus , in Latin only; illustration of type species]

Marchandiomyces (1)

Diederich, P. 1990. New or interesting lichenicolous fungi 1. Species from Luxembourg. Mycotaxon 37: 297-330. [Marchandiomyces a new genus; M. corallinus, description, illustration]

Maronea (3)

Magnusson, A.H. 1934. Die Flechtengattung Maronea. Meddelanden fran Göteborgs Botaniska Trädgard (Acta Horti Gotoburgensis (Gothoburgensis)) 9: 41-66. [key, 13 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Masonhalea (1)

Kärnefelt, I. 1977. Masonhalea, a new lichen genus in the Parmeliaceae. Botaniska Notiser 130: 101-107. [description and illustrations of new monospecific genus]

Thomson, J.W. 1984. America Arctic Lichens 1. The Macrolichens. Columbia University Press, New York, 504 pp. [description and illustration of M. richardsonii]

Massalongia (2)

Henssen, A. 1963. The North American species of Massalongia and generic relationships. Canadian Journal of Botany 41: 1331-1346. [key, 2 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations of thalli and anatomy; keys to similar genera, both in sterile and fertile states]

[Mastodia]                        (see Kohlmeyera)

Mazosia (1)

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [M. ocellata, in key to Enterographa; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 109 pp. [M. ocellata, note only, diagnosed in key to Opegraphaceae; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Santesson, R. 1952. Foliicolous lichens I. A revision of the taxonomy of the obligately foliicolous, lichenized fungi. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 12: 1-590. [key, 9 species, 0 on N. Am. list, descriptions, a few illustrations]

Medusulina (2)

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [M. texana, description, M. nitida as Graphis, description]

Rogers, R.W. 1980. The Genera of Australian Lichens (Lichenized Fungi). University of Queensland Press, St. Lucia, London, New York. 124 pp. [description of genus]

Megalaria (6)

[see also keys to Catillaria, Catinaria written before 1984]

Ekman, S. and Tønsberg, T. 1996. A new species of Megalaria from the North American west coast, and notes on the generic circumscription. Bryologist 99: 34-40. [M. brodoana described as a new species; table of characters comparing all 6 known species]

Hafellner, J. 1984. Studien in Richtung einer naturlicheren Gliederung der Sammelfamilien Lecanoraceae und Lecideaceae. In: Hertel, H. and Oberwinkler, F. (eds.). Beiträge zur Lichenologie. Festschrift J. Poelt. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia 79. J. Cramer, Vaduz pp. 241-371. [Megalaria newly described genus., M. grossa--illustration of anatomy only]

Noble, W. J. Catillaria columbiana comb. nov. from western North America. Bryologist 83: 71-73. [description of M. columbiana, as Catillaria]

Schreiner, E. and Hafellner, J. 1992. Sorediöse, corticole Krustenflechten im Ostalpenraum. I. Die Flechtenstoffe und die gesicherte Verbreitung der besser bekannten Arten. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, No. 45, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 291 pp. [M. pulverea in overall key, description]

Megalospora (3)

Sipman, H.J.M. 1983. A Monograph of the Lichen Family Megalosporaceae. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 18. J. Cramer, Vaduz. 241 pp. [key, 29 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Sipman, H. 1997. Revised key to Megalosporaceae (genera Austroblastenia, Megaloblastenia, Megalospora)including some easily confused taxa, provisional version {Online}. Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Freie Universität Berlin. Available: http://www.bgbm.fu-berlin.de/bgbm/staff/wiss/Sipman+H/keys/Megalokey.htm [about 33 species, 2 on N. Am. list]

Sipman, H. (no date). Megalosporaceae: Megalospora {Online}. In: LIAS: A Global Information System for Lichenized and Non-Lichenized Ascomycetes. Botanische Staatssammlung München. Available: http://www.mycology.net//lias/index.cfm {accessed 1999 September 30}. [online interactive multiple-access world key; about 35 species, 2 on N. Am. list]

Harris, R.C. 1984. Megalospora porphyritis in eastern North America. Evansia 1: 24. [new species, illustration]

Megaspora (1)

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W. and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [description of monospecific genus and of M. verrucosa, available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Clauzade, G. and Roux, C. 1984. Les genres Aspicilia Massal. et Bellemera Hafellner et Roux. Bulletin de la Société Botanique du Centre-Ouest, Nouvelle Série 15: 127-141. [Megaspora described as a new subgenus of Aspicilia, illustrations]

[Melanaria]                      (see Pertusaria)

Melanelia (27) [28]

[the first two references together cover all species on N. Am. checklist]

Esslinger, T.L. 1977. A chemosystematic revision of the brown Parmeliae. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 42: 1-211. [107 species, split between three modern genera; key to about 60 brown parmelioid lichens in the northern hemisphere, 37 species treated as Parmelia subgenus Melanoparmelia, 24 [25] on N. Am list; descriptions, comparisons, photographs of thalli]

Thell, A. 1995. A new position of the Cetraria commixta group in Melanelia (Ascomycotina, Parmeliaceae). Nova Hedwigia 60(3-4): 407-422. [4 species transferred, descriptions, illustrations; table compares various brown parmelioid and cetrarioid genera]

Ahti, T. 1966. Parmelia olivacea and the allied non-isidiate and non-sorediate corticolous lichens in the northern hemisphere. Acta Botanica Fennica 70: 1-68. [key, 9 species, 7 on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs of thalli]

Esslinger, T.L. 1978. A new status for the brown Parmeliae. Mycotaxon 7: 45-54. [Melanelia, newly described (in Latin), key to 3 new genera formerly in Parmelia]

Melanolecia (1)

Clauzade, G. and Roux, C. 1985. Likenoj de Okcidenta Europo. Ilustrita Determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Botanique du Centre-Ouest, Nouvelle Série, Numéro Spécial 7. Royan, France. 893 pp. [in generic key, description of M. transitoria]

Hertel, H. 1995. Schlüssel für die Arten der Flechtenfamilie Lecideaceae in Europa. In: Farkas, E.E., Lücking, R. and Wirth, V. (eds.). Scripta Lichenologica--Lichenological Papers Dedicated to Antonín Vezda. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, no. 58, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart pp. 137-180. [M. transitoria in key to 55 lecideoid species, notes on chemistry and ecology]

Melanomma (1)

Hawksworth, D.L. 1985. A redisposition of the species referred to the ascomycete genus Microthelia. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany series 14: 43-181. [M. oxysporum, description, drawing of spores]

[Melanotheca]                   (see Pyrenula)

Melaspilea (15)

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [key, 12 species, all still on checklist, descriptions]

Redinger, K. 1938. Graphidaceae. In Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 9,2 (1): 181-404. [key, 12 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings]

Clauzade, G. and Roux, C. 1985. Likenoj de Okcidenta Europo. Ilustrita Determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Botanique du Centre-Ouest, Nouvelle Série, Numéro Spécial 7. Royan, France. 893 pp. [key, 6 species, M. epigena on N. Am. list]

Menegazzia (1)

[M. terebrata can be found in most Northern Hemisphere floras or in books on macrolichens; for example, the following:]

McCune, B. and Geiser, L. 1997. Macrolichens of the Pacific Northwest. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, 386 pp. [keyed in general foliose key; description; color photograph]

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W. and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [detailed description of genus and species; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Wirth, V. 1995. Die Flechten Baden-Württembergs, Teil 1 and 2. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart. 1006 pp. [fine color photograph]

Merismatium (2)

Triebel, D. 1989. Lecideicole Ascomyceten. Eine Revision der obligat lichenicolen Ascomyceten auf lecideoiden Flechten. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, No. 35., J. Cramer, Berlin-Stuttgart. 278 pp. [descriptions of 6 species, 2 on N. Am. list, one overall key, drawings of spores]

Keissler, K. von. 1930. Die Flechtenparasiten. In Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 8: 1-712. [key, 3 species, 1 on N. Am. list, M. coccisporum, description]

Metamelanea (1)

Henssen, A. 1989. Metamelanea and Stromatella, new genera of Lichinaceae. Lichenologist 21: 101-118. [world key, 2 species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Micarea (31) [33]

Coppins, B.J. 1983. A taxonomic study of the lichen genus Micarea in Europe. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany Series, 11: 17-214. [key, 45 species, 28 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of spores and conidia]

Clauzade, G. and Roux, C. 1985. Likenoj de Okcidenta Europo. Ilustrita Determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Botanique du Centre-Ouest, Nouvelle Série, Numéro Spécial 7. Royan, France. 893 pp. [detailed key, 45 species, 26 on N. Am. list, spore illustrations]

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W. and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [key, 39 species, 22 on N. Am. list, descriptions; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Printzen, C. 1995. Die Flechtengattung Biatora in Europa. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, No. 60, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 275 pp. [M. perparvula, new combination, description]

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [M. chlorosticta and M. endocyanea, as Bacidia, descriptions]

Coppins, B.J. and May, P.F. 2001. Micarea neostipitata, a new species with pale stipitate pycnidia from eastern North America. Lichenologist 33: 487-490. [detailed description, drawings, comparisons to similar species]

Coppins, B.J. and Tonsberg, T. 2001. A new xanthone-containing Micarea from northwest Europe and the Pacific Northwest of North America. Lichenologist 33: 93-96. [detailed description, drawings of spores, comparisons]

Brodo, I.M. 1995. Lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. 1. Introduction and new records for B.C., Canada and North America. Mycotaxon 56: 135-173. [discusses difference between N. Am. and European specimens of M. vulpinaris]

Microcalicium (3)

[see also major European floras]

Tibell, L. 1978. The genus Microcalicium. Botaniska Notiser 131: 229-246. [key, 4 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations, table of pigments]

Tibell, L. 1999. Calicioid lichens and fungi. In: Ahti, T., Jørgensen, P.M., Kristinsson, H., Moberg, R., Søchting, U. and Thor, G. (eds.). Nordic Lichen Flora. Volume 1. Introductory Parts. Calicioid Lichens and Fungi. Nordic Lichen Society, Uddevalla. 94 pp. [key to 3 species, all 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions, notes, good color photographs]

Middelborg, J. and Mattsson, J. 1987. Crustaceous lichenized species of the Caliciales in Norway. Sommerfeltia 5: 1-70. [key, 3 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Puntillo, D. 1989. Chiavi analitiche delle Caliciales italiane (Licheni). Webbia 43: 145-168. [key, 3 species, 3 on N. Am. list]

Peterson, E.B. and Rikkinen, J. 1999. Range extensions of selected pin-lichens and allied fungi in the Pacific Northwest. Bryologist 102: 370-376. [brief characterizations, range and habitat notes for 3 N. Am species, M conversum not yet on N. Am. list]

[Microglaena]              (see Thelenella, Protothelenella)

Microlychnus (1)

Funk, A. 1973. Microlychnus gen. nov., a lichenized hyphomycete from western conifers. Canadian Journal of Botany 51: 1249-1250. [description and illustrations of new genus and species]

[Microphiale]              (see Dimerella)

[Microthelia]               (see Anisomeridium, Mycomicrothelia, Kirschsteiniothelia, Lichenothelia)

Minutoexcipula (1)

Atienza, V. and Hawksworth, D.L. 1994. Minutoexcipula tuckerae gen. et sp. nov., a new lichenicolous deuteromycete on Pertusaria texana in the United States. Mycological Research 98: 587-592. [description, illustrations]

Miriquidica (10)

[see also keys to Lecidea written before 1987]

Rambold, G. (no date). Lecanoraceae: Miriquidica (title erroneously given as "Lecanora subset subfusca group"){Online). In: LIAS: A Global Information System for Lichenized and Non-Lichenized Ascomycetes. Botanische Staatssammlung München. Available: http://www.mycology.net//lias/index.cfm {accessed 1999 September 30}. [online interactive multiple-access world key; 20 species of miriquidica, 10 on N. Am. list; warning: as of the date accessed, the key failed to return all species on the checklist when the character state "North America" was entered]

Hertel, H. and Rambold, G. 1987. Miriquidica genus novum Lecanoracearum (Ascomycetes lichenisati). Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München 23: 377-392. [brief descriptions and comparisons of 14 species, 8 on N. Am. list]

Rambold, G. and Schwab, A.J. 1990. Rusty coloured species of the lichen genus Miriquidica (Lecanoraceae). Nordic Journal of Botany 10: 117-121. [descriptions of genus and 4 species, 3 on N. Am. list, (M. atrofulva, M. plumbeoatra not in Hertel and Rambold, 1987)]

Mobergia (2)

Mayrhofer, H., Sheard, J.W., and Matzer, M. 1992. Mobergia (Physciaceae, Lichenized Ascomycetes), a new genus endemic to Western North America. Bryologist 95: 436-442. [key, 2 species, descriptions, illustrations]

Moelleropsis [1]

Jørgensen, P.M. 2000. Survey of the lichen family Pannariaceae on the American continent north of Mexico. Bryologist: 103: 670-704. [key to genera and species, 1 N. Am. species: descriptions of genera and species, notes, photographs of thalli of all taxa]

Monoblastia (4)

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [world key, 8 species, M. borinquensis and M. cypressi described as new species; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 109 pp. [key, 2 species; M. buckii newly described; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

[Mosigia]                           (see Rimularia)

Muellerella (2) [3]

Triebel, D. 1989. Lecideicole Ascomyceten. Eine Revision der obligat lichenicolen Ascomyceten auf lecideoiden Flechten. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, No. 35., J. Cramer, Berlin-Stuttgart. 278 pp. [detailed treatment of both species on N. Am. list, one overall key, descriptions, drawings of anatomy]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [key, 9 species, 2 on N. Am. list, spore illustrations]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1983. A key to the lichen-forming, parasitic, parasymbiotic and saprophytic fungi occurring on lichens in the British Isles. Lichenologist 15: 1-44. [4 species in overall key, 2 on N. Am. list, spore drawings]

Alstrup, V. and Hawksworth, D.L. 1990. The lichenicolous fungi of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bioscience 31: 1-90. [both N. Am. species in overall key]

Matzer, M. 1993. Zur Kenntnis der Gattungen Muellerella und Plurisperma (Ascomycetes). Nova Hedwigia 56(1-2): 203-210. [compares the two genera]

Multiclavula (5)

Petersen, R.H. 1967. Notes on clavarioid fungi VII. Redefinition of the Clavaria vernalis - C. mucida complex. American Midland Naturalist 77: 205-221. [description of Multiclavula, key, 13 species, 5 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of anatomy and spores]

Coste, C. and Royaud, A. 1994. Les Basidiolichens Europeens. Bulletin de la Société Castraise de Sciences Naturelles 1994: 55-59. [key, 3 species]

Hoiland, K. 1987. The basidiolichens of Norway and Svalbard. Graphis Scripta 1: 81-90. [key, 3 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Mycobilimbia (5) [8]

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [detailed discussion of differing generic concepts; alternate keys for different species groups sometimes included in the genus, 7 N. Am. species, plus some not on list; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Hafellner, J. 1989. Die europäischen Mycobilimbia-Arten - eine erste Übersicht (lichenisierte Ascomycetes, Lecanorales). Herzogia 8: 53-59. [generic description, key, 7 named species, 4 on N. Am. list]

Printzen, C. 1995. Die Flechtengattung Biatora in Europa. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, No. 60, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 275 pp. [Mycobilimbia based on apothecial development circumscribes (pp. 35-41)--different from Hafellner (1989), illustration; mentions 3 species that fall into the genus without making the combinations, all mentioned on N. Am. list]

Poelt, J. 1961. Mitteleuropäische Flechten VII. Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatsaummlung München 4: 171-197. [description of M. fissuriseda as Lecidea; drawing of habitus]

Mycoblastus (6)

[the first two references together cover all species on the N. Am. list]

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [key, 6 N. Am. species, descriptions; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Tønsberg, T. 1992. The sorediate and isidiate, corticolous, crustose lichens in Norway. Sommerfeltia 14: 1-331. [genus and 4 species described in detail, including M. caesius, one overall key]

Thomson, J.W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens 2. The Microlichens. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 675 pp. [key, 4 N. Am. species, including M. marginatus, descriptions]

Mycocalicium (8)

[M. reticulatum not found in keys]

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [key, 6 species, 4 remaining after transfers, M. albonigrum, M. fuscipes, M. ravenelii, M. subtile]

Tibell, L. 1987. Australasian Caliciales. Symbolae Botanicae Upsaliensis 27(1): 1-279. [key, 5 species, 3 in. N. Am., full descriptions, fine illustrations, M. americanum, M. albonigrum, M. victoriae ]

Tibell, L. 1996. Flora Neotropica Monograph 69: Caliciales. New York Botanical Garden. [key, 4 species, all on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs of habitus, M. albonigrum, M. calicioides, M. americanum]

Bonar, L. 1971. A new Mycocalicium on scarred sequoia in California. Madroño 21: 62-69. [M. sequoiae described as a new species., illustrations]

Mycoglaena (8)

[the first two plus either of the list two references cover all N. Am. species]

Barr, M.E. 1990. Some dictyosporous genera and species of Pleosporales in North America. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 62: 1-92. [key, 5 species, brief descriptions, drawings of spores and anatomy]

Riedel, H. 1971. Zur Kenntnis von Polyblastiopsis A. Zahlbr. und Mycoglaena v. Hohnel (=Winteria Rehm). Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift 119: 41-67. [key to 6 central European species, 3 on N. Am. list, notes with some descriptive details, illustrations, discussion of genera]

Harris, R.C. 1973. The corticolous pyrenolichens of the Great Lakes Region. Michigan Botanist 12: 3-68. [2 N. Am. species in overall key, descriptions, drawings of spores]

Harris, R.C. 1975. A taxonomic revision of the genus Arthopyrenia Massal. s. lat. (Ascomycetes) in North America. Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, 288 pp. [key, 4 species, 3 presently on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of spores and other anatomical features; available from UMI Dissertation Services at http://www.umi.com/hp/Support/DExplorer/ as

dissertation number 7605564]

Mycomicrothelia (7)

Hawksworth, D.L. 1985. A redisposition of the species referred to the ascomycete genus Microthelia. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany series 14: 43-181. [key, 26 species, 7 on N. Am. list, detailed descriptions and illustrations]

[Mycoporellum] (see Mycoporum)

Mycoporum (11)

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key to N. Am., 11 species, 3 newly described; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1975. A taxonomic revision of the genus Arthopyrenia Massal. s. lat. (Ascomycetes) in North America. Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, 288 pp. [4 N. Am. species as Tomasellia in key to that genus, descriptions, drawings of spores and other anatomical features; available from UMI Dissertation Services at http://www.umi.com/hp/Support/DExplorer/ as dissertation number 7605564]

Myelochroa (4)

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1976. A monograph of the lichen genus Parmelina Hale (Parmeliaceae). Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 33: 1-60. [4 N. Am. species in world key as Parmelina, descriptions, photographs of aspect]

Hale, M.E., Jr. and Kurokawa, S. 1964. Studies on Parmelia subgenus Parmelia. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 36: 121-191. [4 N. Am. species in world key to Parmelia subsection Imbricaria (= Parmelina, 33 species)]

Kurokawa, S. and Arakawa, S. 1997. Revision of Japanese species of Myelochroa (Parmeliaceae). Bulletin of the Botanic Gardens of Toyama 2: 23-43. [key, 9 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions, discussion of generic characters]

Elix, J. A. and Hale, M. E. 1987. Canomaculina, Myelochroa, Parmelinella, Parmelinopsis and Parmotremopsis, five new genera in the Parmeliaceae (Lichenized Ascomycotina). Mycotaxon 29: 233-244. [Myelochroa described as a new genus; key to Parmelina segregates, comparisons]

Myrionora (1)

Harris, R. C., Buck, W.R., Nelson, J., Selva, S.B., Guccion, J. G. and Schmitt, C. 1988. Lichens of southern Maine collected on the 1987 Andrews Foray. Evansia 5: 26-32. [Myrionora described (in Latin) based on Biatorella albidula, descriptive note]

Magnusson, A.H. 1934b. On the species of Biatorella and Sarcogyne in America. Annales Cryptogamie Exotique 7: 115-146. [description of M. albidula as Biatorella]

Hafellner, J. 1994. On Biatoridium, a resurrected genus of lichenized fungi (Ascomycotina, Lecanorales). In: Stenroos, S. (ed.) Focus on Lichen Taxonomy and Biogeography: A Festschrift in Honour of Teuvo Ahti. Acta Botanica Fennica, 150, Finnish Botanical Publishing Board, Helsinki, pp. 39-46. [table comparing biatorelloid genera]

Myriotrema (14)

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 109 pp. [key to 11 species, M. glauculum and M. peninsulae described as new species; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key to 11 species; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1978. A revision of the lichen family Thelotremataceae in Panama. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 38: 1-60. [7 species on N. Am. list in keys to Ocellularia and Leptotrema, under traditional generic delimitations using spore type; descriptions, photographs of thalli]

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1980. Generic delimitation in the lichen family Thelotremataceae. Mycotaxon 11: 130-138. [recircumscribes Thelotrema, Myriotrema, and Ocellularia based mainly on exciple type rather than spore type; many new combinations]

Myxophora [1]

Hoffmann, N. & Hafellner, J. 2000. Eine Revision der lichenicolen Arten der Sammelgattungen Guignardia und Physalospora. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 77, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 190 pp. [world key to lichenicolous pyrenomycetes with hyaline, non-septate spores; description and drawings of L. leptogioiphila]

Myxotrichum (1)

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [1 species, 1 on N. Am. list, key to genera]

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z Contents

Nadvornikia (2)

Tibell, L. 1996. Caliciales. Flora Neotropica, 69, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 78 pp. [key, 2 species, both on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 109 pp. [key, 2 species, N. sorediata described as a new species. ; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 2 species; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Tibell, L. 1987. Australasian Caliciales. Symbolae Botanicae Upsaliensis 27(1): 1-279. [1 species, N. hawaiensis, full description, fine illustration]

Tibell, L. 1984. A reappraisal of the taxonomy of Caliciales. In: Hertel, H. and Oberwinkler, F. (eds.). Beiträge zur Lichenologie. Festschrift J. Poelt. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia, 79: 597-713. [Nadvornikia, genus newly described, N. hawaiensis, description, illustrations of anatomy]

Nanostictis (2)

Etayo, J. and Diederich, P. 1996. Lichenicolous fungi from the western Pyrenees, France and Spain. III. Species on Lobaria pulmonaria. Bulletin de la Société des Naturalistes Luxembourgeois 97: 93-118. [key to several species on Lobaria; N. christiansenii newly described, illustrations of anatomy and habitus]

Sherwood-Pike, M. 1985. New and unusual Ascomycetes from the western United States. Sydowia II 38: 267-277. [N. pseudocyphellariae newly described, drawings of anatomy]

Nectria (4)

[the following references together treat all species on the N. Am. checklist]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [key, 8 species, 3 on N. Am. list, spore illustrations]

Sammuels, G.J. A revision of the fungi formerly classified as Nectria subgenus Hyphonectria. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 26(3): 1-126. [description and drawings of anatomy of N. zonata, key to 35 species]

[Nectriella] (see Pronectria)

Nectriopsis [4]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [at least 2 N. Am. species in key to Nectria, spore illustrations]

Cole, M.S. and Hawksworth, D.L. 2001. Lichenicolous fungi, mainly from the USA, including Patriciomyces gen. nov. [N. cladoniicola newly described and illustrated; notes on 2 other N. Am. species

Neofuscelia (10)

Esslinger, T.L. 1977. A chemosystematic revision of the brown Parmeliae. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 42: 1-211. [107 species, split between three modern genera; key to about 60 brown parmelioid lichens in the northern hemisphere, 67 Neofuscelia species treated as Parmelia subgenus Neofusca, 10 in N. Am, descriptions, comparisons, photographs of thalli]

Esslinger, T.L. 2002. Neofuscelia. In Nash, T.H., III, Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., and Bungartz, F. (eds.). Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, pp. 289-295. [key to 9 N. Am. species; full species and generic descriptions; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/PublicationsforSale.htm]

Esslinger, T.L. 1978. A new status for the brown Parmeliae. Mycotaxon 7: 45-54. [new description of genus (in Latin), key to 3 new genera formerly in Parmelia]

Neolamya (1)

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [key to genera, 1 species, 1 on N. Am. list]

Nephroma (9)

Wetmore, C.M. 1960. The lichen genus Nephroma in North and Middle America. Publications of the Museum, Michigan State University, Biological Series 1: 369-452. [key, 8 species, 8 on N. Am. list, descriptions, some spore and anatomical drawings]

Wetmore, C.M. 1980. A new species of Nephroma from North America. Bryologist 83: 243-247. [N. occultum, description, illustration]

James, P.W. and White, F.J. 1987. Studies on the genus Nephroma I. The European and Macaronesian species. Lichenologist 19: 215-268. [key to 14 European and Macaronesian species, 8 on N. Am. list, descriptions, detailed treatment of chemistry]

[Nesolechia] (see Phacopsis)

[Neuropogon] (see Usnea)

Niebla (20)

[the North American checklist at the present follows Spjut 1996]

Spjut, R.W. 1996. Niebla and Vermilacinia (Ramalinaceae) from California and Baja California. Sida, Botanical Miscellany 14: 1-208. [key, 42 species of Niebla, 20 on N. Am. list, descriptions, color and non-color photographs}

Bowler, P.A., Riefner, R.E., Rundel, P.W., Marsh, J. and Nash, T.H., III. 1994. New species of Niebla (Ramalinaceae) from western North America. Phytologia 77(1): 23-37. [this treatment is much more conservative than Spjut 1996, recognizing only 14 species in Niebla, the concept of which includes Vermilacinia; key; 2 of the species on the N. Am. list of Niebla sensu Spjut; 8 N. Am. species now in Vermilacinia,; N. isidiascens newly described and illustrated]

Spjut, R.W. 1995. Vermilacinia (Ramalinaceae, Lecanorales), a new genus of lichens. In: Daniels, F.J.A., Schulz, M. and Peine, J. (eds.). Flechten Follmann. Contributions to lichenology in Honour of Gerhard Follmann. Geobotanical and Phytotaxonomical Study Group, Botanical Institute, University of Cologne, Cologne pp. 337-351. [generic delimitations, Niebla recircumscribed and compared to Vermilacinia]

Nigropuncta (1)

Hawksworth, D.L. 1981. The lichenicolous Coelomycetes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 9: 1-98. [N. rugulosa new genus and species, description]

Nodobryoria (3)

[see also keys to Alectoria written before 1995]

Brodo, I.M. and Alstrup, V. 1981. The lichen Bryoria subdivergens (Dahl) Brodo and D. Hawksw. in Greenland and North America. Bryologist 84: 229-235. [comparative table, 3 species of Nodobryoria as Bryoria section Subdivergentes]

Brodo, I.M. and Hawksworth, D.L. 1977. Alectoria and allied genera in North America. Opera Botanica 42: 1-164. [key to Alectorioid species, 3 Nodobryoria species included as Bryoria; descriptions, photos]

Common, R. and Brodo, I.M. 1995. Bryoria Sect. Subdivergentes recognized as the new genus Nodobryoria (lichenized Ascomycotina). Bryologist 98: 189-206. [generic delimitation]

Normandina (1)

[for identification, most microlichen floras; for example the following:]

Wirth, V. 1995. Die Flechten Baden-Württembergs, Teil 1 and 2. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart. 1006 pp. [in key to genera, 1 species, 1 on N. Am. list, description, color photograph]

[for interpretation of the perithecia found on Normandina:]

David, J.C. and Hawksworth, D.L. 1989. Lauderlindsaya, a new genus in the Verrucariales for Sphaerulina chlorococca (Leighton) R. Santesson. Sydowia 41: 108-121. [the perithecia sometimes found on Normandina squamules belong to a parasite]

Hensson, A. 1976. Studies in the developmental morphology of lichenized ascomycetes. In Brown, D.H., Hawksworth, D.L. and Bailey, R.H. (eds.). Lichenology: Progress and Problems. Academic Press, London, pp. 107-138 [the nomenclature, microstructure, and taxonomic position of Normandina; treats perithecia on Normandina as a parasitic fungus]

Aptroot, A. 1991. A conspectus of Normandina (Verrucariaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes). Willdenowia 21: 263-267. [takes opposite view: that the perithecia are the fruiting bodies of Normandina; key, 3 species, 1 on N. Am. list; drawings of thalli and spores]

 

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z Contents

Ocellularia (12)

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 12 species; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 109 pp. [key, 10 species, notes, O. retispora described; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1980. Generic delimitation in the lichen family Thelotremataceae. Mycotaxon 11: 130-138. [recircumscribes Thelotrema, Myriotrema, and Ocellularia based mainly on exciple type rather than spore type; many new combinations]

Ochrolechia (30)

[Brodo 1991 and Thomson 1997 together cover 26 species; for a few species see keys to Pertusaria prior to 1991]

Brodo, I.M. 1991. Studies in the lichen genus Ochrolechia. 2. Corticolous species of North America. Canadian Journal of Botany 69: 733-772. [key, 19 species, 18 on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs of most species]

Thomson, J.W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens 2. The Microlichens. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 675 pp. [key to 8 N. Am. species, descriptions, photographs of 3 species; especially useful for species growing on soil]

Verseghy, K. 1962. Die Gattung Ochrolechia. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 1: 1-146. [early world monograph, 59 accepted species, 13 on N. Am. list, descriptions, small photographs of thalli}

Tønsberg, T. 1992. The sorediate and isidiate, corticolous, crustose lichens in Norway. Sommerfeltia 14: 1-331. [7 often sterile species in overall key, 4 on N. Am. list descriptions, some species illustrated, O. turneri]

Laundon, J.R. 1963. The taxonomy of sterile crustaceous lichens in the British Isles. 2. Corticolous and lignicolous species. Lichenologist 2: 101-151. [5 sterile species in key, 4 on N. Am. list, O. yasudae, O. turneri]

Ahti, T., Scotter, G.W. and Vanska, H. 1973. Lichens of the Reindeer Preserve, Northwest Territories, Canada. Bryologist 76: 48-76. [4 N. Am. species on list; discussion of sorediate tundra species; no key]

Tucker, S.C. 1996. Key to the corticolous species of Ochrolechia in California. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society 3(2): 9-11. [key to 12 species, TLC not required, adapted from Brodo 1991]

Brodo, I.M. 1988. Studies of the lichen genus Ochrolechia. 1. A new classification for Pertusaria subplicans and P. rhodoleuca. Canadian Journal of Botany 66: 1264-1269. [descriptions and illustrations]

Schmitz, K.E., Lumbsch, H.T. and Feige, G.B. 1994. Systematic studies in the Pertusariales II. The generic concept in the Pertusariaceae (lichenized Ascomycotina). Acta Botanica Fennica 150: 153-160. [generic delimitation of Ochrolechia and Pertusaria; photographs of ascus types and spore types]

Howard, G.E. 1970. The lichen genus Ochrolechia in North America north of Mexico. Bryologist 73: 93-130. [unreliable key, 20 species, 12 still on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs of thalli; supplanted by Brodo (1991)]

[Omphalaria]                     (see Peccania)

Omphalina (5)

Collin, P. and Lauron, A. 1994. Omphalina peltigerina (Peck) P. Collin, champignon lichenicole nouveau pour la France. Bulletin Trimestriel de la Société Mycologique de France 110(1): 11-16. [key, 5 species (mostly as Phytoconis), 5 on N. Am. list, O. peltigerina described]

Bigelow, H.E. 1970. Omphalina in North America. Mycologia 62: 1-32. [key to 12 species, 3 lichenized species on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs of fruiting bodies]

Redhead, S.A. and Kuyper, T.W. 1987. Lichenized agarics: taxonomic and nomenclatural riddles. Arctic and Alpine Mycology 2: 319-348. [key to 7 species as Botrydina, 4 species on N. Am. list of Omphalina; illustrations]

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W. and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [good summary of taxonomic history, key to 8 lichenized or lichenicolous species, 4 on N. Am. list, descriptions; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Hoiland, K. 1987. The basidiolichens of Norway and Svalbard. Graphis Scripta 1: 81-90. [key, 4 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions]

[Omphalodiscus]               (see Umbilicaria)

[Omphalodium]                 (see Omphalora)

Omphalora (1)

Nash, T.H., III, Hafellner, J, and Common, R.S. 1990. Omphalora, a new genus in the Parmeliaceae. Lichenologist 22: 355-365. [monospecific genus described, compared, and illustrated]

Ryan, B.D. and Nash, T.H., III. 1997. Placodioid taxa of Lecanoraceae sensu Zahlbr. (lichenized Ascomycotina) in North America: taxa excluded from Lecanora subg. Placodium. Nova Hedwigia 64: 393-420. [O. arizonica in key to placidioid genera and groups; brief characterization]

Opegrapha (36) [39]

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [key, 32 species on N. Am. list, descriptions; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [key, 24 species, 20 still on N. Am. list, including many not elsewhere treated; 3 additional lichenicolous species as Opegraphoidea; descriptions]

Torrente, P. and J.M. Egea, J.M. 1989. La Familia Opegraphaceae en el Area Mediterránea de la Península Ibérica y Norte de Africa. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 32. J. Cramer, Berlin. 282 pp. [key, 23 species, 11 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Redinger, K. 1938. Graphidaceae. In Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 9,2 (1): 181-404. [key, 62 species, about 13 on N. Am. list, about 13 species, descriptions, drawings]

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W., and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [key, 31 species, 15 on N. Am. list, ][cited by Tønsberg; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 109 pp. [key, 19 species, many unnamed, 9 on N. Am. list, notes and one description; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 19 species, many unnamed, 9 on N. Am. list; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Misbrand, S. and Alstrup, V. 1992. Opegrapha sphaerophoricola sp. nov. Bryologist 95: 233-234. [description, drawing of spores and ascus]

Tønsberg, T. 1994. Additions to the lichen flora of North America III. Halecania viridescens and Opegrapha sorediifera. Evansia 11: 100-101. [brief description]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [key, 17 lichenicolous species (plus 12 as Leciographa), 2 on N. Am. list]

Coppins, B.J. 1987. Two new lichenicolous species of Opegrapha from western Scotland. Notes from the Royal Botanical Garden Edinburgh 44: 601-606. [table of characters for 5 lichenicolous species, O. pulvinata on N. Am. list]

[Opegraphoidea] (see Opegrapha)

Ophioparma (3)

May, P.F. 1997. Ophioparma lapponica - a misunderstood species. Harvard Papers in Botany 2: 213-228. [key, 3 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs of anatomy of 2 species]

May, P.F. 1998. Lichen flora of eastern North America: the genus Ophioparma Norman. In: Glenn, M.G., Harris, R.C., Dirig, R., and Cole, M.S. (eds.): Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson. Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, New York pp. 77-88. [key, 2 species, descriptions, illustrations; article available online from the Eastern Lichen Network at http://www.nybg.org/bsci/lichens/eln/articles.html/; book available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/]

Kalb, K. and Staiger, B. 1995. Rindenbewohnende Arten der Flechtengattung Ophioparma in Amerika. In: Farkas, E.E., Lücking, R. and Wirth, V. (eds.). Scripta Lichenologica--Lichenological Papers Dedicated to Antonín Vezda. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, no. 58, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart pp. 191-198. [2 corticolous species; O. rubricosa, as O. herrei, on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of spores]

Staiger, B. and Kalb, K. 1995. Haematomma-studien. I. Die Flechtengattung Haematomma. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 59. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. pp. 1-198 [generic delimitation, comparative table with Loxospora and Haematomma]

Orphniospora (1)

Hafellner, J. 1984. Studien in Richtung einer naturlicheren Gliederung der Sammelfamilien Lecanoraceae und Lecideaceae. In: Hertel, H. and Oberwinkler, F. (eds.). Beiträge zur Lichenologie. Festschrift J. Poelt. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia 79. J. Cramer, Vaduz pp. 241-371. [genus described, illustration of O. moriopsis]

Thomson, J.W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens 2. The Microlichens. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 675 pp. [in key to genera, 1 N. Am. species, description, fine drawing]

 

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z Contents

   Parmelia     Pe     Ph     Phy     Pi     Pl     Po     Pr     Ps     Py

[Pachyospora] (see Megaspora)

Pachyphiale (3)

Vezda, A. 1958. Ceskoslovenske druhy rodu Gyalecta a Pachyphiale s klicem a prehledem evropskych druhu. {Die tschechoslowakischen Gyalecta- und Pachyphiale-Arten nebst Bestimmungsschlüssel und Übersicht der europaischen Arten.} Sborn. Vyskoe Skoly Zemedelske a Lesnicke v Brne. Rada C: Spisy Fakul. Lesnicke 1958(1): 21-56. [key, 5 species, 3 on N. Am. list, spore drawings, in German]

Lettau, G. (1932-37). Monographische Bearbeitung einiger Flechtenfamilien. Repertorium specierum novarum regni vegetabilis, Beihefte, 69: 1-150. [3 species described, 2 on N. Am. list]

Vezda, A. and Poelt, J. 1975. Die Gattungen Dimerella und Pachyphiale. In: Hellmich, W. (ed.). Khumbu Himal; Ergebnisse des Froschungsunternehmens Nepal Himalaya, Baud 6/2. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 127-132. [key, 5 species, P. carneola and P. fagicola on N. Am. list, drawings of spores]

Ekman, S. 1996. The corticolous and lignicolous species of Bacidia and Bacidina in North America. Opera Botanica 127: 1-148. [P. gyalizella, comparative description]

Pannaria (7)[8]

Jørgensen, P.M. 2000. Survey of the lichen family Pannariaceae on the American continent north of Mexico. Bryologist: 103: 670-704. [key to genera and species, 8 N. Am. species; P.subfusca new, and 2 new subspecies of P. lurida; descriptions of genera and species, notes, photographs of thalli of all taxa]

Jørgensen, P.M. 1978. The lichen family Pannariaceae in Europe. Opera Botanica 45: 1-123. [5 N. Am. species in key to 20 species in key to family, plus comparative notes on 2 more N. Am. species, descriptions, illustrations, no generic descriptions or delimitations]

McCune, B. and Goward, T. 1995. Macrolichens of the Northern Rocky Mountains. Mad River Press, Eureka, California. 208 pp. [5 N. Am. species in detailed key to Pannaria in the broad sense; good color photographs]

Jørgensen, P.M. 1994. Studies in the lichen family Pannariaceae VI: the taxonomy and phytogeography of Pannaria Del. s. lat. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 76: 197-206. [new generic delimitation]

Paranectria [1]

Cole, M.S. and Hawksworth, D.L. 2001. Lichenicolous fungi, mainly from the USA, including Patriciomyces gen. nov. [P. oropensis subsp. parviseptata newly described and illustrated]

[Paraparmelia]                    (see Canoparmelia)

[Parathelium]                    (see Pyrenula)

Parmelia (11)

[the North American checklist divides Parmelia, in the traditional sense, into several segregate genera: ]

[Keys to segregate genera recognized in North America:]

Elix, J.A. 1993. Progress in the generic delimitation of Parmelia sensu lato lichens (Ascomycotina: Parmeliaceae) and a synoptic key to the Parmeliaceae. Bryologist 96: 359-383. [a multiple-entry key; also lists the defining characters of each genus within the family]

Adler, M.T. 1990. An artificial key to the genera of the Parmeliaceae (Lichenes, Ascomycotina). Mycotaxon 38: 331-337. [a dichotomous key]

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskette} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [for keys to Parmeliaceae and Parmelia in the broad sense, look in the file: "parmelia.seg"; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

[Names used in Parmelia in the broadest sense:]

Hale, B.W. and DePriest, P.T. 1999. Mason E. Hale's list of epithets in the parmelioid genera. Bryologist 102(3): 462-544. [list of 4,000 names arranged alphabetically and by genus

Farr, E.R., Hale, B. W. and DePriest, P.T. 1999. Parmeliaceae: Searchable List of Names in the Parmelioid Genera (Lichens) {Online}. Available: http://persoon.si.edu/parmeliaceae/ {accessed 1 March 2000}. [searchable database of 4,000 names]

Hale, M.E., Jr. and Kurokawa, S. 1964. Studies on Parmelia subgenus Parmelia. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 36: 121-191. [the introduction contains a list of subgroup names used in the genus before it was split into segregate genera]

[Keys to Parmelia, in the narrow sense:]

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1987. A monograph of the lichen genus Parmelia Acharius sensu stricto (Ascomycotina: Parmeliaceae). Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 66: 1-55, i-iv. [key, 38 species, 10 on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs of thalli]

Hinds, J.W. 1998. Lichen flora of eastern North America: the genus Parmelia sensu stricto. In: Glenn, M.G., Harris, R.C., Dirig, R. and Cole, M.S. (eds.). Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson. Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, New York, pp. 53-69. [key to 7 eastern N. Am. species, descriptions; article available online from the Eastern Lichen Network at http://www.nybg.org/bsci/lichens/eln/articles.html/; book available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/]

Kurokawa, S. 1994. Japanese species of Parmelia Ach. (sens. str.), Parmeliaceae (1). Journal of Japanese Botany 69: 61-68, 121-126, 204-213, 262-269, 373-378, [key, 17 species, 5 on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs of thalli]

Skult, H. 1984. The Parmelia omphalodes (Ascomycetes) complex in eastern Fennoscandia. Chemical and morphological variation. Annales Botanici Fennici 21: 117-142. [description and illustrations of subspecies, 2 subspecies on N. Am. list]

[See also: macrolichen keys and recent floras for North and South America]

[Keys to species of Parmelia in the broad sense:]

Hale, M.E., Jr. and Kurokawa, S. 1964. Studies on Parmelia subgenus Parmelia. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 36: 121-191. [key, about 205 species, now scattered among several segregate genera, about 50 on N. Am. list, descriptions of new species only]

Anonymous (ed.). 1997. Database for the Identification of Parmelia Ach. of Great Britain and Ireland {CD-ROM}. British Lichen Society. Available from the publisher at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm . [keys to 47 British Parmelia in the broad sense, present names, chemistry, British distribution and habitats, 117 color photographs; the key alone is available online at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/cd/key.htm {accessed 1999 August 4}]

Culberson, W.L. 1962. Some pseudocyphellate Parmeliae. Nova Hedwigia 4: 563-577. [key to 12 N. Am. species, now found in 4 genera, especially Punctelia]

[See also: macrolichen keys and floras for Europe]

Parmeliella (5-6)[6]

Jørgensen, P.M. 2000. Survey of the lichen family Pannariaceae on the American continent north of Mexico. Bryologist: 103: 670-704. [key to genera and species, 6 N. Am. species, P. appalachensis new; descriptions of genera and species, notes, photographs of thalli of all taxa]

Parmelina (1)

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1976. A monograph of the lichen genus Parmelina Hale (Parmeliaceae). Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 33: 1-60. [world key, 47 species of Parmelina in the broad sense, many now transferred to other genera, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs of aspect]

Hale, M.E., Jr. and Kurokawa, S. 1964. Studies on Parmelia subgenus Parmelia. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 36: 121-191. [world key, 33 species as Parmelia subsection Imbricaria, most now transferred, 1 on N. Am. list]

Parmelinopsis (5)

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1976. A monograph of the lichen genus Parmelina Hale (Parmeliaceae). Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 33: 1-60. [5 N. Am. species in world key to Parmelina in the broad sense (47 taxa), descriptions, photographs of aspect]

Elix, J. A. and Hale, M. E. 1987. Canomaculina, Myelochroa, Parmelinella, Parmelinopsis and Parmotremopsis, five new genera in the Parmeliaceae (Lichenized Ascomycotina). Mycotaxon 29: 233-244. [new genus, generic comparisons, key to genera of Parmelina in the broad sense]

Parmeliopsis (4)

Hinds, J.W. 1999. Lichen flora of eastern North America: the genera Parmeliopsis and Imshaugia. Mycotaxon 72: 271-278. [key, 4 species plus 2 in Imshaugia, all in N. Am., descriptions, photographs of thalli; comparisons, range maps, history of genus]

Meyer, S.L.F. 1982. Segregation of the new lichen genus Foraminella from Parmeliopsis. Mycologia 74: 592-598. [treats 3 species now in Parmeliopsis as Foraminella; in a later paper the author reversed herself and accepted them as Parmeliopsis; table compares the species with 2 species now in Imshaugia; drawings of spores and conidia]

[Parmentaria]                    (see Pyrenula)

Parmotrema (32)

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1979. How to know the lichens, 2nd ed. Wm. C. Brown Co., Dubuque, Iowa, 246 pp. [38 Parmotrema species in overall key, 28 still on N. Am. list]

Hinds, P. 1998. Reformatted and updated keys to M.E. Hale, How to know the lichens. 72 pp. [A reworking of Hale's keys to make them faster and easier to use. The species names are brought into conformity with the most recent print version of the North American checklist. Does not contain species descriptions. Designed to be used in conjunction with Hale's original work. Available from Patricia Hinds, 254 Forest Avenue, Orono, ME 04473 jwhplh@earthlink.net]

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1965. A monograph of Parmelia subgenus Amphigymnia. Contributions of the United States National Herbarium 36: 191-358. [world key, 106 species in group, 23 on N. Am. list as Parmotrema, descriptions]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 19 species, P. submarginale treated as P. michauxianum; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Krog, H. and Swinscow, T.D.V. 1981. Parmelia subgenus Amphigymnia (lichens) in East Africa. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 9: 143-231. [key, 70 species, 18 on N. Am. list as Parmotrema, several species that are not in Hale (1965); descriptions, comparisons, discussions of species characters that differ from Hale, thallus photos]

 

 

Parmotremopsis (1)

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1976. A monograph of the lichen genus Pseudoparmelia Lynge (Parmeliaceae). Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 31: 1-62. [1 N. Am. species in world key to Pseudoparmelia (76 taxa), descriptions, photographs of aspect]

Elix, J. A. and Hale, M. E. 1987. Canomaculina, Myelochroa, Parmelinella, Parmelinopsis and Parmotremopsis, five new genera in the Parmeliaceae (Lichenized Ascomycotina). Mycotaxon 29: 233-244. [new genus, generic comparisons, key to genera of Parmelina in the broad sense]

[Parmularia]                      (see Lecanora)

Patriciomyces [1]

Cole, M.S. and Hawksworth, D.L. 2001. Lichenicolous fungi, mainly from the USA, including Patriciomyces gen. nov. [P. valentinianus newly described and illustrated]

Paulia (1)

Henssen, A. 1986. The genus Paulia (Lichinaceae). Lichenologist 18: 201-229. [key, 8 species, 0 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [P. pyrenoides in key to Thyrea, description]

Peccania (4)

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [key, 4 species, all described except P. arizonica for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Herre, A.W.C.T. 1911. The desert lichens of Reno, Nevada. Botanical Gazette 51(4): 286-297. [description of P. arizonica]

Moreno, P.P. and Egea, J. M. 1992. Estudios sobre el complejo Anema-Thyrea-Peccania en el sureste de la Peninsula Iberica y norte de Africa. Acta Botanica Barcinonensia 41: 1-66. [revision; generic delimitations; key, 4 species, none on N. Am. list, descriptions; photographs; key to genera, comparative table]

Wetmore, C.M. 1985. Lichens of Theodore Roosevelt National Park. Mycotaxon 23: 241-249. [P. subnigra and P texana, new combinations and brief descriptive notes]

Peltigera (27) [28]

Goward, T., Goffinet, B. and Vitikainen, O. 1995. Synopsis of the genus Peltigera (lichenized Ascomycetes) in British Columbia, with a key to the North American species. Canadian Journal of Botany 73(1): 91-111. [key, 27 named species, brief characterizations, notes, comparative tables, drawings of character states]

Wilson, L.A. 1997. The lichen genus Peltigera in Oregon. In: Kaye, T.N., Liston, A., Love, R.M., Luoma, D.L., Meinke, R.J., and Wilson, M.V. (eds.). Conservation and Management of Native Plants and Fungi. Native Plant Society of Oregon, Corvallis, pp. 272-287. [key, 27 N. Am. species, photographs of thalli, illustrations of character states; no descriptions]

Vitikainen, O. 1994. Taxonomic revision of Peltigera (lichenized Ascomycotina) in Europe. Acta Botanica Fennica 152: 1-96. [key, 29 species, 24 on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs of thalli and character states]

Goffinet, B. and Hastings, R.I. 1994. The lichen genus Peltigera (Lichenized Ascomycetes) in Alberta. The Provincial Museum of Alberta, Natural History Occasional Paper No. 21: 1-54. [key, 22 N. Am. species, descriptions, photographs of thalli and of character states, comparative tables]

Holtan-Hartwig, J. 1993. The lichen genus Peltigera, exclusive of the P. canina group, in Norway. Sommerfeltia 15: 1-77. [key, 16 named species, 15 on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs of thalli, comparative tables]

Martínez Moreno, M.I. 1999 Taxonomía del genera Peltigera Wild. (Ascomycetes liquenizados) en la Península Ibérica y estudia de sus hongos liquenícolas. Monografías del Real Jardín Botánica 15, Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid, 200 pp. [key, 23 species, 21 on N. Am. list, descriptions, comparative tables, photographs and drawings of anatomy, good drawings of morphology.; list of parasites and parasymbionts]

Goffinet, B., Sérusiaux, E. and Diederich, P. 1994. Le genre Peltigera (Lichenes) en Belgique et au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg. Belgian Journal of Botany 127: 184-206. [key, 17 species, 16 on N. Am. list, notes, usually with characterizations; in French]

Vitikainen, O. 1985. Three new species of Peltigera (lichenized fungi). Annales Botanici Fennici 22: 291-298. [P. kristinssonii, P. pacifica, P. retifoveata]

Goffinet, B. and Miadlikowska, J. 1999. Peltigera phyllidiosa (Peltigeraceae, Ascomycotina), a new species from the Southern Appalachians corroborated by ITS sequences. Lichenologist 31: 247-256. [description of 1 new species, photograph of thallus]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1980. Notes on some fungi occurring on Peltigera, with a key to accepted species. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 74: 363-386. [key to 40 parasitic species, many described and illustrated]

Peltula (14) [16]

[the first three references together cover all species on N. Am. list]

Wetmore, C.M. 1970. The lichen family Heppiaceae in North America. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 57: 158-209. [key, 12 species, descriptions, photographs of thalli]

Egea, J.M. 1989. Los géneros Heppia y Peltula (Líquenes) en Europa Occidental y Norte de Africa. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 31. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 122 pp. [key, 12 species, 9 on N. Am. list, descriptions, includes P. radicata]

Büdel, B., and Nash, T.H., III. 2002. Peltula. In Nash, T.H., III, Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., and Bungartz, F. (eds.). Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, pp. 331-340. [key to 16 species, 14 on N. Am. list; full species and generic descriptions]

Filson, R.B. 1988. The lichen genera Heppia and Peltula in Australia. Muelleria 6: 495-517. [key, 9 species, 5 on N. Am. list, descriptions, detailed drawings]

[Perforaria]                      (see Coccotrema)

Peridiothelia (1) [2]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1985. A redisposition of the species referred to the ascomycete genus Microthelia. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany Series 14: 43-181. [genus newly described, key to 3 species, 2 on N. Am. list , description, copious illustrations]

Pertusaria (76)

Dibben, M.J. 1980. The chemosystematics of the lichen genus Pertusaria in North America north of Mexico. Milwaukee Public Museum, Publications in Biology and Geology 5: 1-162. [key, 66 species, 63 still on N. Am. list, descriptions, comparisons, photographs of thalli]

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 109 pp. [key, 27 N. Am. species, 5 species newly described; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 27 species; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Lumbsch, H.T., Nash, T.H., III and Messuti, M.I. 1999. A revision of Pertusaria species with hyaline ascospores in southwestern North America (Pertusariales, Ascomycotina). Bryologist 102: 215-239. [key, 28 species, 22 species on N. Am. list, plus 3 to be added, descriptions or characterizations, photographs of thalli]

Ladd, D. and Wilhelm, G. 1998. The lichen genus Pertusaria in Illinois and Missouri. In: Glenn, M.G., Harris, R.C., Dirig, R. and Cole, M,S, (eds.). Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson. Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, New York pp. 89-104. [key, 17 species, notes; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/]

Tønsberg, T. 1992. The sorediate and isidiate, corticolous, crustose lichens in Norway. Sommerfeltia 14: 1-331. [12 species of Pertusaria in general key, 6 on N. Am. list, detailed descriptions; P. pupillaris, P. geminipara treated]

Schmitz, K.E., Lumbsch, H.T. and Feige, G.B. 1994. Systematic studies in the Pertusariales II. The generic concept in the Pertusariaceae (lichenized Ascomycotina). Acta Botanica Fennica 150: 153-160. [generic delimitation of Ochrolechia and Pertusaria; photographs of ascus types and spore types]

Oshio, M. 1968. Taxonomical studies on the family Pertusariaceae of Japan. Journal of Science of the Hiroshima University, Series B, Div. 2 (Botany), 12: 81-163. [key, 32 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of thalli and anatomy]

Brodo, I.M. 1995. Lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. 1. Introduction and new records for B.C., Canada and North America. Mycotaxon 56: 135-173. [P. hakkodensis, better spore measurements]

Petractis (1)

Vezda, A. 1965. Flechtensystematische Studien I. Die Gattung Petractis Fr. Preslia 37: 127-143. [key, 5 species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Clauzade, G. and Roux, C. 1985. Likenoj de Okcidenta Europo. Ilustrita Determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Botanique du Centre-Ouest, Nouvelle Série, Numéro Spécial 7. Royan, France. 893 pp. [detailed key, 5 species, none on N. Am. list; drawings of thalli and spores give the "feel" of the genus]

Phacopsis (4)

Triebel, D., Rambold, G. and Elix, J.A. 1995. A conspectus of the genus Phacopsis (Lecanorales). Bryologist 98: 71-83. [worldwide key, 10 species, 4 on N. Am. list, P. oxyspora, drawings of spores and stained asci]

Triebel, D. and Rambold, G. 1988. Cecidonia und Phacopsis (Lecanorales): zwei lichenicole Pilzgattungen mit cecidogenen Arten. Nova Hedwigia 47(3-4): 279-309. [5 species, 4 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Rambold, G. and Triebel, D. (no date). Lecanoraceae: Phacopsis. (title erroneously given as "Lecanora subset subfusca group"){Online}. In: LIAS: A Global Information System for Lichenized and Non-Lichenized Ascomycetes. Botanische Staatssammlung München. Available: http://www.mycology.net//lias/index.cfm {accessed 1999 September 30}. [online interactive multiple-access world key; 10 species of Phacopsis, 4 on N. Am. list; due to incomplete data entry, the key returns no species for the character state "North America"]

Hafellner, J. 1987. Studien über lichenicole Pilze und Flechten V. Über die Gattung Phacopsis Tul. emend. Körber (Lecanorales). Herzogia 7: 343-352. [2 species, 2 on N. Am. list, drawings of anatomy, P. vulpina]

Phaeocalicium (5) [10]

Selva, S.B. and Tibell, L. 1999. Lichenized and non-lichenized calicioid fungi from North America. Bryologist 102: 377-397. [keys to 10 N. Am. species; descriptions of 4 new or newly reported species photographs of newly described species]

Tibell, L. 1999. Calicioid lichens and fungi. In: Ahti, T., Jørgensen, P.M., Kristinsson, H., Moberg, R., Søchting, U. and Thor, G. (eds.). Nordic Lichen Flora. Volume 1. Introductory Parts. Calicioid Lichens and Fungi. Nordic Lichen Society, Uddevalla. 94 pp. [key to 8 species, 6 on N. Am. list, descriptions, notes, good color photographs]

Tibell, L. 1996. Phaeocalicium (Mycocaliciaceae, Ascomycetes) in northern Europe. Annales Botanici Fennici 33: 205-221. [key to 8 species, 5 on N. Am. list; detailed descriptions, illustrations of each species]

Selva, S.B. 1988. The Caliciales of Northern Maine. Bryologist 91: 2-17 [4 species in main key, descriptions]

Schmidt, A. 1970. Anatomisch-taxonomische Untersuchungen an europaischen Arten der Flechtenfamilie Caliciaceae. Mitteilungen aus dem Staatsinstitut für allgemeine Botanik in Hamburg 13: 111-166. [description of the new genus Phaeocalicium; P. praecedens (not in Selva 1988), P. compressulum, P. populneum, descriptions]

Tibell, L. 1975. The Caliciales of boreal North America. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 21(2): 1-128. [key, 3 species, descriptions]

Hutchison, L.J. 1987. Studies on Phaeocalicium polyporaeum in North America. Mycologia 79: 786-789. [key to calicioid species on polypores]

Phaeographina (4)

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [key to 6 N. Am. species, including the 2 undescribed Harris species, descriptions for 3 of them; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 109 pp. [key to 6 species, 2 of which are undescribed, notes; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key to 6 species, 2 of which are undescribed; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Wirth, M. and Hale, M.E., Jr. 1963. The lichen family Graphidaceae in Mexico. Contributions from the. U. S. National Herbarium 36(3): 63-119. [6 Phaeographina species in key to family, G. asteroides and G. caesiopruinosa on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of apothecia and spores]

Awasthi, D.D. and Singh, K.P. 1973. Species of the lichen genus Phaeographina in Indian subcontinent. Kavaka 1: 87-98. [key, 11 species, G. caesiopruinosa and G. quassiicola on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of apothecial anatomy and spores, photographs of thalli]

Patwardhan, P.G. and Kulkarni, C.R. 1979. The lichen genus Phaeographina (family Graphidaceae) in the Western Ghats, Southwestern India. Indian Journal of Botany 2(2): 132-143. [key, 11 species, G. caesiopruinosa and G. quassiicola on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Phaeographis (14)

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 109 pp. [key, 10 named species, 4 unnamed species, notes, P. multicolor; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 10 named species, 4 unnamed, plus Sarcographa; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [key, 10 species, 9 still on list, descriptions]

Wirth, M. and Hale, M.E., Jr. 1963. The lichen family Graphidaceae in Mexico. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 36: 63-119. [4 Phaeographis species in key to family, 4 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of apothecia and spores]

Wirth, M. and Hale, M.E., Jr. 1978. Morden-Smithsonian expedition to Dominica: the lichens (Graphidaceae). Smithsonian Contributions in Botany 40: 1-64. [key, 7 species, 4 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of apothecia]

Phaeophyscia (20)

Esslinger, T.L. 1978. Studies in the lichen family Physciaceae. II. The genus Phaeophyscia in North America. Mycotaxon 7: 283-320. [key, 19 N. Am. species, descriptive/comparative notes]

Matzer, M., Mayrhofer, H., and Moberg, R. (no date). Physciaceae: Phaeophyscia {Online}. In: LIAS: A Global Information System for Lichenized and Non-Lichenized Ascomycetes. Botanische Staatssammlung München. Available: http://www.mycology.net//lias/index.cfm (under Physciaceae){accessed 1999 September 30}. [online interactive multiple-access world key; also available in downloadable format; 27 species in key; does not recognize four species on N. Am. list; 16 species with N. Am. distribution]

Esslinger, T.L. 1985. Studies in the lichen family Physciaceae. VI. Two species new to North America. Mycotaxon 23: 219-222. [P. insignis, description and comparisons ]

Thomson, J.W. 1963. The lichen genus Physcia in North America. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 7: 1-172, 47 maps, 23 pl. [artificial key to 47 species of Physcia in the broad sense, including Dirinaria, Physconia, Phaeophyscia, Physciella, and Hyperphyscia; 9 species of Phaeophyscia as obscura group of Physcia, 9 on N. Am. list; photographs of thalli]

Moberg, R. 1995. The lichen genus Phaeophyscia in China and Russian Far East. Nordic Journal of Botany 15: 319-335. [key, 15 species, 8 on N. Am. list, descriptions, some photographs of thalli, taxonomic discussions]

Moberg, R. 1977. The lichen genus Physcia and allied genera in Fennoscandia. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 22(l): 1-108. [the new genus Phaeophyscia; key, 8 species, 7 on N. Am. list; descriptions, illustrations]

Moberg, R. and Hansen, E.S. 1986. The lichen genus Physcia and allied genera in Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bioscience 22: 1-32. [key, 6 species, 6 on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs of thalli]

Moberg, R. 1983. The genus Phaeophyscia in East Africa. Nordic Journal of Botany 3: 509-516. [key, 8 species, 5 on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs of spores and thalli]

Kashiwadani, H. 1975. The genera Physcia, Physconia, and Dirinaria (Lichens) of Japan. Ginkgoana 3: 1-77. [7 N. Am. species as Physcia, key, descriptions, illustrations]

Phaeopyxis (1)

Rambold, G. and Triebel, D. 1990. Gelatinopsis, Geltingia and Phaeopyxis: three helotialean genera with lichenicolous species. Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh 46: 375-389. [3 Phaeopyxis species in key to 9 lichenicolous helotialean fungi; P. punctum on N. Am. list, description of genus and of species, drawings of asci; comparative table for genera]

Phaeorrhiza (2)

Mayrhofer, H. and J. Poelt. 1978. Phaeorrhiza, eine neue Gattung der Physciaceae (Lichenes). Nova Hedwigia 30: 781-798. [world key, 2 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Thomson, J.W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens 2. The Microlichens. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 675 pp. [key, 2 species, descriptions]

Phaeospora (3)

[the third reference with either of the first two cover all species on N. Am list]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1983. A key to the lichen-forming, parasitic, parasymbiotic and saprophytic fungi occurring on lichens in the British Isles. Lichenologist 15: 1-44. [5 species in overall key, 2 on N. Am. list, spore drawings]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [key, 16 lichenicolous species, 2 on N. Am. list, spore illustrations]

Horáková, J. and Alstrup, V. 1994. Phaeospora arctica, a new lichenicolous fungus. Graphis Scripta 6: 61-63. [description and drawing of ascus with spores]

Hawksworth, D. L. 1985. A re-disposition of the species referred to the ascomycete genus Microthelia. Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History, Botany, 14: 43-181. [P. rimosicola, descriptive and taxonomic note, as Microthelia rimosicola]

Dennis, R.W.G. 1978. British Ascomycetes. J. Cramer, Vaduz, 585 pp. [P. parasitica, description and illustration in color]

Keissler, K. von. 1930. Die Flechtenparasiten. In Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 8: 1-712. [key, 8 species, 1 on N. Am. list, P. parasitica]

Phaeosporobolus (2)

Hawksworth, D.L. and Hafellner, J. 1986. Phaeosporobolus usneae, a new and widespread lichenicolous deuteromycete. Nova Hedwigia 43: 525-530. [newly described genus and species, illustrations]

Diederich, P. 1990. New or interesting lichenicolous fungi 1. Species from Luxembourg. Mycotaxon 37: 297-330. [P. usneae, correction to description, illustration of conidial stages]

Alstrup, V. and Hawksworth, D.L. 1990. The lichenicolous fungi of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bioscience 31: 1-90. [2 species, 2 N. Am. species, in overall key, P. alpinus newly described, illustration]

[Phaeotrema]                    (see Thelotrema, Ocellularia)

[Pharcidia]                         (see Stigmidium)

Phlyctella (1)

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [description of genus and species; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [description of genus and of P. andensis]

Galloway, D.J. 1985. Flora of New Zealand Lichens. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer, Wellington. lxxiii + 662 pp. [no N. Am. species, but good for description of genus]

Phlyctidia (1)

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [description of genus and P. ludoviciensis]

Phlyctis (4)

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [key, 4 N. Am. species, descriptions; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

[the last two references together cover all species on the N. Am. list]

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [key, 3 species, descriptions]

Noble, W. 1982. The lichens of the coastal Douglas-fir dry subzone of British Columbia. Ph.D. thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 942 pp. [reprinted version of Noble’s species treatments; key, N. Am. species, descriptions; available from Bruce McCune at Bruce.McCune@science.oregonstate.edu]

Tønsberg, T. 1992. The sorediate and isidiate, corticolous, crustose lichens in Norway. Sommerfeltia 14: 1-331. [good description and photo of P. argena]

Phoma (1)

Hawksworth, D.L. 1981. The lichenicolous Coelomycetes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany Series 9: 1-98. [key, 5 species, P. physciicola on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

[Phragmonaevia]               (see Corticifraga)

Phylliscum (2)

Henssen, A. 1963. Drei neue Arten der Flechtengattung Phylliscum. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 57: 145-160. [key, 6 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations of thalli and anatomy]

Alstrup, V. and Hawksworth, D.L. 1990. The lichenicolous fungi of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grönland., Bioscience 31: 1-90. [P. demangeonii: partial description as a lichenicolous fungus)]

Phyllopsora (8 or 9)

Brako, L. 1991. Phyllopsora (Bacidiaceae). Flora Neotropica Monograph 55. New York Botanical Garden, New York. [key, 18 species, 8 on N. Am. list, the 9th P. halei (not described) is treated as uncertain; descriptions, illustrations]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 9 species; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Brako, L. 1989. Reevaluation of the genus Phyllopsora with taxonomic notes and introduction of Squamacidia, gen. nov. Mycotaxon 35: 1-19. [new generic delimitation, comparisons; key to similar genera; photographs of anatomy]]

Printzen, C. 1995. Some notes on the delimitation of the genus Biatora Fr. (Lecanorales, lichenized ascomycetes). Cryptogamic Botany 5: 105-110. [table compares Phyllopsora with Biatora]

[Physalospora] (Not in North America)

Physcia (36)

Thomson, J.W. 1963. The lichen genus Physcia in North America. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 7: 1-172, 47 maps, 23 pl. [artificial key to 47 species of Physcia in the broad sense, including Dirinaria, Physconia, Phaeophyscia, Physciella, and Hyperphyscia; 27 species of Physcia in the strict sense, 21 on N. Am. list; photographs of thalli]

Moberg, R. 1977. The lichen genus Physcia and allied genera in Fennoscandia. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 22(l): 1-108. [key, covers Phaeophyscia, Physconia, Hyperphyscia, and 10 species of Physcia, 9 on N. Am. list; descriptions, illustrations]

Moberg, R. 1991. Correction. Nordic Journal of Botany 11: 128 [corrected key for Central and South America]

Moberg, R. 1990. The lichen genus Physcia in Central and South America. Nordic Journal of Botany 10: 319-342. [key (with printing error), 34 species, 15 on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs thalli for roughly half the species]

Moberg, R. 1986. The genus Physcia in East Africa. Nordic Journal of Botany 6: 843-864 [key, 21 species, 13 on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs of most species; discussion and photographs of soralia types and types of lower cortex]

Moberg, R. 1997. The lichen genus Physcia in the Sonoran Desert and adjacent regions. In: Tibell, L. and Hedberg, I. (eds.). Lichen Studies Dedicated to Rolf Santesson. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 32(1): 163-186. [key, 25 species, descriptions,16 on N. Am. list, P. nashii and P. tenellula newly described]

Moberg, R. Hansen, E.S. 1986. The lichen genus Physcia and allied genera in Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bioscience 22: 1-32. [key, 7 species, descriptions, comparisons, photographs of thalli]

Esslinger, T.L. 1979. Studies in the lichen family Physciaceae. V. Two species of Physcia new to North America. Mycotaxon 10: 210-212. [P. dimidiata, P. magnussonii, descriptions]

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 109 pp. [key 8 species, notes, P. neogaea and P. pumilior newly described; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Esslinger, T.L. and Egan, R.S. 1996. A new species of the lichen genus Physcia (lichen-forming Ascomycota) from Texas. Bryologist 99: 331-334. [P. solistella newly described, identification notes on P. millegrana, P. subtilis, and P. duplicorticata]

Hafellner, J., Mayrhofer, H. and Poelt, J. 1979. Die Gattungen der Flechtenfamilie Physciaceae. Herzogia 5: 39-79. [generic description and comparisons]

Physciaceae (key for determining the genera)

Hafellner, J., Mayrhofer, H. and Poelt, J. 1979. Die Gattungen der Flechtenfamilie Physciaceae. Herzogia 5: 39-79.

Physciella (3

Esslinger, T.L. 1986. Studies in the lichen family Physciaceae. VII. The new genus Physciella. Mycologia 78: 92-97. [world key, 4 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions; table compares similar genera]

Moberg, R. 1995. The lichen genus Phaeophyscia in China and Russian Far East. Nordic Journal of Botany 15: 319-335. [3 N. Am. species in key to Phaeophyscia; descriptions, some photographs of thalli, taxonomic discussions]

Matzer, M., Mayrhofer, H., and Moberg, R. 1995. Physciaceae: Phaeophyscia {Online}. In: LIAS: A Global Information System for Lichenized and Non-Lichenized Ascomycetes. Botanische Staatssammlung München. Available: http://www.mycology.net//lias/index.cfm (under Physciaceae){accessed 1999 September 30}. [ interactive multiple-access world key to Phaeophyscia, in the broad sense; also available in downloadable format; 3 N. Am. Physciella species in key as Phaeophyscia with prosoplectenchymatous lower cortex]

[Physciopsis]                     (see Hyperphyscia)

Physconia (11) [14]

[The first four references together cover all species on the N. Am. list]

Esslinger, T.L. 1994. New species and new combinations in the lichen genus Physconia in North America. Mycotaxon 51: 91-100. [descriptions and photographs of 6 species]

Moberg, R. 1977. The lichen genus Physcia and allied genera in Fennoscandia. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 22(l): 1-108. [6 species in overall key to Physcia in the broad sense, 4 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Esslinger, T.L. 1985. Studies in the lichen family Physciaceae. VI. Two species new to North America. Mycotaxon 23: 219-222. [P. kurokawae, description and comparisons]

Esslinger, T.L. 2000. A key for the lichen genus Physconia in California, with descriptions for three new species occurring within the state. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society 7(1): 1-6. [detailed key, 10 species; descriptions and photographs of P. californicum, P.fallax, and P. isidiomuscigena]

Kashiwadani, H. 1975. The genera Physcia, Physconia, and Dirinaria (Lichens) of Japan. Ginkgoana 3: 1-77. [key, 5 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, fine illustrations]

Hafellner, J., Mayrhofer, H. and Poelt, J. 1979. Die Gattungen der Flechtenfamilie Physciaceae. Herzogia 5: 39-79. [generic description and comparisons]

Poelt, J. 1965. Zur Systematik der Flechtenfamilie Physciaceae. Nova Hedwigia 9: 21-32. [Physciaceae spore types and generic concepts; description of the new genus Physconia.]

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W., and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [useful for its illustrations of rhizines; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm

Physma (2)

Verdon, D. and Elix, J.A. 1994. A new species and new records of Physma from Australia. In: Stenroos, S. (ed.) Focus on Lichen Taxonomy and Biogeography: A Festschrift in Honour of Teuvo Ahti. Acta Botanica Fennica, 150, Finnish Botanical Publishing Board, Helsinki, pp. 209-215. [key, 4 species, P. byrsaeum on N. Am. list, photographs of anatomy]

Anonymous (ed.). 1992. Flora of Australia. Volume 54. Lichens - Introduction, Lecanorales 1. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. 349 pp. [key, 3 species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawing of thallus anatomy]

de Lesdain, B. 1939. Notes lichénologiques. No. XXXI. Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 86: 81-84. [P. cataractaecola newly described in Latin]

Henssen, A. 1965. A review of the genera of the Collemataceae with simple spores (excluding Physma). Lichenologist 3: 29-41 [keys to the genera]

[Phytoconis]                      (see Omphalina)

Piccolia (1)

Hafellner, J. 1995. Über Piccolia, eine lichenisierte Pilzgattung der Tropen (Ascomycotina, Lecanorales). In: Farkas, E.E., Lücking, R. and Wirth, V. (eds.). Scripta Lichenologica--Lichenological Papers Dedicated to Antonín Vezda. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, no. 58, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart pp. 107-122 [key, 4 species, P. conspersa on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations, description of genus]

Magnusson, A.H. 1934. On the species of Biatorella and Sarcogyne in America. Annales Cryptogamie Exotique 7: 115-146. [description of P. conspersa, as Biatorella, in key to 13 species of Biatorella]

Pilophorus (8)

[the first two references together cover all N. Am. species]

Jahns, H.M. 1981. The genus Pilophorus. Mycotaxon 13: 289-330. [worldwide key, 10 species, 7 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of thalli and pseudopodetia]

Hertel, H. and Rambold, G. 1988. Cephalodiate Arten der Gattung Lecidea sensu lato (Ascomycetes lichenisati). Plant Systematics and Evolution 158(2-4): 289-312. [Pdovrensis, anatomical illustrations only, spores of 2 other species]

Jahns, H.M. 1970. Remarks on the taxonomy of the European and North American species of Pilophorus Th. Fr. Lichenologist 4: 199-213. [key, 6 species, 5 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of thalli and anatomy]

Golubkova, N.S., Dombrovskaja, A.V., Zhurbenko, M.P., Kotlov, Y.V. and Krusanova, Z.G. 1996. Handbook of the Lichens of Russia. 6. Alectoriaceae, Parmeliaceae, Stereocaulaceae. Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg. 204 pp. [7 species, 5 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations (in Russian)]

Placidiopsis (3)

Breuss, O. 1996. Revision der Flechtengattung Placidiopsis (Verrucariaceae). Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde 5: 65. [worldwide key in German and English, 12 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions in German; color photographs of thalli and spore drawings for P. cinerascens and P. pseudocinerea]

Harris, R.C. 1979. The genus Placidiopsis Beltr. (lichenized ascomycetes) new to North America as Placidiopsis minor sp. nov. Michigan Botanist 18: 57-58. [description and illustration of P. minor]

Breuss, O. 1983. Eine neue Placidiopsis-Art (Lichenes, Verrucariaceae) aus Norwegen und den Alpen. Plant Systematics and Evolution 142: 247-250. [P. pseudocinerea newly described]

Breuss, O. and Hansen, E.S. 1988. The lichen genera Catapyrenium and Placidiopsis in Greenland. Plant Systematics and Evolution 159(1-2): 95-105. [P. pseudocinerea, long comparative note]

Thomson, J.W. 1987. The lichen genera Catapyrenium and Placidiopsis in North America. Bryologist 90: 27-39. [key, 2 species, 1 in N. Am.., P. minor, description]

Placidium (10) [13]

[The first two references cover all N. Am. species as of 2002. See also keys to Catapyrenium written before 1996]

Breuss, O. 1996. Ein verfeinertes Gliederungskonzept für Catapyrenium (lichenisierte Ascomyceten, Verrucariaceae) mit einem Schlüssel für die bisher bekannten Arten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 98 B Suppl.: 35-50. [world key to Catapyrenium in the broad sense and to its segregates; splits Catapyrenium in the broad sense into several genera; 28 species of Placidium, 10 [11] on N. Am. list]

Breuss, O. and Bratt, C.C. 2000. Catapyrenioid lichens in California. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society, 7(2): 36-42. [key; 8 species of Placidium on the N. Am. list, P. californicum newly described; comparitive notes; a useful discussion of characters within and between genera; some drawings]

Breuss, O. and McCune, B. 1994. Additions to the pyrenolichen flora of North America. Bryologist 97: 365-370. [8 in updated key to 18 N. Am. species Catapyrenium, in the broad sense, some descriptive notes]

Breuss, O. 1990. Die Flechtengattung Catapyrenium (Verrucariaceae) in Europa. Stapfia 23: 1-153. [7 N. Am. species in key to 27 species of Catapyrenium in the broad sense, descriptions, photographs of habitus; P. pilosellum, P. lacinulatum (not in Breuss and McCune 19940]

Placopsis (3)

Brodo, I.M. 1995. Notes on the lichen genus Placopsis (Ascomycotina, Trapeliaceae) in North America. In Knoph, J.G., Schrüfer, K and Sipman, H.J.M. (eds.): Studies in Lichenology with Emphasis on Chemotaxonomy, Geography and Phytochemistry. Festschrift Christian Leuckert. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 57. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart pp. 59-70. [key, 3 N. Am. species, P. roseonigra newly described, photo of thallus]

Lamb, I.M. 1947. A monograph of the lichen genus Placopsis. Lilloa 13: 151-288. [world key, 31 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs of thalli]

Thomson, J.W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens 2. The Microlichens. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 675 pp. [key, 2 species, descriptions, fine illustration of P. gelida]

Poelt, J. 1958. Die lobaten Arten der Flechtengattung Lecanora Ach. sensu ampl. in der Holarktis. Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München 2(19-20): 411-589. [key, 3 species, 2 on N. Am. list]

Moberg, R.and Carlin, G. 1996. The genus Placopsis (Trapeliaceae) in Norden. In: Hultgard, U.-M., Martinsson, K. and Moberg, R. (eds.) The Nordic Flora--Towards the Twenty-First Century. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Symbolae Botanicae Upsaliensis 31(3): 327-354. [key, 2 species, P. gelida on N. Am. list, description, photographs]

Placopyrenium (0) [4]

Breuss, O. 2002. Placopyrenium. In Nash, T.H., III, Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., and Bungartz, F. (eds.). Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, pp. 394-397. [key to 5 species, 4 on N. Am. list; full species and generic descriptions; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/PublicationsforSale.htm]

Breuss, O. 1998. On the taxonomy of "Catapyrenium" plumbeum (lichenized Ascomycetes, Verrucariaceae). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 100B: 671-676. [key to 3 species parasitic on Staurothele, 1 of which in Placopyrenium, P. noxium described as new, comparisons in English; photograph]

Placynthiella (5)

Coppins, B. J. and James, P.W. 1984. New or interesting British lichens V. Lichenologist 16: 241-264. [key, 4 species, 4 on N. Am. list, illustrations]

Tønsberg, T. 1992. The sorediate and isidiate, corticolous, crustose lichens in Norway. Sommerfeltia 14: 1-331. [P. dasaea and P. icmalea, descriptions, photographs of asexual diaspores]

Placynthium (7)

Henssen, A. 1963. The North American species of Placynthium. Canadian Journal of Botany 41: 1687-1724. [key to 6 species, all 7 on N. Am. list are treated (P. tantaleum as a variety of P. nigrum); descriptions, illustrations of thalli and anatomy]

Henssen, A. 1963. The North American species of Massalongia and generic relationships. Canadian Journal of Botany 41: 1331-1346. [keys to Placynthium-like genera in either the sterile or fertile states]

[Plagiocarpa]                    (see Lithothelium)

Platismatia (6)

Culberson, W.L. and Culberson, C.F. 1968. The lichen genera Cetrelia and Platismatia (Parmeliaceae). Contributions of the United States National Herbarium 34: 449-558. [world key, 10 species, 6 on N. Am. list, descriptions]

[Platygrapha]                       (see Schismatomma)

Platygraphopsis (1)

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [1 species, description]

Awasthi, D.D. 1991. A Key to the Microlichens of India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 40. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 340 pp. [1 species, 1 on N. Am. list, description]

Plectocarpon (2)

Diederich, P. and Etayo, J. 1994. Taxonomic notes on the genus Plectocarpon (lichenicolous Ascomycotina). Nordic Journal of Botany 14: 589-600. [key to 6 named species, P. lichenum on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings and photographs]

Goward, T., Breuss, O., Ryan, B., McCune, B., Sipman, H. and Scheidegger, C. 1996. Notes on the lichens and allied fungi of British Columbia. III. Bryologist 99: 439-449. [P. nephromeum, spore description]

Hawksworth, D.L. and Galloway, D.J. 1984. The identity of Plectocarpon Fee, and its implications for Lichenomyces pseudocyphellaria and the typification of Sticta delisea. Lichenologist 16: 85-89. [2 species, compared and illustrated (spores and thalli), P. lichenum on N. Am. list]

Wedin, M. and Hafellner, J. 1998. Lichenicolous species of Arthonia on Lobariaceae with notes on excluded taxa. Lichenologist 30: 59-91. [P. linitae (not yet transferred from Arthonia on N. Am. list), description, photograph of anatomy]

Pleopsidium (2)

[see also pre-1993 keys for yellow species of Acarospora]

Hafellner, J. 1993. Acarospora und Pleopsidium - zwei lichenisierte Ascomycetengattungen (Lecanorales) mit zahlreichen Konvergenzen. Nova Hedwigia 56(3-4): 281-305. [resurrects and emends Pleopsidium, illustrations, comparative table; detailed key to 3 species, 2 on N. Am. list]

Castello, M. and P. L. Nimis. 1994. Critical notes on Antarctic yellow Acarosporaceae. Lichenologist 26: 283-294. [description of P. chlorophanum]

[Pleurotheliopsis] (= Pyrenula; for N. Am. reports see Anthracothecium)

[Pleurotrema]                    (see Lithothelium)

Poeltinula (1)

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W., and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [1 species, 1 on N. Am. list, description, in key to genera; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm ]

Renobales, G. and Aguirre, B. 1990. The nomenclature and systematic position of the genus Encephalographa. Systema Ascomycetum 8: 87-92. [characterization and anatomical drawings for P. cerebrina]

Hafellner, J. 1984. Studien in Richtung einer naturlicheren Gliederung der Sammelfamilien Lecanoraceae und Lecideaceae. In: Hertel, H. and Oberwinkler, F. (eds.). Beiträge zur Lichenologie. Festschrift J. Poelt. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia 79. J. Cramer, Vaduz pp. 241-371. [P. cerebrina, illustration of anatomy only]

Polyblastia (14)

Thomson, J.W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens 2. The Microlichens. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 675 pp. [key, 12 N. Am. species, descriptions, anatomical drawings for 3 species]

Zschacke, H. 1933-1934. Epigloeaceae, Verrucariaceae und Dermatocarpaceae. In Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 9,1(1): 44-695. [key to about 80 European species, 10 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of spores and anatomy for most species]

Servit, M. 1954. Ceskoslovenské lisejníky celedi Verrucariaceae. Nakladatelstvi Ceskoslovenské Akademie ved, Praha, 249 pp. [keys in Latin and Czech, text in Czech; 27 species of Polyblastia treated, plus another 23 as Amphoriblastia (genus not accepted on N. Am. list); descriptions, drawings of anatomy and spores; several additional European species included in keys; 10 species from keys on N. Am. list]

Swinscow, T.D.V. 1971. Pyrenocarpous lichens: 15. Key to Polyblastia Massal. in the British Isles. Lichenologist 5: 92-113. [key, 19 species of Polyblastia in the broad sense, 5 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Thomson, J.W. and Murray, B.M. 1988. Staurothele discedens and Gyalidea lecideopsis var. convarians rediscovered in Alaska, together with Polyblastia cucurbitula, sp. nov. Bryologist 91: 86-90. [1 species newly described; drawing of anatomy]

[Polyblastiopsis]                  (see Julella)

[Polycauliona]                (see Caloplaca)

Polychidium (3)

Henssen, A. 1963. Eine Revision der Flechtenfamilien Lichinaceae und Ephebaceae. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 18(l): 1-123. [key, 5 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Ohlsson, K.E. 1973. New and interesting macrolichens of British Columbia. Bryologist 76: 366-387. [P. dendriscum, illustration of cortex only]

Polycoccum (5)

Hawksworth, D.L. Diederich, P. 1988. A synopsis of the genus Polycoccum (Dothideales), with a key to accepted species. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 90: 293-312. [world key, 23 species, descriptions, drawings of spores]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [detailed key to 24 species, 5 on N. Am. list, spore drawings]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1983. A key to the lichen-forming, parasitic, parasymbiotic and saprophytic fungi occurring on lichens in the British Isles. Lichenologist 15: 1-44. [10 species in overall key, 4 on N. Am. list, spore drawings]

Polymeridium (7)

Harris, R.C. 1991. A revision of Polymeridium (Muell. Arg.) R.C. Harris (Trypetheliaceae). Boletim do Museu Paraense "Emilio Goeldi", série Botânica 7(2): 619-644. [worldwide key, 19 species, 7 on N. Am. list, brief descriptions, a few drawings of spores and anatomy]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 7 N. Am. species; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 109 pp. [key, 7 N. Am. species; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1975. A taxonomic revision of the genus Arthopyrenia Massal. s. lat. (Ascomycetes) in North America. Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, 288 pp. [key, 7 species, 6 presently on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of spores and other anatomical features; available from UMI Dissertation Services at http://www.umi.com/hp/Support/DExplorer/ dissertation number 7605564]

[Polypyrenula]                  (doubtful for North America)

Polysporina (3)

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [key, 3 N. Am. species, descriptions; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Clauzade, G. and Roux, C. 1985. Likenoj de Okcidenta Europo. Ilustrita Determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Botanique du Centre-Ouest, Nouvelle Série, Numéro Spécial 7. Royan, France. 893 pp. [detailed key, 5 species, 3 on N. Am. list; nomenclature of P. lapponica differs compared to other authors]

Triebel, D., Rambold, G. and Nash, T.H., III. 1991. On lichenicolous fungi from continental North America. Mycotaxon 42: 263-296. [P. lapponica, characterization]

[Polythelis]                       (see Polypyrenula)

Porina (10) [11]

[no full treatment for N. Am.]

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [key to Porina and similar species, 6 Porina species on N. Am. list, descriptions; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [key, 13 species, 5 still on N. Am. list for Porina, descriptions]

Harris, R.C. 1975. A taxonomic revision of the genus Arthopyrenia Massal. s. lat. (Ascomycetes) in North America. Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, 288 pp. [key, 14 named and several unnamed species, 5 still on N. Am. list, notes; available from UMI Dissertation Services at http://www.umi.com/hp/Support/DExplorer/ dissertation number 7605564]

McCarthy, P.M. 2000. Key to the saxicolous taxa of Porina. Lichenologist 32: 1-13. [world key to 78 species of Porina in the broad sense, 10 of these in N. Am.; 4 on N. Am. list of Porina in the strict sense]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 4 named species, 4 unnamed, notes, P. scabrida newly described]

McCarthy, P.M. and Tønsberg, T. 1998. Porina radicicola, a new lichen from western North America. Lichenologist 30: 245-248. [1 species newly described and illustrated]

Hafellner, J. and Kalb, K. 1995. Studies in Trichotheliales ordo novus. In: Knoph, J.-G., Schrüfer, K. and Sipman, H.J.M. (eds.). Studies in Lichenology with Emphasis on Chemotaxonomy, Geography and Phytochemistry. Festschrift Christian Leuckert. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart pp. 161-186. [high level taxonomy, key to related genera]

Swinscow, T.D.V. 1962. Pyrenocarpous lichens: 3. The genus Porina in the British Isles. Lichenologist 2: 6-56. [key, 12 species, P. nucula and P. lectissima on N. Am. list of Porina in the narrow sense, both described and illustrated; 5 on N. Am. list in other genera]

McCarthy, P.M. 1993. Saxicolous Species of Porina Müll. Arg. (Trichotheliaceae) in the Southern Hemisphere. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 52, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 134 pp. [key; 39 species, none on N. Am. list of Porina in the strict sense; detained descriptions; drawings of anatomy and habitus; a major monograph in the genus]

Porocyphus (2)

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W., and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [key, 4 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Henssen, A. 1974. New or interesting cyanophilic lichens II. Lichenologist 6: 106-111. [P. kenmorensis, compared with the two other placidioid species]

Henssen, A. 1963. Eine Revision der Flechtenfamilien Lichinaceae und Ephebaceae. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 18(l): 1-123. [key, 7 species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Ellis, L.T. 1981. A revision and review of Lemmopsis and some related species. Lichenologist 13: 123-139. [key to similar genera]

Porpidia (23)

Gowan, S.P. 1989. The lichen genus Porpidia (Porpidiaceae) in North America. Bryologist 92: 25-59. [key, 21 species, 20 still on N. Am. list, descriptions, comparisons, photographs of thalli, some of anatomy]

Gowan, S.P. and Ahti, T. 1993. Status of the lichen genus Porpidia in eastern Fennoscandia. Annales Botanici Fennici 30: 53-75. [key, 15 species, 14 on N. Am. list, descriptions, changes from Gowan 1989 for P. flavocaerulescens, P. flavicunda, and P. melinodes; P. soredizodes is treated]

Schwab, A.J. 1986. Rostfarbene Arten der Sammelgattung Lecidea (Lecanorales). Revision der Arten Mittel- und Nordeuropas. Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München 22: 221-476. [key, 6 species, 5 on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Nimis, P.L. and Poelt, J. 1987. The lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Sardinia (Italy). Studia Geobotanica 7(Supplement): 1-269. [P. platycarpoides, comparative note]

Pronectria (4) [2]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [2 N. Am. species in key to Nectriella, P. robergei and P. erythrinella]

Dennis, R.W.G. 1978. British Ascomycetes. J. Cramer, Vaduz, 585 pp. [P. robergei as Nectriella robergei, description, illustration]

Lowen, R. 1989. Two new species of Nectriella and an Acremonium anamorph. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 49:243-252. [P. anisospora newly described as Nectriella, drawings of anatomy]

Lowen, R. 1995. Acremonium section Lichenoidea section nov. and Pronectria oligospora species nov. Mycotaxon 53: 81-95. [P. oligospora newly described and illustrated]

Protoblastenia (4)

Clauzade, G. and Roux, C. 1985. Likenoj de Okcidenta Europo. Ilustrita Determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Botanique du Centre-Ouest, Nouvelle Série, Numéro Spécial 7. Royan, France. 893 pp. [detailed key, 11 species, 4 on N. Am. list]

Poelt, J. and Vezda, A. 1977. Bestimmungsschlüssel europäischer Flechten. Ergänzungsheft I. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 9. J. Cramer, Valduz. 258 pp. [detailed key, 17 species traditionally defined, 4 on N. Am. list]

Protopannaria [1]

Jørgensen, P.M. 2000. Survey of the lichen family Pannariaceae on the American continent north of Mexico. Bryologist: 103: 670-704. [key to genera and species, 1 N. Am. species; descriptions of genera and species, notes, photographs of thalli of all taxa]

Protoparmelia (5)

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [key, 4 species on N. Am. list (missing P. cupreobadia), descriptions for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Wirth, V. 1995. Die Flechten Baden-Württembergs, Teil 1 and 2. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart. 1006 pp. [5 species in subkey to Lecanora, 4 on N. Am. list]

Poelt, J. and Leuckert, C. 1991. Der Formenkreis von Protoparmelia atriseda (Lichenes, Lecanoraceae) in Europa. Nova Hedwigia 52(1-2): 39-64. [key to 6 parasitic species of Protoparmelia, 2 on N. Am. list, P. cupreobadia, descriptions, illustrations]

[Protoparmeliopsis]               (see Lecanora)

Protothelenella (5)

Mayrhofer, H. 1987. Erganzende studien zur taxonomie der gattung Protothelenella. Herzogia 7: 313-342. [world key, 9 species, 5 on N. Am. list, P. santessonii described, illustration]

Mayrhofer, H. and Poelt, J. 1985. Die Flechtengattung Microglaena sensu Zahlbruckner in Europa. Herzogia 7: 13-79. [key, 6 species, 4 on N. Am. list, descriptions, spore drawings]

Morgan-Jones, G. and Swinscow, T.D.V. 1965. On the genus Microglaena Körb. Lichenologist 3: 42-54. [P. corrosa and P. sphinctrinoides in key as Microglaena, descriptions, illustrations]

Pseudephebe (2)

Brodo, I.M. and Hawksworth, D.L. 1977. Alectoria and allied genera in North America. Opera Botanica 42: 1-164. [key to Alectorioid species, 2 Pseudephebe species, descriptions]

Thomson, J.W. 1984. America Arctic Lichens 1. The Macrolichens. Columbia University Press, New York, 504 pp. [key, 2 N. Am. species, descriptions, fine drawings of thalli]

Pseudevernia (3)

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1968. A synopsis of the lichen genus Pseudevernia. Bryologist 71: 1-11. [discussion of genus, 6 species, 3 on N. Am. list, brief characterizations, photographs]

Pseudocyphellaria (5)

Goward, T., McCune, B. and Meidinger, D. 1994. The lichens of British Columbia, Illustrated keys. Part 1 - Foliose and squamulose species. B.C. Ministry of Forests, Special Report Series no. 8, i-iii, 1-181. Free downloadable version available: [illustrated key to 5 N. Am. species]

McCune, B. and Geiser, L. 1997. Macrolichens of the Pacific Northwest. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, 386 pp. [key, 4 N. Am. species, descriptions, fine color photographs of thalli]

[for general understanding of the genus, the following, especially Galloway (1988):]

Galloway, D.J. 1988. Studies in Pseudocyphellaria (lichens) I. The New Zealand species. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany Series 17: 1-267. [48 species, C. crocata and C. aurata on N. Am. list, very detailed descriptions, photos of thalli and anatomy]

Galloway, D.J. 1992. Studies in Pseudocyphellaria (lichens) III. The South American species. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 46, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 275 pp. [53 species, C. crocata and C. aurata on N. Am. list, descriptions, some photos of thalli]

Galloway, D.J. 1994. Studies in Pseudocyphellaria (lichens) IV. Palaeotropical species (excluding Australia). Bulletin of the Natural History Museum, London 24: 115-159 [key, 29 species, C. crocata and C. aurata on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Pseudoparmelia (3)

Elix, J.A. and Nash, T.H., III. 1998. A monograph of the lichen genus Pseudoparmelia (Ascomycotina, Parmeliaceae). Bryologist 100: 482-498. [worldwide key, 16 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions, thallus photographs]

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1976. A monograph of the lichen genus Pseudoparmelia Lynge (Parmeliaceae). Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 31: 1-62. [world key, 76 species now split into several genera, 1 on N. Am. list]

Pseudopyrenula (1)

Harris, R.C. 1998. A preliminary revision of Pseudopyrenula Müll. Arg. (lichenized Ascomycetes, Trypetheliaceae) with a redisposition of the names previously assigned to the genus. In: Glenn, M.G, Harris, R.C., Dirig, R. and Cole, M.S. (eds.). Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson. Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, New York. pp. 133-148. [world key, 4 species, P. diluta on N. Am. list, descriptions; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/]

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 109 pp. [P. diluta (as P. subnudata) in key to the genera of Trypetheliaceae; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [P. diluta (under an old name) in key to the genera of Trypetheliaceae; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1975. A taxonomic revision of the genus Arthopyrenia Massal. s. lat. (Ascomycetes) in North America. Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, 288 pp. [genus in overall key, P. diluta ( as P. subgregaria) on N. Am. list, description, drawings of spores and other anatomical features; available from UMI Dissertation Services at http://www.umi.com/hp/Support/DExplorer/ dissertation number 7605564]

[Pseudosagedia]                (see Trichothelium)]

Psilolechia (2)

Coppins, B.J. and O.W. Purvis, O.W. 1987. A review of Psilolechia. Lichenologist 19: 29-42. [world key, 4 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Lowe, J.L. 1939. The genus Lecidea in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. Lloydia 2: 225-304. [2 species, as Lecidea lucida and L. adirondackii, in key to 88 Lecidea, descriptions]

Psora (17) [21]

Timdal, E. 1987 ("1986"). A revision of Psora (Lecideaceae) in North America. Bryologist 89: 253-275. [key, 18 species, 17 on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs of thalli]

Timdal, E. 2002. Psora. In Nash, T.H., III, Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., and Bungartz, F. (eds.). Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, pp. 418-430. [key to 18 species, 16 on N. Am. list, 4 of which newly described and illustrated; full species and generic descriptions; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/PublicationsforSale.htm]

Timdal, E. 1984. The delimitation of Psora (Lecideaceae) and related genera, with notes on some species. Nordic Journal of Botany 4: 525-540. [detailed descriptive analysis of genus]

Schneider, G. 1979. Die Flechtengattung Psora sensu Zahlbruckner. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 13. J. Cramer, Vaduz. 291 pp. [worldwide key to Psora in the broad sense, 17 species of Psora in the strict sense, 9 on N. Am. list, descriptions, some illustrations, comparative tables]

Psorinia (1)

Thomson, J.W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens 2. The Microlichens. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 675 pp. [P. conglomerata, description of genus and species]

Schneider, G. 1979. Die Flechtengattung Psora sensu Zahlbruckner. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 13. J. Cramer, Vaduz. 291 pp. [2 species in key to Psora in the broad sense, P. conglomerata on N. Am. list, description, anatomical drawings]

Hafellner, J. 1984. Studien in Richtung einer naturlicheren Gliederung der Sammelfamilien Lecanoraceae und Lecideaceae. In: Hertel, H. and Oberwinkler, F. (eds.). Beiträge zur Lichenologie. Festschrift J. Poelt. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia 79. J. Cramer, Vaduz pp. 241-371. [drawing of asci, spores, paraphyses]

Psoroglaena (1)

Henssen, A. 1995. Psoroglaena costaricensis, a new lichen from Costa Rica, and remarks on other taxa of the genus Psoroglaena (Verrucariaceae). In: Knoph, J.-G., Schrüfer, K. and Sipman, H.J.M. (eds.). Studies in Lichenology with Emphasis on Chemotaxonomy, Geography and Phytochemistry. Festschrift Christian Leuckert. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart pp. 199-210. [key, 3 species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptive notes, photographs of anatomy, emended genus]

Eriksson, O.E. 1992. Psoroglaena cubensis and Flakea papillata gen. et sp. nov., two corticolous lichens with a pantropical distribution. Systema Ascomycetum 11(1): 11-27. [description of genus and of P. cubensis]

Psoroma (2)[3]

Jørgensen, P.M. 2000. Survey of the lichen family Pannariaceae on the American continent north of Mexico. Bryologist: 103: 670-704. [key to genera and species, 8 N. Am. species; 3 species; descriptions of genera and species, notes, photographs of thalli of all taxa]

Jørgensen, P.M. 2002. Psoroma. In Nash, T.H., III, Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., and Bungartz, F. (eds.). Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, pp. 431-433. [key to 3 N. Am. species; full species and generic descriptions]

Psorotichia (6)

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [key, 6 species on N. Am. list plus 1 extra, descriptions; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

[Fink and Magnusson together cover all 6 species on the N. Am. list]

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [key to 4 N. Am. species, descriptions]

Magnusson, A. H. 1940. Lichens from Central Asia. Tryckeri Aktiebolaget Thule, Stockholm, 168 pp. plus 12 plates. [key to 4 species, 2 on N. Am. list, P. nigra and P. minuta newly described]

Psorula (1)

Timdal, E. 2002. Psorula. In Nash, T.H., III, Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., and Bungartz, F. (eds.). Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, pp. 434-435. [P. rufonigra; full species description, photograph of thallus; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/PublicationsforSale.htm]

Schneider, G. 1979. Die Flechtengattung Psora sensu Zahlbruckner. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 13. J. Cramer, Vaduz. 291 pp. [2 species in key to Psora in the broad sense, P. rufonigra on N. Am. list, description, anatomical drawings]

Pterygiopsis (1)

Henssen, A. 1963. Eine Revision der Flechtenfamilien Lichinaceae und Ephebaceae. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 18(l): 1-123. [key, 2 species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Ptychographa (1)

McCune, B. 1997. Ptychographa, a lichen genus new to North America. Bryologist 100: 239-240. [P. xylographoides, descriptive note, comparison with similar genera, drawings of thallus and anatomy]

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W., and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [key, 2 species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Redinger, K. 1938. Graphidaceae. In Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz IX, 2, 1: 181-404. [P. xylographoides, description, drawing of spores and anatomy]

Lumbsch, H.T. 1997. Systematic studies in the suborder Agyriineae (Lecanorales). Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 83: 1-73 [anatomy, ontogeny; photographs of anatomy]

Punctelia (12)

Wilhelm, G. and Ladd, D. 1992. A new species of the lichen genus Punctelia from the midwestern United States. Mycotaxon 44: 495-504. [key to 13 N. Am. species, including P. missouriensis, newly described, (now included within P. punctilla); comparisons with similar species, photographs of soralia]

Krog, H. 1982. Punctelia, a new genus in the Parmeliaceae. Nordic Journal of Botany 2: 287-292. [world key, 22 species including some now in Flavopunctelia, 11 on N. Am. list]

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1965. Studies on the Parmelia borreri group. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 59: 37-48. [key, 10 species, 9 on N. Am. list, notes]

van Herk, K. and Aptroot, A. 2000. The sorediate Punctelia species with lecanoric acid in Europe. Lichenologist 32: 233-246. [key, 4 species, 3 on N. Am. list; photos of thalli]

Wilhelm, G. and Ladd, D. 1987. Punctelia perreticulata, a distinct lichen species. Mycotaxon 28: 249-250. [comparison with P. subrudecta]

Adler, M. 1997. Polymorphism of vegetative propagules in Punctelia punctilla (Parmeliaceae, Lecanorales) and the delimitation of the species. Mycotaxon 63: 57-70. [detailed discussion of this and similar species]

Culberson, W.L. 1962. Some pseudocyphellate Parmeliae. Nova Hedwigia 4: 563-577. [key to 12 N. Am. species, 6 in Punctelia, notes; a few photographs of thalli]

Pycnothelia (1)

Thomson, J.W. 1968 ("1967"). The lichen genus Cladonia in North America. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 172 pp. [P. papillaria in overall key as Cladonia, description, illustration]

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W. and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [1 N. Am. species in keys to genera; description of genus and of P. papillaria; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

[Pyrenastrum]                   (see Pyrenula)

Pyrenidium (2)

Alstrup, V. and Hawksworth, D.L. 1990. The lichenicolous fungi of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grönland., Bioscience 31: 1-90. [2 species in overall key, both on N. Am. list, P. hyalosporum newly described, several photographs of anatomy and spores]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1983. A key to the lichen-forming, parasitic, parasymbiotic and saprophytic fungi occurring on lichens in the British Isles. Lichenologist 15: 1-44. [P. actinellum in overall key but not described, drawing of spores]

Triebel, D. 1989. Lecideicole Ascomyceten. Eine Revision der obligat lichenicolen Ascomyceten auf lecideoiden Flechten. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, No. 35., J. Cramer, Berlin-Stuttgart. 278 pp. [description of genus and of P. actinellum, in overall key]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1980. Notes on some fungi occurring on Peltigera, with a key to accepted species. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 74: 363-386. [P. actinellum in overall key as Decampiosphaeria rivina; description, illustration of spores, variation in spore size]

Pyrenocollema (8) [5?]

[The first two references together cover all 8 species on the N. Am. list in 2000]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key to 7 species, 5 on N. Am. list, notes on some others; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W. and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [key to 13 species, 5 N. Am. species, descriptions; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Harris, R.C. 1975. A taxonomic revision of the genus Arthopyrenia Massal. s. lat. (Ascomycetes) in North America. Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, 288 pp. [key, 7 species, 4 still on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of spores and other anatomical features; available from UMI Dissertation Services at http://www.umi.com/hp/Support/DExplorer/ dissertation number 7605564]

Swinscow, T.D.V. 1965. Pyrenocarpous lichens: 8. The marine species of Arthopyrenia in the British Isles. Lichenologist 3: 55-64. [P. halodytes, long description, illustrations]

Santesson, R. 1992. Pyrenocollema elegans, a new marine lichen. Lichenologist 24: 7-11. [description]

[Pyrenodesmia]                   (see Caloplaca)

[Pyrenopsidium]                 (see Pyrenopsis, Cryptothele)

Pyrenopsis (12)

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [key, 11 species on N. Am. list plus discussion of 12th; descriptions; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Brodo, I.M. 1995. Lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. 1. Introduction and new records for B.C., Canada and North America. Mycotaxon 56: 135-173. [P. tasmanica, good description]

Henssen, A., Büdel, B. and Titze, A. 1987. Euopsis and Harpidium, genera of the Lichinaceae (Lichenes) with rostrate asci. Botanica Acta, Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft 101: 49-55. [includes ascal structure, anatomy, and ontogeny of Pyrenopsis]

[Pyrenothamnia]                (see Endocarpon)

Pyrenothrix (1)

Eriksson, O. 1981. The families of bitunicate ascomycetes. Opera Botanica 60: 1-220. [P. nigra, description, illustrations of anatomy and spores]

[Pyrenotrichum]                 (not known from North America)

Pyrenula (54)

[Harris (1989) plus Harris (1995) cover all species on N. Am. list except P. occidentalis and P. acutispora]

Harris, R.C. 1989. A sketch of the family Pyrenulaceae (Melanommatales) in Eastern North America. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 49: 74-107. [key, 45 species on N. Am. list plus 2 unnamed species, descriptions, drawings of spores]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 44 species on N. Am. list plus 7 unnamed species; some notes and descriptions, several new species; some foreign species in the notes; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 109 pp. [key 28 on N. Am. list plus 2 unnamed species, 2 descriptions; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1973. The corticolous pyrenolichens of the Great Lakes Region. Michigan Botanist 12: 3-68. [5 species treated, described with spore illustrations, plus P. occidentalis as a subspecies of P. neglecta (p. 51), description]

Kalb, K. and Hafellner, J. 1992. Bemerkenswerte Flechten und lichenicole Pilze von der Insel Madiera. Herzogia 9: 45-102. [P. acutispora, newly and briefly described in Latin only; spore illustration]

Keissler, K. von. 1937-1938. Pyrenulaceae, Trypetheliaceae, Pyrenidaceae, Xanthopyreniaceae, Mycoporaceae und Coniocarpineae. In Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 9,1: 1-846. [drawings good for giving feeling of genus]

Tucker, S.C. and Harris, R.C. 1980. New and noteworthy pyrenocarpous lichens from Louisiana and Florida. Bryologist 83: 1-20. [P. aquila, P. rubrostoma, P. texana, newly described; drawings of spores and anatomy]

[Pyrenulella]                     (see Phaeospora)

Pyrgillus (1)

Aptroot, A. 1991. A Monograph of the Pyrenulaceae (Excluding Anthracothecium and Pyrenula) and the Requienellaceae, with Notes on the Pleomassariaceae, the Trypetheliaceae and Mycomicrothelia (Lichenized and Non-lichenized Ascomycetes). Bibliotheca Lichenologica, Bd. 44, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 178 pp. [world key, 4 species, P. javanicus, illustrations]

Tibell, L. 1996. Flora Neotropica Monograph 69: Caliciales. New York Botanical Garden. 78 pp. [key, 3 species, 1 on N. Am. list, full descriptions, photograph of habitus, generic description]

Tibell, L. 1987. Australasian Caliciales. Symbolae Botanicae Upsaliensis 27: 1-279. [P. javanicus, full descriptions, fine illustration, in generic key]

Harris, R.C. 1989. A sketch of the family Pyrenulaceae (Melanommatales) in Eastern North America. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 49: 74-107. [notes on variation]

Pyrrhospora (6)

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [key, 6 species on N. Am. list, plus 1 not named, some described; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Hafellner, J. 1993. Die Gattung Pyrrhospora in Europa. Eine erste Übersicht mit einem Bestimmungsschlüssel der Arten nebst Bemerkungen zu einigen aussereuropäischen Taxa (lichenisierte Ascomycotina, Lecanorales). Herzogia 9: 725-747. [key, 7 species, 4 on N. Am. list; says P. varians belongs to an undescribed genus]

Harris, R.C. 1985. Lichens of the New Jersey Pine Barrens collected on the Seventh A. Leroy Andrews Foray, 1982. Evansia 2: 44-47. [P. varians, descriptive note}

Pyxine (11)

[Kalb’s two papers together cover all species on the N. Am. list except P. "meissneriana" (= meissnerina?)]

Kalb, K. 1987. Brasilianische Flechten. 1. Die Gattung Pyxine. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, No. 24, J. Cramer, Berlin-Stuttgart. 89 pp. [key, 24 species, 8 on N. Am. list, descriptions, some photographs of thalli]

Kalb, K. 1994. Pyxine species from Australia. Herzogia 10: 61-69. [Australian key, 19 species, 6 on N. Am. list]

Aptroot, A. 1987. Pyxinaceae (Lichens). Flora of the Guianas, Series E (Fungi and Lichens) 1: 1-59. [key, 9 species, 7 on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 8 species; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 109 pp. [key, 7 species, notes; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Swinscow, T.D.V. and Krog, H. 1975. The genus Pyxine in East Africa. Norwegian Journal of Botany 22: 43-68. [key, 23 species, 7 on N. Am. list, descriptions, P. meissnerina]

Imshaug, H.A. 1957. The lichen genus Pyxine in North and Middle America. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 76(3): 246-269. [key to 13 species of Pyxine in the broad sense, 8 on N. Am. list, descriptions; discussion of anatomy]

 

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z Contents

   Re     Rh     Ri     Ro

Racodium (1)

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W., and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [R. rupestre, description of genus and species; fine illustration comparing species with Cystocoleus ebeneus under that genus; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Schade, A. 1932. Die Verbreitung von Racodium rupestre Pers. und Coenogonium nigrum (Huds.) Zahlbr. in Sachsen. Beihefte zum Botanisches Centralblatt 49(Ergänzungsband): 421-437. [description, illustration]

Migula, W. 1927-1931 ("1931"). Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. Band IV: Flechten. Teil 2. Hugo Bermühler Verlag, Berlin-Lichterfelde, 868 pp. plus plates. [R. rupestre, description, color drawings of thallus and anatomy]

Ramalina (44)

[see N. Am. keys and regional floras for the most useful treatments of the genus]

Krog, H. and James, P.W. 1977. The genus Ramalina in Fennoscandia and the British Isles. Norwegian Journal of Botany 24: 15-43. [key, 18 species, 13 on N. Am. list, descriptions, chemistry]]

Howe, R.H. 1913-1914. North American species of the genus Ramalina. Parts 1-8. Bryologist 16: 65-74, 81-89; 17: 1-7, 17-27, 33-40, 49-52. 65-69, 81-87. [overall key 41 species, 21 still on N. Am. list, descriptions; Howe was a "splitter," so many of the species may not warrant separation]

Bowler, P.A. and Rundel, P.W. 1978. The Ramalina farinacea complex in North America: chemical, ecological and morphological variation. Bryologist 81: 386-403. [keeps one species]

Bowler, P. A. and Rundel, P.W. 1974. The Ramalina intermedia complex in North America. Bryologist 77: 617-623. R. intermedia, R. petrina, photographs of thalli]

Rundel, P.W. 1978. Evolutionary relationships in the Ramalina usnea complex. Lichenologist 10: 141-156. [key, 5 species, 2 on N. Am. list, R. usnea, photograph of thallus]

LaGreca, S. 1999. A phylogenetic evaluation of the Ramalina americana chemotype complex (lichenized Ascomycota, Ramilinaceae) based on rDNA ITS sequence data. Bryologist 102: 602-618. [R culbersoniorum described, illustrated, detailed discussion of the R. americana group]

Culberson, C.F., Culberson, W.L. and Johnson, A. 1990. The Ramalina americana complex (Ascomycotina, Ramalinaceae): chemical and geographic correlations. Bryologist 3: 167-186. [chemical variation discussed]

Thomson, J.W. 1990. Ramalina unifolia sp. nov. from North America. Bryologist 93: 341-342. [description, photographs of thalli]

Wylie, M.E. 1977. The lichen genus Ramalina (Ramalinaceae) in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. Ph.D. thesis University of Calgary, Calgary. 686 pp. [not seen; has reputation as a "splitter;" available from National Library of Canada, Canadian Thesis Services, Telephone (819) 953-6221 E-mail: theses@nlc-bnc.ca AMICUS No. 3054809]

Culberson, W.L. 1966. Chimie et taxonomie des lichens du groupe Ramalina farinacea en Europe. Révue Bryologique et Lichenologique 34: 841-851. [key to R. farinacea group in Europe, 5 species, 2 on N. Am. list, notes, chemistry]

Swinscow, T.D.V. and Krog, H. 1988. Macrolichens of East Africa. British Museum (Natural History, London. 390 pp. [key, 30 species, many of which are pantropic; 6 on N. Am. list; descriptions; photographs of thalli for half of the species]

Ladrón Concepción, I. 1972. The lichen genus Ramalina Ach. in the West Indies with notes on its role in the vegetation of Puerto Rico. Ph.D. dissertation. Michigan State University, East Lansing. 342 pp. [key, 23 species, 8 on N. Am. list, descriptions; available from UMI Dissertation Services at http://www.umi.com/hp/Support/DExplorer/ dissertation number 7305422]

Keissler, K. von. 1958-60. Usneaceae. In Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 9,5: 1-755. [key, 14 species, 11 on N. Am. list, descriptions, a few drawings]

Kashiwadani, H. and Kalb, K. 1993. The genus Ramalina in Brazil. Lichenologist 25: 1-31. [key, 22 species, 6 on N. Am. list, descriptions or characterizations, small photographs of thalli]

Kashiwadani, H. and Nash, T.H., III. 1994. New or noteworthy species of the genus Ramalina (lichens) from northern Mexico. Acta Bot. Fennica 150: 87-92. [R. ahtii newly described, on N. Am. list; photograph of thallus]

Riefner, R. E. and Bowler, P. A. 1994. Ramalina baltica and Ramalina canariensis in North America. Mycotaxon 51: 495-501. [2 species, characterizations, comparisons, photographs of thalli]

Riefner, R.E. and Bowler, P.A. 1994. Ramalina puberulenta: A new lichen from California. Mycotaxon 52: 247-257. [R. puberulenta and R. leptocarpha, descriptions, photographs of thalli; comparative table]

Riefner, R.E. 1990. Pertusaria pseudocorallina and Ramalina fastigiata new to North America. Mycotaxon 39: 31-41. [one description, comparisons, photograph of thallus]

Jones, R. E. 1964. The Lichen Genus Ramalina in the Gulf South Region of the United States. Ph.D. Dissertation, Louisiana State University. [not reviewed; available from UMI Dissertation Services at http://www.umi.com/hp/Support/DExplorer/ dissertation number 7418346]

Ramonia (6)

Vezda, A. 1967. Flechtensytematische Studien V. Die Gattung Ramonia Stiz. Zusätze. Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica 2: 311-317. [world key, 10 species, 6 on N. Am. list; R. ablephora, description and drawings as R. gyalectiformis]

Vezda, A. 1966. Flechtensytematische Studien III. Die Gattungen Ramonia Stiz. und Gloeolecta Lett. Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica 1: 154-175. [ key, 8 species, 5 on N. Am. list, descriptions, detailed drawings]

[Ramularia] (see Hawksworthiana for R. peltigericola)

[Rechingeria]                    (see Lichinella)

Refractohilum (1)

Hawksworth, D.L. 1977. Three new genera of lichenicolous fungi. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 75: 195-209. [Refractohilum (new genus), 3 species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1979. The lichenicolous Hyphomycetes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 6: 183-300. [key, 3 species, brief notes]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1980. Notes on British lichenicolous fungi: III. Notes from the Royal Botanical Garden Edinburgh 38: 165-183. [comparison with Ramularia peltigericola]

[Reinkella]                           (see Hubbsia)

Relicina (2)

Elix, J.A. 1998. A new species and revised key to the genus Relicina (Ascomycotina, Parmeliaceae). Mycotaxon 69: 129-136. [world key from Elix (1996), revised and corrected; essentially the same key is available online at http://www.bgbm.fu-berlin.de/bgbm/staff/wiss/Sipman+H/keys/Relicina.htm]

Elix, J.A. 1996. A Revision of the Lichen Genus Relicina. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 62, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 150 pp. [world key, 47 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs of thalli; tables comparing Relicina to similar genera]

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1975. A monograph of the lichen genus Relicina (Parmeliaceae). Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 26: 1-32. [world key, 24 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs of thalli]

Hale, M.E., Jr. and Kurokawa, S. 1964. Studies on Parmelia subgenus Parmelia. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 36: 121-191. [world key as Parmelia series Relicinae, 18 species, 2 on N. Am. list]

Requienella (2)

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [world key, 3 species, 2 on N. Am. list ; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Aptroot, A. 1991. A Monograph of the Pyrenulaceae (Excluding Anthracothecium and Pyrenula) and the Requienellaceae, with Notes on the Pleomassariaceae, the Trypetheliaceae and Mycomicrothelia (Lichenized and Non-lichenized Ascomycetes). Bibliotheca Lichenologica, Bd. 44, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 178 pp. [world key, 2 species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations; covers same species as Harris (1995), but lumps them]

[Rhabdospora]                 (Not yet known from North America)

Rhagadostoma (1)

Navarrro-Rosinés, P. and Hladun, N. 1994. Datos sobre el género Rhagadostoma (ascomicetes liquenícolas, Sordariales). Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence 45: 431-442. [worldwide key, 4 lichenicolous species, descriptions of 3, illustrations of 4; R. lichenicola var. lichenicola not described]

Keissler, K. von. 1930. Die Flechtenparasiten. In Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 8: 1-712. [R. lichenicola var. lichenicola, description, drawings of habitus and anatomy, p. 320-323]

Rhizocarpon (63)

[All subgroups:]

Thomson, J.W. 1967. Notes on Rhizocarpon in the Arctic. Nova Hedwigia 14: 421-481. [key, 45 arctic and boreal species; descriptions, 43 on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Timdal, E. and Holtan-Hartwig, J. 1988. A preliminary key to Rhizocarpon in Scandinavia. Graphis Scripta 2: 41-54. [key, 56 species, 42 on N. Am. list, notes, table of chemistry]

Feuerer, T. 1978. Zur Kenntnis der Flechtengattung Rhizocarpon in Bayern. Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft 49: 59-135. [key, 34 species, 30 on N. Am. list, detailed descriptions, detailed drawings spores and spore variation within species]

Thomson, J.W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens 2. The Microlichens. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 675 pp. [key, 37 N. Am. species, descriptions, some photographs of thalli]

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [key, 20 species, about 15 still on N. Am. list, descriptions; R. vernicomoideum, R. athalloides, not in other keys cited

Brodo, I.M. 1990. Rhizocarpon hensseniae, a cephalodiate lichen from the northwest coast of North America. In: Jahns, H. M. (ed.). Contributions to Lichenology in Honour of A. Henssen. Bibliotheca Lichenologica. No. 38. J. Cramer, Berlin-Stuttgart pp. 29-35. [R. hensseniae newly described; photographs of thallus and anatomy]

[Not-yellow species:]

Fryday, A. 1996. A provisional re-assessment of the non-yellow species of Rhizocarpon occurring in the British Isles. British Lichen Society Bulletin 78: 29-40. [key, 30 species, 19 on N. Am. list, some notes]

Feuerer, T. 1991. Revision der europaischen Arten der Flechtengattung Rhizocarpon mit nichtgelbem Lager und veilzelligen Sporen. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, No. 39, J. Cramer, Berlin-Stuttgart. 218 pp. [key to non-yellow species with muriform spores; 18 species, 12 on N. Am. list, detailed descriptions]

Fryday, A. 2000. On Rhizocarpon obscuratum (Ach.) Massal., with notes on some related species in the British Isles. Lichenologist 32: 207-224. [key, 12 species with hyaline, muriform spores, 6 on N. Am. list; descriptions for R. reductum, R. anaperum, table of comparison]

[Yellow species:]

Poelt, J. 1988. Rhizocarpon Ram. em. Th.Fr. subgen. Rhizocarpon in Europe. Arctic and Alpine Research 20: 292-298. updated version of Poelt and Vezda (1977) in English, detailed key to yellow species, 37 species, about 20 in N. Am, ]

Runemark, H. 1956. Studies in Rhizocarpon. I. Taxonomy of the yellow species in Europe. Opera Botanica 2(l): 1-152. [key, 29 species, 15 on N. Am. list, detailed descriptions, photographs of thalli, drawings of anatomy]

Geyer, M., Feuerer, T. and Feige, G.B. 1984. Chemie und Systematik in der Flechtengattung Rhizocarpon: Hochdruckflussigkeitschromatographie (HPLC) der Flechten-Sekundarstoffe der Rhizocarpon superficiale-Gruppe. Plant Systematics and Evolution 145: 41-54. [key to R. superficiale group, 6 species, 5 on N. Am. list]

[Peltate species:]

Gelting, P. 1954. The Rhizocarpon species with peltate areoles occurring in Europe and North America. Botanisk Tidsskrift 51: 71-92. [key, 4 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions; R. arctogenum, illustrated]

[Parasitic species:]

Poelt, J. 1990. Parasitische Arten der Flechtengattung Rhizocarpon: eine weitere Übersicht. Mitteilungen der Botanische Staatssammlung München 29: 515-538. [key, 28 species, 7 on N. Am. list, notes]

Rhizoplaca (7)

McCune, B. 1987. Distribution of chemotypes of Rhizoplaca in North America. Bryologist 90: 6-14. [key, 6 species, 7th described]

Poelt, J. 1958. Die lobaten Arten der Flechtengattung Lecanora Ach. sensu ampl. in der Holarktis. Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München 2(19-20): 411-589. [key, 6 species as Lecanora sections Omphalodina and Pachnopeltis, 6 in N. Am., descriptions]

Weber, W.A. 1979. New combinations in Rhizoplaca for endemic American species of Lecanora Auct. Mycotaxon 8: 559-560. [spore correction for R. glaucophana and comparison with R. marginalis]

Ryan, B.D. and Nash, T.H., III. 1997. Placodioid taxa of Lecanoraceae sensu Zahlbr. (lichenized Ascomycotina) in North America: taxa excluded from Lecanora subg. Placodium. Nova Hedwigia 64(3-4): 393-420. [key to placidioid groups and genera, including Rhizoplaca; taxonomic discussion of each]

Rhymbocarpus [1]

Diederich, P. and Etayo, J. 2000. A synopsis of the genera Skyttea, Llimoniella, and Rhymbocarpus (lichenicolous Ascomycota, Leotiales). Lichenologist 32: 423-485. [world key to 9 species; R. neglectus on N. Am. list, newly transferred from Llimoniella; descriptions and illustrations of new species; detailed notes for all]

Kümmerling, H., Triebel, D. and Rambold, G. 1993. Lepraria neglecta and its lichenicolous fungi. In: Feige, G.B. and Lumbsch, H.T. (eds.). Phytochemistry and Chemotaxonomy of Lichenized Ascomycetes - A Festschrift in Honour of Siegfried Huneck. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, Bd. 53, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart pp. 147-160. [R. neglectus as Llimoniella, description and illustrations]

Rimelia (6)

[see also keys for Parmotrema written before 1990]

Hale, M.E., Jr. and Fletcher, A. 1990. Hale and Fletcher, a new lichen genus (Ascomycotina: Parmeliaceae). Bryologist 93: 23-29. [worldwide key, 12 species, 6 on N. Am. list, brief characterizations]

[Rimeliella]                       (see Canomaculina)

Rimularia (9)

Hertel, H. and Rambold, G. 1990. Zur Kenntnis der Familie Rimulariaceae (Lecanorales). in Jahns, H.M. (ed.). Contributions to Lichenology in Honour of A. Henssen. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 38. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart, pp.145-189. [key, 13 species, 8 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of stained asci]

Rambold, G. (no date). Rimulariaceae: Rimularia {Online}. In: LIAS: A Global Information System for Lichenized and Non-Lichenized Ascomycetes. Botanische Staatssammlung München. Available: http://www.mycology.net//lias/index.cfm {accessed 1999 September 30}. [online interactive multiple-access world key; 16 species, 9 on N. Am. list]

Fryday, A. 1999. The genus Rimularia Nylander in the British Isles. British Lichen Society Bulletin No. 84: 18-21. [key, 9 named and 1 unnamed species, 6 on N. Am. list, notes]

Rambold, G. and Printzen, C. 1992. Rimularia caeca, a corticolous lichen species from North America. Mycotaxon 44: 453-460. [description, drawings of thalli]

Rinodina (82)

[All groups:]

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [semi-complete coverage of N. Am. Rinodina species, a compendium of miscellaneous sources; includes similar species in other genera, and some taxa not yet published; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Clauzade, G. and Roux, C. 1985. Likenoj de Okcidenta Europo. Ilustrita Determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Botanique du Centre-Ouest, Nouvelle Série, Numéro Spécial 7. Royan, France. 893 pp. [detailed key to 87 species, 22 on N. Am. list; key shows spore types next to couplet choices]

[Saxicolous species:]

Mayrhofer, H. and Poelt, J. 1979. Die saxicolen Arten der Flechtengattung Rinodina in Europa. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 12. J. Cramer. Vaduz. 186 pp. [key, 52 species, 12 on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Mayrhofer, H. 1984. Die saxicolen Arten der Flechtengattungen Rinodina und Rinodinella in der Alten Welt. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 55: 327-493. [detailed key, 95 species, 13 on N. Am. list; descriptions and spore drawings only for species not treated in Mayrhofer and Poelt (1979)]

Giralt, M. and Llimona, X. 1997. The saxicolous species of the genera Rinodina and Rinodinella lacking spot test reactions in the Iberian Peninsula. Mycotaxon 62: 175-224. [key, 18 species, 7 on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Sheard, J.W. 1982. The saxicolous species of the lichenized ascomycete genus Rinodina (Ach.) Gray with blue epithecia. Bryologist 85: 88-95. [R. athallina, R. zwackhiana, illustrations]

Mayrhofer, H. and Sheard, J.W. 1988. Four notable saxicolous species of the lichenized ascomycete genus Rinodina from the Arctic. Bryologist 91: 106-112. [R. calcigena, R. endophragmia, R. ochracea, descriptions, spore illustrations]

[Corticolous species:]

Magnusson, A.H. 1947. On North American, non-saxicolous species of the genus Rinodina. Botaniska Notiser 1947: 32-54. [key, 30 species, 20 still on N. Am. list, notes, a few descriptions]

Giralt, M. 1994. Key to the corticolous and lignicolous species of the genus Rinodina present in the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence 45: 317-326. [key, 35 species, 9 on N. Am. list; best explanatory drawings of spore types and of ascus types in Rinodina; disregards the concept of spore torus]

Giralt, M. and Mayrhofer, H. 1994. Four corticolous species of the genus Rinodina (lichenized Ascomycetes, Physciaceae) containing atranorin in southern Europe and adjacent regions. Nova Hedwigia 59(1-2): 129-142. [key, 4 species, R. capensis, R. exigua on N. Am. list, descriptions, spore drawings]

Giralt, M. and Mayrhofer, H. 1994. Four corticolous species of the genus Rinodina (lichenized Ascomycetes, Physciaceae) with polyspored asci. Herzogia 10: 29-37. [key, 4 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, spore illustrations]

Giralt, M., Mayrhofer, H. and Sheard, J.W. 1995. The corticolous and lignicolous sorediate, blastidiate and isidiate species of the genus Rinodina in southern Europe. Lichenologist 27: 3-24. [key, 8 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Ropin, K. and Mayrhofer, H. 1995. Über corticole Arten der Gattung Rinodina (Physciaceae) mit grauem Epihymenium. In: Farkas, E.E., Lücking, R. and Wirth, V. (eds.). Scripta Lichenologica--Lichenological Papers Dedicated to Antonín Vezda. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, no. 58, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart pp. 361-382. [key, 3 species, R. colobina on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations of spores]

Sheard, J.W. 1995. Disjunct distributions of some North American, corticolous, vegetatively reproducing Rinodina species (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes). Herzogia 11: 115-132. [key to 11 N. Am. corticolous, vegetatively reproducing species]

Sheard, J.W. 1998. Rinodina riparia (lichenized Ascomycetes, Physciaceae), a new corticolous species from North America. In: Glenn, M.G, Harris, R.C., Dirig, R. and Cole, M.S. (eds.). Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson. Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, New York. pp. 37-40. [1 species described; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/]

Sheard, J.W. and Tønsberg, T. 1995. Rinodina stictica, a new corticolous, sorediate lichen species from the Pacific Northwest of North America. Bryologist 98: 41-44. [description and illustration]

Tønsberg, T. 1992. Rinodina sheardii, a new lichen species from northwest Europe and northwest North America. Bryologist 95: 216-217. [description, photograph of thallus]

Coppins, B.J. 1989. Rinodina griseosoralifera, a new corticolous sorediate lichen from western Europe. Lichenologist 21: 169-172. [description]

[Terricolous species:]

Mayrhofer, H., Sheard, J.W., Grassler, M.C., and Elix, J.A. 2001. Rinodina intermedia (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes): a well-characterized species with submuriform ascospores. Bryologist 104: 456-463. [detailed description and comparison with C. conradii, illustrations of spores]

[Miscellaneous:]

Giralt, M., Mayrhofer, H., and Obermayer, W. 1994. The species of the genus Rinodina (lichenized Ascomycetes, Physciaceae) containing pannarin in Eurasia with a special note on the taxonomy of Rinodina granulans. Mycotaxon 50: 47-59. [key, 6 Eurasian species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions and photographs of R. excrescens and R. granulans, descriptive notes on additional 3 N. Am. species with pannarin]

[Robergea] (see Belonia)

Roccella (9)

Darbishire, O.V. 1898. Monographia Roccelleorum. Bibliotheca Botanica 9(45): 1-102. [key 27 species in family, 17 species of Roccella, 7 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations of thallus and anatomy; key to genera; in German]

Hale, M.E., Jr. and Cole, M. 1988. Lichens of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London. 254 p. [treats only 2 species, but these are on not covered by Darbishire, 1898; key, short descriptions, key, drawing of R. babingtonii]

Darbishire, O. V. 1935. The Templeton Crocker Expedition of the

California Academy of Sciences, 1932. No. 23. The Roccellaceae. With notes on specimens collected during the expedition of 1905-1906 to the Galapagos Islands. Proceedings of the California Academy of Science, 4th Ser., 21(23): 285-294. [R. fimbriata newly described; photographs]

Roccellaceae (key for determining fruticose genera of the family)

Tehler, A., Lohtander, K., Myllys, L. and Sundin, R. 1997. On the identity of the genera Hubbsia and Reinkella (Roccellaceae). In: Tibell, L. and Hedberg, I. (eds.) Lichen Studies Dedicated to Rolf Santesson. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 32: 255-265. [key to fruticose Roccellaceae]

Roccellina (2)

Tehler, A. 1983. The genera Dirina and Roccellina (Rocellaceae). Opera Botanica 70: 1-86. [world key, 23 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Tehler, A. 2002. Roccellina. In Nash, T.H., III, Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., and Bungartz, F. (eds.). Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, pp. 454-455. [key to 2 N. Am. species; full species and generic descriptions; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/PublicationsforSale.htm]

Ropalospora (4)

Ekman, S. 1993. A taxonomic study of Ropalospora chlorantha, and a comparison between Ropalospora and Fuscidea. Bryologist 96: 582-591. [world key, 5 species, 4 on N. Am. list, most are described, or partly so, illustrations of asci and anatomy]

Tønsberg, T. 1992. The sorediate and isidiate, corticolous, crustose lichens in Norway. Sommerfeltia 14: 1-331. [R. viridis, description, in overall key]

Coppins, B.J., James, P.W. and Hawksworth, D.L. 1992. New species and combinations in the Lichen Flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Lichenologist 24: 351-369. [R. hibernica as a Fuscidea, newly described in Latin, thallus only, comparisons in English]

Roselliniella (1)

Matzer, M. and Hafellner, J. 1990. Eine Revision der lichenicolen Arten der Sammelgattung Rosellina (Ascomycetes). Bibliotheca Lichenologica 37. J. Cramer, Berlin. 138 pp. + 8 pl. [key, 9 species of Roselliniella, including R. nephromatis, descriptions, illustrations, key to related genera]

Roux, C. and Bellemère, A. 1991. Systématique des champignons lichénicoles non lichénisés: nouveautés et changements importants depuis la parution de Nelikenigintaj fungoj likenlogaj. Bulletin d'Informations de l'Association Française de Lichénologie 16(2): 71-83. [key to related genera, reproduced from Matzer and Hafellner, 1990]

Roselliniopsis (1)

Matzer, M. 1993. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Ascomycetengattungen Globosphaeria, Roselliniopsis und Synaptospora. Cryptogamie, Mycologie 14(1): 11-19. [key, 4 species, R. gelidaria described, drawings of spores for all 4 species; key to the 3 treated genera]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [R. gelidaria in key to 24 species of Polycoccum, spore illustration]

[for keys to related genera, see Roselliniella]

Rosellinula (1)

Hafellner, J. 1985. Studien über lichenicole Pilze und Flechten II. Die Gattung Roselliniella Vainio emend. Haf. (Ascomycotina, Dothideales). Herzogia 7: 145-162. [key to 4 species (as Rosellinula), R. kalbii on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of anatomy and spores; key to genera with single-celled brown ascospores

Kalb, K., Hafellner, J. and Staiger, B. 1995. Haematomma-studien. II. Lichenicole Pilze auf Arten der Flechtengattung Haematomma. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 59. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 199-222 pp. [key to parasitic lichens found on Haematomma species, 1 species of Rosellinula]]

[for keys to related genera, see Roselliniella]

 

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z Contents

   Sch     Scl     Si     So     Sp     St     Su

[Saccomorpha]                  (see Placynthiella)

Sagediopsis (2) [3]

Triebel, D. 1993. Notes on the genus Sagediopsis (Verrucariales, Adelococcaceae). Sendtnera 1: 273-280. [5 species 2 on N. Am. list (plus another reported but not yet listed); brief characterizations based on spore shape and size; table compares genus with other Verrucarialean lichenicolous fungi]

Alstrup, V. and Hawksworth, D.L. 1990. The lichenicolous fungi of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bioscience 31: 1-90. [2 species in key, 2 on N. Am. list]

Aguirre-Hudson, B. 1991. A taxonomic study of the species referred to the ascomycete genus Leptorhaphis. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany 21: 85-192. [description of S. barbara as L. steinii, detailed illustration]

Rambold, G., Hertel, H. and Triebel, D. 1990. Koerberiella wimmeriana (Lecanorales, Porpidiaceae) and its lichenicolous fungi. Lichenologist 22: 225-240. [S. aquatica, description, drawings of habitus and anatomy; not yet on N. Am. list, but reported]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1975. Notes on British lichenicolous fungi, I. Kew Bulletin 30: 182-203. [S. campsteriana as Metasphaeria tartarina, description and drawings of thallus and anatomy]

Triebel, D. 1989. Lecideicole Ascomyceten. Eine Revision der obligat lichenicolen Ascomyceten auf lecideoiden Flechten. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, No. 35., J. Cramer, Berlin-Stuttgart. 278 pp. [in overall key, genus and S. barbara described, drawings of spores and ascus]

Sagiolechia (2)

Clauzade, G. and Roux, C. 1985. Likenoj de Okcidenta Europo. Ilustrita Determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Botanique du Centre-Ouest, Nouvelle Série, Numéro Spécial 7. Royan, France. 893 pp. [detailed key, 2 species, 2 on N. Am. list, drawings of apothecial anatomy and spores]

Vezda, A 1967. Flechtensytematische Studien VI. Die Gattung Sagiolechia Massal. Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica 2: 383-396. [2 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions; description of genus]

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W. and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [key, 2 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm

Hansen, E.S., Poelt, J. and Vezda, A. 1987. The lichen genera Gyalecta, Gyalidea and Sagiolechia in Greenland. Herzogia 7: 367-374. [2 species, 2 on N. Am. list, brief characterizations]

Santessoniella (1)[3]

[see also keys to Parmeliella]

Jørgensen, P.M. 2000. Survey of the lichen family Pannariaceae on the American continent north of Mexico. Bryologist: 103: 670-704. [key to genera and species, 3 N. Am. species; descriptions of genera and species, notes, photographs of thalli of all taxa]

Henssen, A. 1997. Santessoniella, a new cyanophilic genus of lichenized ascomycetes. - In: Tibell, L. and Hedberg, I. (eds.). Lichen Studies Dedicated to Rolf Santesson. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 32(1): 75-93. [world key, 6 species, 1 on N. Am. list; descriptions, photographs]

Henssen, A. 2000. Santessoniella rosettiformis, a new species from South America with notes on S. pulchella (Pannariaceae). Lichenologist 32: 57-65. [world key to 8 species, 1 on N. Am. list; delimitation of genus from Parmeliella]

Sarcographa (4)

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 4 species; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 109 pp. [key, 3 species; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Sarcogyne (13)

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [key, 13 N. Am. species, descriptions; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Magnusson, A.H. 1934. On the species of Biatorella and Sarcogyne in America. Annales Cryptogamie Exotique 7: 115-146. [key, 15 species, 12 on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Magnusson, A.H. 1952. New crustaceous lichen species from North America. Acta Horti Gotoburgensis (Meddelanden fran Göteborgs Botaniska Trädgard) 19(2): 31-49. [S. oligospora, newly described ]

Sarcopyrenia (1)

Aguirre-Hudson, B. 1991. A taxonomic study of the species referred to the ascomycete genus Leptorhaphis. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany 21: 85-192. [key, 3 species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions, detailed illustrations]

Navarro-Rosinés, P. and Hladun, N.L. 1990. El género Sarcopyrenia Nyl. (ascomicetes liquenícolas) en Europa y norte de Africa. Candollea 45: 469-488. [world key, 5 species, 1 on N. Am. list, brief descriptions, illustrations, in Spanish]

Navarro-Rosinés, P., Roux, C. and Bricaud, O. 1998. Sarcopyrenia acutispora Nav. Ros. et Cl. Roux sp. nov., nelikeniginta fungo likenloga (Ascomycetes, Verrucariales, Sarcopyreniaceae Nav.-Ros et Cl. Roux fam. nov.). Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence 49:125-135. [not reviewed; reportedly contains a revised world key to the genus]

Tretiach, M. and Navarro-Rosinés, P. 1996. Sarcopyrenia sigmoideospora sp. nov., a lichenicolous Ascomycete growing on Verrucaria gr. parmigera. Nova Hedwigia 62(1-2): 249-254. [world key, 6 species, 1 on N. Am. list]

Harris, R.C. 1995. New or rare lichens/lichenicolous fungi for North America. Evansia 12: 154-156. [S. cylindrospora, useful note but no description]

Sarcosagium (1)

[See also keys to Biatorella written before 1994

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W., and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [monospecific genus, description; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm

Hafellner, J. 1994. On Biatoridium, a resurrected genus of lichenized fungi (Ascomycotina, Lecanorales). In: Stenroos, S. (ed.) Focus on Lichen Taxonomy and Biogeography: A Festschrift in Honour of Teuvo Ahti. Acta Botanica Fennica, 150, Finnish Botanical Publishing Board, Helsinki, pp. 39-46. [table comparing biatorelloid genera]

Magnusson, A.H. 1934. On the species of Biatorella and Sarcogyne in America. Annales Cryptogamie Exotique 7: 115-146. [S. campestre, as Biatorella]

Sarea (2)

Hawksworth, D.L. and Sherwood, M.A. 1981. A reassessment of three widespread resinicolous discomycetes. Canadian Journal of Botany 59: 357-372. [2 N. Am. species, descriptions, illustrations]

Magnusson, A.H. 1935. Acarosporaceae und Thelocarpaceae. In Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 9,5(l): 1-318. [key, 2 species, 2 on N. Am. list, as Tromera; descriptions]

Dennis, R.W.G. 1978. British Ascomycetes. J. Cramer, Vaduz, 585 pp. [S. resinae, as Biatorella resinae, description, color illustration]

Schadonia (2)

Thomson, J.W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens 2. The Microlichens. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 675 pp. [key, 2 species, descriptions]

Poelt, J. and Vezda, A. 1981. Bestimmungsschlüssel europäischer Flechten. Ergänzungsheft II. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 16. J. Cramer, Valduz. 390 pp. [key, 2 species, 2 on N. Am. list]

Schaereria (4)

[the first two or the last two references together cover all species on the N. Am. list]

Thomson, J.W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens 2. The Microlichens. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 675 pp. [key, 3 species, descriptions, photograph of S. endocyanea]

Kantvilas, G. 1999. A new species of Schaereria from Tasmania. Lichenologist 31: 231-238. [world key, 7 species in the narrowest sense, 3 on N. Am. list]

Clauzade, G. and Roux, C. 1985. Likenoj de Okcidenta Europo. Ilustrita Determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Botanique du Centre-Ouest, Nouvelle Série, Numéro Spécial 7. Royan, France. 893 pp. [key, 5 species, 3 on N. Am. list; drawing of S. fuscocinerea as S. tenebrosa]

Tønsberg, T. 1992. The sorediate and isidiate, corticolous, crustose lichens in Norway. Sommerfeltia 14: 1-331. [S. corticola newly described, photograph of thallus]

Schismatomma (7)

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [key, 6 species on N. Am. list, plus several similar species now transferred to other genera, descriptions; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Tehler, A. 1993. The genus Schismatomma (Arthoniales, Euascomycetidae). Opera Botanica 118: 1-38. [world monograph; of Schismatomma in the strict sense, key, 8 species, 3 on N. Am. list, 3 others transferred out but not placed (so still on list), and 1 not mentioned; descriptions, drawings of thalli, spores, and conidia]

Torrente, P. and J.M. Egea, J.M. 1989. La Familia Opegraphaceae en el Area Mediterránea de la Península Ibérica y Norte de Africa. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 32. J. Cramer. Berlin. 282 pp. 1-282. [key, 6 species of Schismatomma in the broad sense, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Schizopelte (1)

Darbishire, O.V. 1898. Monographia Roccelleorum. Bibliotheca Botanica 9(45): 1-102. [key 27 species in family, 1 species of Schizopelte, 1 on N. Am. list, description, illustrations of thallus and anatomy; key to genera; in German]

Tehler, A. 2002. Schizopelte. In Nash, T.H., III, Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., and Bungartz, F. (eds.). Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, pp. 457-458. [S. californica; full species description; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/PublicationsforSale.htm]

Tehler, A. 1990. A new approach to the phylogeny of Euascomycetes with a cladistic outline of Arthoniales focussing on Roccellaceae. Canadian Journal of Botany 68: 2458-2492. [S. californica, complete description using character states]

Sclerophora (5)

Selva, S.B. and Tibell, L. 1999. Lichenized and non-lichenized calicioid fungi from North America. Bryologist 102: 377-397. [keys to 5 N. Am. species; descriptions of 3 recently reported species]

Tibell, L. 1999. Calicioid lichens and fungi. In: Ahti, T., Jørgensen, P.M., Kristinsson, H., Moberg, R., Søchting, U. and Thor, G. (eds.). Nordic Lichen Flora. Volume 1. Introductory Parts. Calicioid Lichens and Fungi. Nordic Lichen Society, Uddevalla. 94 pp. [key to 5 species, 5 on N. Am. list, descriptions, notes, good color photographs]

Middelborg, J. and Mattsson, J.-E. 1987. Crustaceous lichenized species of the Caliciales in Norway. Sommerfeltia 5: 1-70. [key, 4 species, 4 in N. Am., descriptions]

Tibell, L. 1987. Australasian Caliciales. Symbolae Botanicae Upsaliensis 27(1): 1-279. [S. amabilis (not in Middelborg and Mattsson), illustrations]

Goward, T., Breuss, O., Ryan, B., McCune, B., Sipman, H. and Scheidegger, C. 1996. Notes on the lichens and allied fungi of British Columbia. III. Bryologist 99: 439-449. [notes on and partial descriptions of S. coniophaea, S. peronella, S. amabilis; N. Am. specimens of S. amabilis with spores larger than usual]

Tibell, L. 1984. A reappraisal of the taxonomy of Caliciales. In: Hertel, H. and Oberwinkler, F. (eds.). Beiträge zur Lichenologie. Festschrift J. Poelt. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia 79: 597-713. [key to genera of calicioid fungi (stubble and pin fungi); description and discussion of the genera]

Sclerophyton (3)

Egea, J.M. and Torrente, P. 1995. The lichen genus Sclerophyton in the Sonoran Desert. Bryologist 98: 207-217. [key, 6 species, 3 on N. Am. list north of Mexico, descriptions, illustrations; (S. occidentale excluded but not placed)]

Herre, A.W.C.T. 1940. A new species of lichen from California. Bryologist 43: 27. ["Sclerophyton" occidentale (now without a generic home)]

Scoliciosporum (4) [5]

Clauzade, G. and Roux, C. 1985. Likenoj de Okcidenta Europo. Ilustrita Determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Botanique du Centre-Ouest, Nouvelle Série, Numéro Spécial 7. Royan, France. 893 pp. [detailed key with spore drawings, 6 species, 4 on N. Am. list; In Esperanto]

Vezda, A. 1978. Neue oder wenig bekannte Flechten in der Tschechoslowakei. II. Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica 13: 397-420. [genus emended, description in Latin, key to 7 species, 4 on N. Am. list, notes on 3 species; in German]

Ahti, T. and Vitikainen, O. 1974. Bacidia chlorococca, a common toxitolerant lichen in Finland. Memoranda Societas Fauna et Flora Fennica 49: 95-100. [description of S. chlorococcum, as Bacidia; how to differentiate it from protococcoid algae]

Tønsberg, T. 1998. Additions to the lichen flora of North America VI. Bryologist 100: 522-524. [S. pruinosum, brief characterization, lobaric acid reported]

Tønsberg, T. 1992. The sorediate and isidiate, corticolous, crustose lichens in Norway. Sommerfeltia 14: 1-331. [detailed description of S. sarothamni]

Scutula (4) [5?]

[the first references plus either the next two references together cover all species on the N. Am. list]

Triebel, D., Wedin, M. and Rambold, G. 1997. The genus Scutula (lichenicolous ascomycetes, Lecanorales): species on the Peltigera canina and P. horizontalis groups. In: Tibell, L. and Hedberg, I. (eds.) Lichen Studies Dedicated to Rolf Santesson. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 32(1): 323-337. [4 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations, S. dedicata newly described]

Keissler, K. von. 1930. Die Flechtenparasiten. In Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 8: 1-712. [key, 9 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustration only of (S. epiblastematica)]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [detailed key, 15 species, S. miliaris and S. stereocaulorum on N. Am. list]

[Secoliga]                          (see Gyalecta)

Segestria (4)

[there is much disagreement regarding the delimitation of the genus; the N. Am. checklist follows Harris (1995) See keys to Porina, in the broad sense, for many of these species]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key to 4 named, all on N. Am. list, and 1 unnamed species; notes; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1975. A taxonomic revision of the genus Arthopyrenia Massal. s. lat. (Ascomycetes) in North America. Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, 288 pp. [3 N. Am. species as Porina in key to 14 named and several unnamed Porina; available from UMI Dissertation Services at http://www.umi.com/hp/Support/DExplorer/ dissertation number 7605564]

Sigridea (1)

Tehler, A. 1993. The genus Sigridea (Roccellaceae, Arthoniales, Euascomycetidae). Nova Hedwigia 57(3-4): 417-435. [key, 5 species, 1 on N. Am. list, drawings of thalli and anatomy]

Siphula (2)

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [key, 2 species on N. Am. list, descriptions; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Thomson, J.W. 1984. America Arctic Lichens 1. The Macrolichens. Columbia University Press, New York, 504 pp. [in key to genera, 1 N. Am. species, S. ceratites, description, fine drawing of thallus]

Degelius, G. 1938. Lichens from Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. Meddelanden fran Göteborgs Botaniska Trädgard (Acta Horti Gotoburgensis) 12: 105-144. [S. dactyliza, detailed description, partly in Latin]

Mathey, A. 1974 ("1971"). Contribution a l’etude du genre Siphula (Lichenes) en Afrique. Nova Hedwigia 22: 795-878. [detailed treatment of 5 species, none on N. Am. list, descriptions, copious illustrations]

Santesson, J. 1967. Chemical studies in lichens. 6. The chemistry of the genus Siphula II. Acta Chemica Scandinavica 21: 1833-1837. [chemistry for 10 species; S. dactyliza has atranorin, chloroatranorin, and norstictic acid]

Skyttea (1)[8]

Diederich, P. and Etayo, J. 2000. A synopsis of the genera Skyttea, Llimoniella, and Rhymbocarpus (lichenicolous Ascomycota, Leotiales). Lichenologist 32: 423-485. [world key to 17 species; 8 on N. Am. list, 5 of which are new; descriptions and illustrations of new species; detailed notes for all]

Sherwood, M.A., Hawksworth, D.L. and Coppins, B.J. 1981 ("1980"). Skyttea, a new genus of odontotremoid lichenicolous fungi. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 75: 479-490. [key, 7 species, 3 on N. Am. list; descriptions, drawings of habitus and anatomy; genus newly described]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [key, 13 species, ? on N. Am. list, spore illustrations]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1983. A key to the lichen-forming, parasitic, parasymbiotic and saprophytic fungi occurring on lichens in the British Isles. Lichenologist 15: 1-44. [8 species in overall key, ? on N. Am. list]

Skyttella (1)

Hawksworth, D.L. and Santesson, R. 1988. Skyttella, a new genus for Phacopsis mulleri Willey (syn. Agyrium flavescens Rehm). Graphis Scripta 2: 33-37. [description of genus and of S. mulleri, its single species; drawing of anatomy]

Rambold, G. and Triebel, D. 1990. Gelatinopsis, Geltingia and Phaeopyxis: three helotialean genera with lichenicolous species. Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh 46: 375-389. [S. mulleri, in key to lichenicolous helotialean fungi]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [S. mulleri in short key to Agyrium]

Solenopsora (3) [4]

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [provisional key, 3 species on N. Am. checklist, plus several similar and unnamed taxa; all taxa are also keyed under Lecania; Ryan is studying Solenopsora, which probably makes this the most authoritative key; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Ryan, B.D., and Timdal, E. 2002. Solenopsora. In Nash, T.H., III, Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., and Bungartz, F. (eds.). Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, pp. 462-465. [key to 3 species, 2 on N. Am. list; S. cladonioides; full species and generic descriptions]

Poelt, J. 1969. Bestimmungsschlüssel europäischer Flechten. Cramer, Lehre, 757 pp. [detailed key, 7 species, 2 on N. Am. list]

Ryan, B.D. and Nash, T.H., III. 1997. Placodioid taxa of Lecanoraceae sensu Zahlbr. (lichenized Ascomycotina) in North America: taxa excluded from Lecanora subg. Placodium. Nova Hedwigia 64(3-4): 393-420. [Solenopsora in key to placidioid groups and genera, discussion of taxonomic state of genus]

Solorina (5)

Thomson, J.W. 1984. America Arctic Lichens 1. The Macrolichens. Columbia University Press, New York, 504 pp. [key, 5 N. Am. species, descriptions, fine drawings of thalli]

Migula, W. 1925-1927 ("1929"). Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. Band IV: Flechten. Teil 1. Hugo Bermühler Verlag, Berlin-Lichterfelde, 527 pp. plus plates. [key, 5 species, 5 on N. Am. list, descriptions; habitus and anatomy illustrated in color for S. saccata and S. crocea]

Martínez, I. and Burgaz A.R. 1999. Revision of the genus Solorina (lichenes) in Europe based on spore size variation. Annales Botanici Fennici 35: 137-142. [Key to 5 species, 4 on N. Am. list, the 5th N. Am. species discussed; comparative table; SEM photographs of spores]

Thomson, N.F. and Thomson, J.W. 1984. Spore ornamentation in the lichen genus Solorina. Bryologist 87: 151-153. [5 species, SEM photos only]

[Solorinaria] (see Heppia)

Solorinella (1)

Thor, G. 1984. A new species of Solorinella (Asterothyriaceae) from Peru. Nordic Journal of Botany 4: 823-826. [detailed descriptions, 2 species, 1 on N. Am. list, spore drawings]

Migula, W. 1925-1927 ("1929"). Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. Band IV. Flechten. Teil 1. Hugo Bermühler Verlag, Berlin-Lichterfelde, 527 pp. plus plates. [1 species, S. asteriscus, description, color illustrations of habitus and anatomy; key to genera]

Poelt, J. and Vezda, A. 1969 ("1968"). Über Bau und systematische Stellung der Flechtengattung Solorinella. Flora, Abt. B, 158: 223-231. [description of S. asteriscus emphasizing development, illustrations]

Farkas, E.E. and Lökös, L.S. 1994. Distribution of the lichens Cladonia magyarica Vain., and Solorinella asteriscus Anzi in Europe. In: Stenroos, S (ed.) 1994: Focus on Lichen Taxonomy and Biogeography: A Festschrift in Honour of Teuvo Ahti. Acta Botanica Fennica, 150, Finnish Botanical Publishing Board, Helsinki, pp. 21-30. [S. asteriscus, illustration, (good for sense of appearance)]

Solorinellaceae (key for determining the genera of the family)

Vezda, A. and Poelt, J. 1990. Solorinellaceae, eine neue Familie der lichenisierten Ascomyceten. Phyton {Austria} 30: 47-55.

Speerschneidera (1)

Hafellner, J. and Egan, R.S. 1981. Studies on the genus Speerschneidera. Lichenologist 13: 11-26. [monospecific genus, description, fine illustrations]

Sphaerellothecium (6) [7?]

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [key, 4 N. Am. species, plus brief characterization of one additional N. Am. species; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Triebel, D. 1989. Lecideicole Ascomyceten. Eine Revision der obligat lichenicolen Ascomyceten auf lecideoiden Flechten. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, No. 35., J. Cramer, Berlin-Stuttgart. 278 pp. [table compares similar genera, 2 species in overall key, S. contexta and S. abditum newly described, both on N. Am. list, spore drawings]

Roux, C. and Triebel, D. 1994. Révision des espèces de Stigmidium et de Sphaerellothecium (champignons lichénicoles non lichénisés, Ascomycetes) correspondant à Pharcidia epicymatia sensu Keissler ou à Stigmidium schaereri auct. Bulletin de la Société Linéenne de Provence 45: 451-542. [key, 4 species, S. propinquellum on N. Am list, descriptions, drawings of anatomy; comparisons with other genera]

Triebel, D., Rambold, G. and Nash, T.H., III. 1991. On lichenicolous fungi from continental North America. Mycotaxon 42: 263-296. [S. abditum and S. contextum: brief characterizations]

Alstrup, V. and Cole, M.S. 1998. Lichenicolous fungi of British Columbia. Bryologist 101: 221-229. [S. gowardii newly described, spore illustration, comparisons]

Hafellner, J. 1993. Über Funde von lichenicolen Pilzen und Flechten im südlichen Norwegen. Herzogia 9: 749-768. [S. minutum newly described., illustration]

[Sphaeria]                         (see Hypoxylon)

Sphaerophorus (2) [3]

Thomson, J.W. 1984. America Arctic Lichens 1. The Macrolichens. Columbia University Press, New York, 504 pp. [key, 2 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Goward, T. 1999. The lichens of British Columbia, Illustrated keys. Part 2 - Fruticose species. B.C. Ministry of Forests Research Program (Special Report Series no. 9). 319 pp. Free downloadable version available: http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/docs/Srs/Srs08.htm bound version available: http://www.crownpub.bc.ca. [key to 4 N. Am. species, one of which is undescribed, plus similar species in other genera; the key is illustrated by excellent line drawings; notes]

Tibell, L. 1975. The Caliciales of boreal North America. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 21(2): 1-128. [key, 2 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Ohlsson, K.E. 1973. A revision of the lichen genus Sphaerophorus. Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, 286 pp. [not reviewed; available from UMI Dissertation Services at http://www.umi.com/hp/Support/DExplorer/  dissertation number 7413947]

Keissler, K. von. 1937-1938. Pyrenulaceae, Trypetheliaceae, Pyrenidaceae, Xanthopyreniaceae, Mycoporaceae und Coniocarpineae. In Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 9,1(2): 1-846. [key, 2 species, 2 on N. Am. list, long descriptions, illustrations]

Lye, K. 1969. The distribution and ecology of Sphaerophorus melanocarpus. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 63: 300-318. [how to separate Bunodophoron melanocarpus from S. fragilis in difficult cases]

Wedin, M. 1995. The lichen family Sphaerophoraceae (Caliciales, Ascomycotina) in temperate areas of the southern hemisphere. Symbolae Botanicae Upsaliensis 31(1): 1-102. [2 species in key to family, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs, generic description]

Wedin, M. 1993. A phylogenetic analysis of the lichen family Sphaerophoraceae (Caliciales); a new generic classification and notes on character evolution. Plant Systematics and Evolution 187: 213-241. [generic description and comparisons]

Sphaerulina (1)

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [detailed key, 8 species, 1 on N. Am. list, spore drawings]

Keissler, K. von. 1930. Die Flechtenparasiten. In Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 8: 1-712. [key, 6 species, S. dolichotera on N. Am. list, drawing of anatomy]

Sphinctrina (4)

Löfgren, 0. and Tibell, L. 1979. Sphinctrina in Europe. Lichenologist 11: 109-137. [key, 5 species, 4 on N. Am. list, descriptions, fine illustrations]

Puntillo, D. 1989. Chiavi analitiche delle Caliciales italiane (Licheni). Webbia 43: 145-168. [key, 4 species, 4 on N. Am. list]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [key, 4 species, 4 on N. Am. list, illustrations]

[Sphinctrinella]                 (see Mycocalicium)

Spilonema (3)

Henssen, A. 1963. Eine Revision der Flechtenfamilien Lichinaceae und Ephebaceae. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 18(l): 1-123. [key, 4 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Spilonemella [1]

Henssen, A. & T. Tønsberg. 2000. Spilonemella, a new genus of cyanophilic lichens with species from North America and Japan (Coccocarpiaceae). Bryologist 103: 108-116. [S. americana, new N. Am. genus and species, description; photographs of morphology and anatomy]

Sporastatia (2)

Thomson, J.W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens 2. The Microlichens. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 675 pp. [key, 2 N. Am. species, descriptions, fine drawings of thalli]

Magnusson, A.H. 1935. Acarosporaceae und Thelocarpaceae. In Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 9,5(l): 1-318. [key, 2 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawing of S. testudinea]

Golubkova, N.S. 1982. Genus Sporastatia Massal. in URSS. Novitates Systematicae Plantarum non Vascularium (Academia Scientiarum URSS, Institutum Botanicum Nomine V. L. Komarovii) 19: 131-143. [key, 4 Soviet species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions; in Russian]

Golubkova, N.S. 1988. The Lichen Family Acarosporaceae in the U.S.S.R. Komarov Botanical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R. (`Nauka'), Leningrad. 136 pp. [key, 4 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, in Russian]

Sporopodium (1)

Santesson, R. 1952. Foliicolous lichens I. A revision of the taxonomy of the obligately foliicolous, lichenized fungi. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 12: 1-590. [key, 4 species, S. phyllocharis on N. Am. list, description, illustration of thallus]

Awasthi, D.D. 1991. A Key to the Microlichens of India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 40. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 340 pp. [detailed key to 3 species, S. phyllocharis on N. Am. list]

Smith, C.W. 1986. Three foliicolous lichens new to the United States. Bryologist 89: 232-233. [S. phyllocharis, briefly described]

Vezda, A. 1986. Neue Gattungen der Familie Lecideaceae s. lat. (Lichenes). Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica 21: 199-219. [brief generic description, illustration of conidia and conidiomata for 3 species (none on N. Am. list), key to 8 genera with campylidia]

Sporostigma (1)

Grube, M. 2001. Sporostigma, a new calicioid genus in Arthoniales. Lichenologist 33: 387-391. [monotypic genus; S. melaspora, description, illustrations]

Squamarina (3)

Poelt, J. 1958. Die lobaten Arten der Flechtengattung Lecanora Ach. sensu ampl. in der Holarktis. Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München 2(19-20): 411-589. [world key, 15 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions, a few drawings]

Poelt, J. 1969. Bestimmungsschlüssel europäischer Flechten. Cramer, Lehre, 757 pp. [detailed key, about 13 species, 3 on N. Am. list]

Timdal, E. 1983. The genus Squamarina in Scandinavia. Lichenologist 15: 169-180. [key, 6 species, 3 on N. Am. list, chemistry]

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [key, 2 species on N. Am. list plus several similar species in other general, descriptions, discussion of taxonomic problems in genus; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Ryan, B.D 1990. A study of Lecanora valesiaca (lichenized Ascomycotina), with notes on L. dispersoareolata, L. albula, and Squamarina subg. Petroplaca in North America. Nova Hedwigia 50(1-2): 81-96. [brief characterization of S. degelii and 2 unnamed species, photograph of thallus of S. degelii]

Ryan, B.D. and Nash, T.H., III. 1997. Placodioid taxa of Lecanoraceae sensu Zahlbr. (lichenized Ascomycotina) in North America: taxa excluded from Lecanora subg. Placodium. Nova Hedwigia 64(3-4): 393-420. [key to lobate, umbilicate, and dwarf-fruticose genera of Lecanoraceae on N. Am. list]

Staurothele (17)

Thomson, J.W. 1991. The lichen genus Staurothele in North America. Bryologist 94: 351-367. [key, 17 species, descriptions, photographs of habitus]

Swinscow, T.D.V. 1963. Pyrenocarpous lichens: 4. Guide to the British species of Staurothele. Lichenologist 2: 152-166. [key, 9 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings]

Clauzade, G. and Roux, C. 1985. Likenoj de Okcidenta Europo. Ilustrita Determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Botanique du Centre-Ouest, Nouvelle Série, Numéro Spécial 7. Royan, France. 893 pp. [detailed key with drawings of perithecial anatomy, 29 species, 4 on N. Am. list]; in Esperanto]

Steinia (1)

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W. and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [1 species, S. geophana on N. Am. list, description; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Poelt, J. and Vezda, A. 1977. Bestimmungsschlüssel europäischer Flechten. Ergänzungsheft I. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 9. J. Cramer, Valduz. 258 pp. [1 species, S. geophana, on N. Am. list, description as monospecific genus]

Printzen, C. and Rambold, G. 1995. Aphanopsidaceae - a new family of lichenized ascomycetes. Lichenologist 27: 99-103. [generic characters]

Stenocybe (5) [4]

[for additional keys, see major continental European floras]

Selva, S.B. and Tibell, L. 1999. Lichenized and non-lichenized calicioid fungi from North America. Bryologist 102: 377-397. [keys to 4 N. Am. species, one of which newly described and photographed]

Tibell, L. 1991. A new species of Stenocybe from western North America. Bryologist 94: 413-415. [S. clavata newly described]

Merrill, G. K. 1909. Lichen Notes No. 14. Three new forms of Calicium. Bryologist 12: 107-108. [S. minutissima as Calicium minutissimum newly described]

Peterson, E.B. and Rikkinen, J. 1998. Stenocybe fragmenta, a new species of Mycocaliciaceae with fragmenting spores. Mycologia 90(6): 1087-1090. [description, illustrations of habitus and anatomy]

Stereocaulon (34)

Lamb, I.M. 1978. Keys to the species of the lichen genus Stereocaulon (Schreb.) Hoffm. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 44: 209-250. [boreal arctic key, about 40 species, 34 on N. Am. list; also a worldwide key with 123 species]

Lamb, I.M. 1977. A conspectus of the lichen genus Stereocaulon (Schreb.) Hoffm. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 43: 191-355. [worldwide synopsis, 123 species; chemistry for most; descriptions only of new species; useful for its lists of specimens in exsiccati and references to illustrations and descriptions]

Dahl, E. and Krog, H. 1973. Macrolichens of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Scandinavian University Books, Universitetsforlaget, Oslo. 185 pp. [key, 25 species, 19 on N. Am. list, drawings of thalli]

Thomson, J.W. 1984. America Arctic Lichens 1. The Macrolichens. Columbia University Press, New York, 504 pp. [key, 26 species, 25 on N. Am. list, descriptions, 18 fine drawings of thalli]

Goward, T. 1999. The lichens of British Columbia, Illustrated keys. Part 2 - Fruticose species. B.C. Ministry of Forests Research Program (Special Report Series no. 9). 319 pp. Free downloadable version available: http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/docs/Srs/Srs08.htm bound version available: http://www.crownpub.bc.ca. [illustrated key to 16 broadly defined species; keys to segregate species]

Dombrovskaja (Dombrovskaia), A.V. 1996. The Genus Stereocaulon in the Territory of the Former Soviet Union. Mir i Semya-95, St. Petersburg. 267 pp. [key, 55 species, 32 on N. Am. list, descriptions, detailed drawings for many species; in Russian]

Golubkova, N.S., Dombrovskaja, A.V., Zhurbenko, M.P., Kotlov, Y.V. and Krusanova, Z.G. 1996. Handbook of the Lichens of Russia. 6. Alectoriaceae, Parmeliaceae, Stereocaulaceae. Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg. 204 pp. [50 species, about 30 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations (in Russian)]

Sticta (7) [8]

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [key, 7 species on N. Am. list plus a few taxa not presently on list, descriptions; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

[Poelt (1969), Harris (1984), and Thomson (1984) together cover all 7 species on the N. Am. list]

Poelt, J. 1969. Bestimmungsschlüssel europäischer Flechten. Cramer, Lehre, 757 pp. [detailed key, 7 species, 5 on N. Am list]

Harris, R.C. 1984. Sticta, an "easy" genus becomes more difficult. Evansia 1: 7-8. [discussion of 4 species, S. beauvoisii replaces S. weigelii in many instances]

Thomson, J.W. 1984. America Arctic Lichens 1. The Macrolichens. Columbia University Press, New York, 504 pp. [key, 2 species, S. arctica still on N. Am. list]

Brodo, I.M. 1994. Sticta canariensis: a new lichen for North America. Evansia 11: 76-77. [brief description, comparisons with other isidiate species]

Tønsberg, T. and Goward, T. 2001. Sticta oroborealis sp. nov., and other Pacific North American lichens forming dendriscocauloid cyanotypes. Bryologist 104: 12-23. [description, photographs]

Stigmidium (8) [13]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [key, 37 species, 5 on N. Am. list]

Roux, C. and Triebel, D. 1994. Révision des espèces de Stigmidium et de Sphaerellothecium (champignons lichénicoles non lichénisés, Ascomycetes) correspondant à Pharcidia epicymatia sensu Keissler ou à Stigmidium schaereri auct. Bulletin de la Société Linéenne de Provence 45: 451-542. [key, 17 species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of anatomy; comparisons to other genera]

Triebel, D. 1989. Lecideicole Ascomyceten. Eine Revision der obligat lichenicolen Ascomyceten auf lecideoiden Flechten. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, No. 35., J. Cramer, Berlin-Stuttgart. 278 pp. [one overall key, 3 species, S. psorae on N. Am. list, descriptions, spore drawings]

Swinscow, T.D.V. 1965. Pyrenocarpous lichens: 8. The marine species of Arthopyrenia in the British Isles. Lichenologist 3: 55-64. [S. marinum, long description, illustrations]

Stirtonia (0) [1?]

Makhija, U. and Patwardhan, P.G. 1998. The lichen genus Stirtonia (family Arthoniaceae). Mycotaxon 67: 287-311. [worldwide key, 12 species, 0 on N. Am. list]

Strangospora (4)

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W. and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [key, 6 species, 4 on N. Am. list, descriptions; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

James, P.W. 1971. New or interesting British lichens: 1. Lichenologist 5: 114-148. [4 N. Am. species as Biatorella, key, 7 species; the N. Am. either described or compared]

Magnusson, A.H. 1935. Acarosporaceae und Thelocarpaceae. In Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 9,5(l): 1-318. [4 N. Am. species as Biatorella, 16 species in key, descriptions]

Magnusson, A.H. 1934. On the species of Biatorella and Sarcogyne in America. Annales Cryptogamie Exotique 7: 115-146. [key, 3 N. Am. species, as Biatorella, descriptions]

Strigula (17) [16?]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 16 species, notes, some descriptions; S. sychnogonioides excluded; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1975. A taxonomic revision of the genus Arthopyrenia Massal. s. lat. (Ascomycetes) in North America. Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, 288 pp. [key, 14 species, 13 presently on N. Am. list, notes, drawings of spores and other anatomical features; most species described; available from UMI Dissertation Services at http://www.umi.com/hp/Support/DExplorer/ dissertation # 7605564]

Roux, C. and Bricaud, O. 1993. Studo de la genero Strigula (Lichenes, Strigulaceae) en S-Francio Graveco de la makrokonidioj. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence 44: 117-134. [in Esperanto; key, 13 species, separate key based on macroconidia, 3 on N. Am. list, drawings of spores and macroconidia]

McCarthy, P.M. 1997. New and interesting saxicolous species of Strigula. Lichenologist 29: 513-523. [world key, 17 saxicolous species, 2 on N. Am. list]

Thomson, J.W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens 2. The Microlichens. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 675 pp. ["Strigula" sychnogonioides as Geisleria, description, drawing of anatomy]

Stromatella [1]

Henssen, A. 1989. Metamelanea and Stromatella, new genera of Lichinaceae. Lichenologist 21: 101-118. [monospecific genus, description, illustrations]

Schultz, M. 2002. Stromatella. In Nash, T.H., III, Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., and Bungartz, F. (eds.). Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, pp. 475-476. [S. burmudana; full species and generic description, photograph of thallus; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/PublicationsforSale.htm]

Sulcaria (2)

Brodo, I.M. and Hawksworth, D.L. 1977. Alectoria and allied genera in North America. Opera Botanica 42: 1-164. [key to Alectorioid species, 1 Sulcaria species, S. badia, description, photo]

Brodo, I.M. 1986. A new species of the lichen genus Sulcaria (Ascomycotina, Alectoriaceae) from California. Mycotaxon 27: 113-117. [S. isidiifera, newly described, photographs of thalli]

Peterson, E.B., Greene, D.M., McCune, B., Peterson, E.T., Hutten, M.A., Weisberg, P. and Rosentreter, R. 1998. Sulcaria badia, a rare lichen in western North America. Bryologist 101: 112-115. [description, illustration, 1 species]

Synalissa (1) [2]

[See major European floras]

Schultz, M. 2002. Synalissa. In Nash, T.H., III, Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., and Bungartz, F. (eds.). Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, pp. 476-476. [S. matogrossensis; full species and generic description, photograph of thallus; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/PublicationsforSale.htm]

Migula, W. 1925-1927 ("1929"). Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. Band IV: Flechten. Teil 1. Hugo Bermühler Verlag, Berlin-Lichterfelde, 527 pp. plus plates. [S. symphorea as S. ramulosa, description, drawings of thallus and anatomy, partly in color; key to genera]

Syncesia (4)

Tehler, A. 1996, Syncesia (Arthoniales, Euascomycetidae). Flora Neotropica, 74, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 48 pp. [worldwide key to 17 species, 4 on N. Am. list; descriptions, illustrations]

[Synechoblastus]               (see Collema)

Syzygospora (2)

Diederich, P. 1996. The Lichenicolous Heterobasidiomycetes. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 61, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 198 pp. [key, 3 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations, key to genera]

Szczawinskia (1)

Funk, A. 1983. Szczawinskia, a new genus of the lichen-forming Coelomycetes. Syesis 16: 85-88. [S. tsugae newly described and illustrated]

Brodo, I.M and Tønsberg, T. 1994. A new species of Micarea with stalked pycnidia from the west coast of North America. In: Stenroos, S. (ed.) Focus on Lichen Taxonomy and Biogeography: A Festschrift in Honour of Teuvo Ahti. Acta Botanica Fennica, 150, Finnish Botanical Publishing Board, Helsinki, pp. 1-4. [S. tsugae as Micarea clavopycnidiata, description, illustrations]

 

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z Contents

   Te     Th     To     Tr     Tu

Taeniolella [2]

Cole, M.S. and Hawksworth, D.L. 2001. Lichenicolous fungi, mainly from the USA, including Patriciomyces gen. nov. [T. caespitosa andT. laevistipitata newly described and illustrated]

Talpapellis (1)

Alstrup, V. and Cole, M.S. 1998. Lichenicolous fungi of British Columbia. Bryologist 101: 221-229. [Talpapellis peltigerae genus and species newly described., illustration]

Tapellaria (3)

Santesson, R. 1952. Foliicolous lichens I. A revision of the taxonomy of the obligately foliicolous, lichenized fungi. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 12: 1-590. [key, 8 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of spores for most species, drawing of habitus of T. nana]

Lücking, R. 1992. Foliicolous Lichens - A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Lichen Flora of Costa Rica, Central America. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia, 104, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 179 pp. [key, 6 species, 3 on N. Am. list, spore drawings]

Vezda, A. 1986. Neue Gattungen der Familie Lecideaceae s. lat. (Lichenes). Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica 21: 199-219. [brief description of genus, illustration of conidia and conidiomata of 3 species (including T. epiphylla), key to 8 genera with campylidia]

Teloschistes (6)

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [key, 6 N. Am. species, plus 1 not yet on list, descriptions; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Poelt, J. 1969. Bestimmungsschlüssel europäischer Flechten. Cramer, Lehre. 757 pp. [detailed key to 5 species, 3 on N. Am. list; English translation available from Dr. Doyle Anderegg Doyle@uidaho.edu in a version with certain genera replaced by revised text from Poelt and Vezda (1977).]

Almborn, O. 1989. Revision of the lichen genus Teloschistes in central and southern Africa. Nordic Journal of Botany 8: 521-537. [key, 9 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of thalli]

Teloschistaceae          (key for determining the genera of the family)

Poelt, J. and Hafellner, J. 1980. Apatoplaca-Genus novum Teloschistacearum (Lichenes). Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München 16: 503-528.

(4) [5?]

Timdal, E. 1995. Lecanoraceae: Tephromela {title erroneously given as "Lecanora subset subfusca group") {Online}. In: LIAS: A Global Information System for Lichenized and Non-Lichenized Ascomycetes. Botanische Staatssammlung München. Available: http://www.mycology.net//lias/index.cfm {accessed 1999 September 30}. [online interactive multiple-access world key; 24 species of Tephromela, 4 on N. Am. list; T. testaceoatra not treated; due to incomplete data entry, the key returns no species for character state "North America"]

Hertel, H. and Rambold, G. 1985. Lecidea sect. Armeniacae: lecideoide Arten der Flechtengattungen Lecanora und Tephromela (Lecanorales). Botanische Jahrbücher für systematik Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 107: 469-501. [3 N. Am. species transferred from Lecidea; discussion of generic characters, drawings of stained asci and of anatomy; T. atra not treated]

Magnusson, A. H. 1931 ("1930"). Studien über einege artender Lecidea armeniaca- und elata-gruppe. Meddelanden fran Göteborgs Botanisk Trädgard (Acta Horti Gotoborgensis (Gothoburgensis)) 4: 93-144 [key, 13 species, as Lecidea and Lecanora, 3 on N. Am. list plus one not yet transferred, descriptions; T. atra not treated]

Rambold, G. 1989. A monograph of the saxicolous lecideoid lichens of Australia (excl. Tasmania). Bibliotheca Lichenologica 34. J. Cramer, Berlin. 345 pp. [key to 64 lecideoid species, 3 in Tephromela, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, comparative chart includes 3 N. Am. species; T. atra treated]

Thomson, J.W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens 2. The Microlichens. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 675 pp. [key, 3 N. Am. species, descriptions, photographs of 2 species; T. atra treated]

Texosporium (1)

Tibell, L. 1984. A reappraisal of the taxonomy of Caliciales. In: Hertel, H. and Oberwinkler, F. (eds.). Beiträge zur Lichenologie. Festschrift J. Poelt. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia 79: 597-713. [description of monospecific genus, illustrations, key to the calicioid genera]

Tibell, L. and v. Hofsten, A. 1968. Spore evolution of the lichen Texosporium sancti-jacobi.(=Cyphelium sancti-jacobi). Mycologia 60: 553-558. [Latin description of monospecific genus, detailed discussion of spores and chemistry, illustrations]

McCune, B. and Rosentreter, R. 1992. Texosporium sancti-jacobi, a rare western North American lichen. Bryologist 95: 329-333. [field description, ecology]

Weber, W.A. 1967. A synopsis of the North American species of Cyphelium. Bryologist 70: 197-203. [in key, as Cyphelium]

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [in key as Cyphelium]

Thamnogalla (1)

Hawksworth, D.L. 1980. Notes on British lichenicolous fungi: III. Notes from the Royal Botanical Garden Edinburgh 38: 165-183. [Thamnogalla (new genus) , T. crombiei, description, illustration]

Hoffmann, N. & Hafellner, J. 2000. Eine Revision der lichenicolen Arten der Sammelgattungen Guignardia und Physalospora. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 77, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 190 pp. [world key to lichenicolous pyrenomycetes with hyaline, non-septate spores; description and drawings of T. crombiei]

Ihlen, P.G. 1995. The lichenicolous fungi on Thamnolia vermicularis in Norway. Graphis Scripta 7: 17-24. [T. crombiei, description]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [key to genera, 1 species, 1 on N. Am. list]

Thamnolia (2)

[see macrolichen keys, for example, the following:]

Thomson, J.W. 1984. America Arctic Lichens 1. The Macrolichens. Columbia University Press, New York, 504 pp. [key, 2 species on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawing of thallus]

Thelenella (16)

[see also keys to Microglaena written before 1987]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [North American key, 16 species, notes, several new descriptions; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Mayrhofer, H. 1987. Monographie der Flechtengattung Thelenella Bibliotheca Lichenologica 26: 1-114. [worldwide key, 17 species, 9 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of spores, photographs of anatomy]

[Thelidiella]                  (no lichenized species in North America)

Thelidium (16)

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [key, 15 N. Am. species, descriptions; T. circumspersellum not treated; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Zschacke, H. 1933-1934. Epigloeaceae, Verrucariaceae und Dermatocarpaceae. In Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 9,1(1): 44-695. [key, 63 species, 13 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of anatomy and spores; T. circumspersellum treated]

Clauzade, G. and Roux, C. 1985. Likenoj de Okcidenta Europo. Ilustrita Determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Botanique du Centre-Ouest, Nouvelle Série, Numéro Spécial 7. Royan, France. 893 pp. [key illustrated with drawings of anatomy, 60 species, 13 on N. Am. list; T circumspersellum treated]

Servit M. 1954. Ceskoslovenské lišejníky celedi Verrucariaceae. Nakladatelstvi Ceskoslovenské Akademie ved, Praha, 249 pp. [key to 24 European species of Thelidium, about half of which are treated; but most N. Am. species of Thelidium will be found under the key to Involucrothele; about 12 of N. Am. species can be found somewhere; treated species are described and illustrated; in Czech, but the keys are repeated in Latin; T. circumspersellum treated]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key to 2 undescribed species; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Thelignya (1)

[See also major continental European floras under Porocyphus dispersus]

Thomson, J.W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens 2. The Microlichens. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 675 pp. [T. lignyota as Porocyphus dispersus, key, 3 species of Porocyphus; descriptions]

Moreno, P.P. and Egea, J.M. 1994. El género Psorotichia y especies próximas en el sureste de España y norte de Africa. Bulletin de la Société Linéenne de Provence 45: 291-308. [key includes T. lignyota, description]

Thelocarpon (6)

Salisbury, G. 1966. A monograph of the lichen genus Thelocarpon Nyl. Lichenologist 3: 175-196. [world key, 13 species, 4 on N. Am. list, plus one mentioned as dubious, and one as Ahlesia, descriptions, illustrations]

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [key, 6 species on N. Am. list, descriptions; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Poelt, J. and Hafellner, J. 1975. Schlauchpforten bei der Flechtengattung Thelocarpon. Phyton [Austria] 17: 67-77. [5 species treated, 3 on N. Am. list; brief discussion of mycological characters of each; drawings of asci, spores, paraphyses]

Kocourková-Horákovzá, J. 1998. Distribution and ecology of the genus Thelocarpon (Lecanorales, Thelocarpaceae) in the Czech Republic. Czech Mycology, 50: 271-302. [key, 8 species, 3 on N. Am. list, drawings of pycnidial anatomy, color photographs of some species]

[See also major continental European flora, for example, the following:]

Magnusson, A.H. 1935. Acarosporaceae und Thelocarpaceae. In Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 9,5(l): 1-318. [key, 11 species, 5 on N. Am. list, descriptions, a few illustrations]

Thelomma (6)

[see also pre-1976 keys to Cyphelium]

Tibell, L. 1976. The genus Thelomma. Botaniska Notiser 129: 221-249. [worldwide key, 7 species, 6 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Weber, W.A. 1967. A synopsis of the North American species of Cyphelium. Bryologist 70: 197-203. [3 N. Am. species as Cyphelium, key, notes]

Thelopsis (5)

Vezda, A. 1968. Taxonomische Revision der Gattung Thelopsis Nyl. (Lichenisierte Fungi). Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica 3: 363-406. [worldwide key, 6 species, 5 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of anatomy and spores; key to pyrenolichen groups, mostly at the family level; descriptions of these groups and drawings of their anatomy]

Harris, R.C. 1979. Four species of Thelopsis Nyl. (Lichenized Ascomycetes) new to North America. Bryologist 82: 77-78. [North American key, 5 species]

Harris, R.C. 1975. A taxonomic revision of the genus Arthopyrenia Massal. s. lat. (Ascomycetes) in North America. Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, 288 pp. [key, 4 species, 4 still on N. Am. list, brief characterizations; available from UMI Dissertation Services at http://www.umi.com/hp/Support/DExplorer/ dissertation number 7605564]

Thelotrema (20)

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 16 species; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 109 pp. [key, 15 species, notes, T. defectum, T. eximium, T. floridense, T. monospermum, newly described; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Purvis, O.W., Jørgensen, P.M. and James, P.W. 1995. The lichen genus Thelotrema Ach. in Europe. In: Farkas, E.E., Lücking, R. and Wirth, V. (eds.). Scripta Lichenologica--Lichenological Papers Dedicated to Antonín Vezda. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, no. 58, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart pp. 335-360. [key, 8 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations of thalli and spores, T. petractoides, T. suecicum; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Salisbury, G. 1971/1972. Thelotrema sect. Thelotrema 2. The T. platycarpum group. Révue Bryologique et Lichénologique 38: 281-290. [10 species, 4 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings]

Salisbury, G. 1972. Thelotrema Ach. sect. Thelotrema. 1. The T. lepadinum group. Lichenologist 5: 262-274. [semi-key, 10 species, 3 on N. Am. list, illustrations, T. subtile, T. porinoides, T. lepadinum]

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1980. Generic delimitation in the lichen family Thelotremataceae. Mycotaxon 11: 130-138. [recircumscribes Thelotrema, Myriotrema, and Ocellularia based mainly on exciple type rather than spore type; many new combinations]

Thermutis (1)

Henssen, A. 1963. Eine Revision der Flechtenfamilien Lichinaceae und Ephebaceae. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 18(l): 1-123. [monospecific genus, description, illustrations; key to genera]

Geitler, L. 1965. Zur Kenntnis der Flechte Thermutis velutina. Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift 112(3): 263-267. [brief description, drawings of anatomy]

Tholurna (1)

Otto, G.F. 1964. Tholurna dissimilis new to North America. Bryologist 67: 73-75. [description and illustrations]

Otto, G.F. 1983. Tholurna dissimilis well established in western North America. Bryologist 86: 263-265. [updated map]

Tibell, L. 1984. A reappraisal of the taxonomy of Caliciales. In: Hertel, H. and Oberwinkler, F. (eds.). Beiträge zur Lichenologie. Festschrift J. Poelt. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia, 79, J. Cramer, Vaduz, pp. 597-713. [description of monospecific genus]

Tibell, L. 1975. The Caliciales of boreal North America. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 21(2): 1-128. [1 species in overall key]

Galløe, O. 1972. Natural History of the Danish Lichens. Original Investigation Based upon New Principles. Vol. X. Ellen Galløe, Copenhagen. 63 pp. [remarkable illustrations of habitus and anatomy]

Thrombium (3) [4]

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [key, 3 species on N. Am. list, descriptions; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]}

Swinscow, T.D.V. 1964. Pyrenocarpous lichens: 6. Lichenologist 2: 276-283. [T. epigaeum, description, illustration]

Vezda, A. 1968. Taxonomische Revision der Gattung Thelopsis Nyl. (Lichenisierte Fungi). Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica 3: 363-406. [description and anatomical drawing of T. epigaeum]

Breuss, O. 2002. Thrombium. In Nash, T.H., III, Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., and Bungartz, F. (eds.). Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, pp. 483-484. [key to 2 N. Am. species; T. aoristum, T. epigeum; full species and generic descriptions; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/PublicationsforSale.htm]

Anderson, R. A. 1962. The lichen flora of the Dakota Sandstone in north-central Colorado. Bryologist 65: 242-265. [description of T. mongolicum]

Magnusson, A. H. 1940. Lichens from Central Asia. Tryckeri Aktiebolaget Thule, Stockholm, 168 pp. plus 12 plates. [T. mongolicum newly described]

Thyrea (3) [2?]

Moreno, P. P. and Egea, J. M. 1992. Estudios sobre el complejo Anema-Thyrea-Peccania en el sureste de la Peninsula Iberica y norte de Africa. Acta Botanica Barcinonensia 41: 1-66. [revision; key, 4 species, T. confusa and T. girardii on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs; key to genera, comparative table]

Clauzade, G. and Roux, C. 1985. Likenoj de Okcidenta Europo. Ilustrita Determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Botanique du Centre-Ouest, Nouvelle Série, Numéro Spécial 7. Royan, France. 893 pp. [detailed key, 7 species, 2 on N. Am. list, drawings of anatomy; T. confusa as T. pulvinata; in Esperanto]

Yoshimura, I. 1968. Japanese species of Thyrea. Journal of Japanese Botany 43: 500-503. [T. "pulvinata," description, drawings of anatomy; presumably this is T. confusa]

Migula, W. 1925-1931 ("1929-1931"). Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. Band IV: Flechten. Teil 1. Hugo Bermühler Verlag, Berlin-Lichterfelde, 527 pp. plus plates. [key, 3 species, 2 in N. Am, description, illustration of T. confusa as T. pulvinata]

Henssen, A. and Jørgensen, P.M. 1990. New combinations and synonyms in the Lichinaceae. Lichenologist 22: 137-147. [T. confusa newly described in Latin only; the species is just a replacement name for the species that has been traditionally called T. pulvinata]

Fröberg, L. 1989. The calcicolous lichens of the Great Alvar of Öland, Sweden. Institutionen för Systematisk Botanik, Lund. [T. confusa as T. pulvinata, characterization, ecological note]

[Tichothecium]                  (see Verrucaria)

Tomasellia (2) [3?]

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [key, 3 N. Am. species, one of which not on list, plus some Mycoporum species, descriptions; revised 1998; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Harris, R.C. 1975. A taxonomic revision of the genus Arthopyrenia Massal. s. lat. (Ascomycetes) in North America. Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, 288 pp. [key, 8 species, 2 still on N. Am. list, most now in Mycoporum, descriptions, drawings of spores and other anatomical features; available from UMI Dissertation Services at http://www.umi.com/hp/Support/DExplorer/ dissertation number 7605564]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [most species transferred to Mycoporum, T. americana in key to Mycoporum, long taxonomic note; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Toninia (24) [25]

Timdal, E. 1992 ("1991"). A monograph of the genus Toninia (Lecideaceae, Ascomycetes). Opera Botanica 110: 1-137. [worldwide key, 48 species, 24 on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs of thalli]

Bratt, C. and Wright, D. 1995. Toninia in California. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society 2(1): 5-7. [key, 8 species on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Printzen, C. 1995. Some notes on the delimitation of the genus Biatora Fr. (Lecanorales, lichenized ascomycetes). Cryptogamic Botany 5: 105-110. [table compares Toninia versus Biatora]

Topelia (2)

Jørgensen, P.M. and Vezda, A. 1984. Topelia, a Mediterranean lichen genus. In: Hertel, H. and Oberwinkler, F. (eds.). Beiträge zur Lichenologie. Festschrift J. Poelt. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia 79. J. Cramer, Vaduz pp. 501-511. [key, 4 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations, generic comparisons]

Topeliopsis [1]

Kantvilas, G. and Vezda, A. 2000. Studies on the lichen family Thelotremataceae in Tasmania. The genus Chroodiscus and its relatives. Lichenologist 32: 325-357. [T. toensbergii newly described from N. Am.]

Tornabea (1)

Nimis, P. L. and M. Tretiach. 1997. A revision of Tornabea, a genus of fruticose lichens new to North America. Bryologist 100: 217-225. [T. scutellifera, description, photographs of thalli and anatomy]

Kurokawa, S. 1962. A note on the lichen genus Tornabenia {sic} Trev. Journal of Japanese Botany 37: 289-294. [key, 2 species, T. scutellifera as Tornabenia atlantica, descriptions, drawings of anatomy]

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W. and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [description of genus and of T. scutellifera; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm

Trapelia (6)

Coppins, B.J. and James, P.W. 1984. New or interesting British lichens V. Lichenologist 16: 241-264. [6 Trapelia species in detailed key to British Trapelia, Trapeliopsis, and Placopsis, 6 on N. Am. list, T. corticola and T. placodioides newly described., illustrations]

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W. and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [key, 6 species, 6 on N. Am. list, descriptions; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Trapeliopsis (7) [10]

Coppins, B. J. and James, P.W. 1984. New or interesting British lichens V. Lichenologist 16: 241-264. [12 Trapeliopsis species in key to British Trapelia, Trapeliopsis, and Placopsis, 7 on N. Am. list, illustrations, T. pseudogranulosa newly described]

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W. and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [key, 9 species, 7 on N. Am. list, descriptions; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

McCune, B., Camacho, F., and Ponzetti, J. 2002. Three new species of Trapeliopsis on soil in western North America. Bryologist 105: 78-85. [T. bisorediata, T. californica, T. steppica, descriptions, drawings of habitus]

Boissiere, J.C. and Montavont, J.P. 1999. Lichens de France (XII): Trapeliopsis aeneofusca (Flörke ex Flotow) Coppins et P. James et Gyalecta liguriensis (Vezda) Vezda. Bulletin d'Informations de l'Association Française de Lichénologie 24(1): 1-9. [key, 11 species, 7 on N. Am. list; description of genus and 1 species; key to genera of Trapeliaceae; anatomical drawings, color photographs]

Tremella (12)

Diederich, P. 1996. The Lichenicolous Heterobasidiomycetes. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 61, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 198 pp. [key, 46 species, 12 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations, key to genera]

Tremolecia (1)

Wirth, V. 1995. Die Flechten Baden-Württembergs, Teil 1 and 2. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart. 1006 pp. [description of monospecific genus, color photograph of thallus; in key to genera]

Schwab, A.J. 1986. Rostfarbene Arten der Sammelgattung Lecidea (Lecanorales). Revision der Arten Mittel- und Nordeuropas. Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München 22: 221-476. [key to lecideoid species with rust-colored thalli, T. atrata described in detail, photograph of anatomy]

Hertel, H. 1977. Gesteinsbewohnende Arten der Sammelgattung Lecidea (Lichenes) aus Zentral-, Ost- und Sudasien. In: Hellmich, W. (ed.). Khumbu Himal; Ergebnisse des Froschungsunternehmens Nepal Himalaya, Band 6/3 (Botanik). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 145-378. [artificial key to about 80 lecideoid species, 5 species of Tremolecia, T. atrata on the N. Am. list for Lecidea; descriptions]

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W. and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [detailed description of genus and T. atrata; in key to genera; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Tricharia (3)

Kalb, K. and Vezda, A. 1988. Neue oder bemerkenswerte Arten der Flechtenfamilie Gomphillaceae in der Neotropis. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 29. J. Cramer, Berlin-Stuttgart. 80 pp. [key to 21 neotropical species, 3 on N. Am. list, several non-N. Am. species described and illustrated]

Vezda, A. 1979. Flechten systematische Studien XI. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Familie Asterothyriaceae (Discolichens). Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica 14: 43-94. [key, 16 species, 2 on N. Am. list, T. cretacea newly described, drawings of anatomy for 8 species]

Buck, W.R. 1980. Tricharia vezdae (Ascomycetes: Asterothyriaceae), a new lichen species from southeastern United States. Brittonia 32: 222-224. [description and illustrations for a species not included in Vezda (1979)]

Trichoramalina (1)

Rundel, P.W. and Bowler, P.A. 1974. The lichen genus Trichoramalina. Bryologist 77: 188-194. [Trichoramalina, genus newly described, key, 2 species, descriptions, T. crinita on N. Am. list, photograph of thallus]

Trichothelium (12)

[there is much disagreement regarding the delimitation of the genus; the N. Am. checklist follows Harris (1995) See keys to Porina in the broad sense for many of these species]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key to 11 species, notes, 2 new species described, new combinations, broad generic delimitation; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [Ryan’s key clarifies the subgroups included in the Harris (1995) key; species descriptions mostly under Porina and Pseudosagedia; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Lücking, R. 1998. Additions and corrections to the knowledge of the foliicolous lichen flora of Costa Rica. The genus Trichothelium (lichenized Ascomycetes: Trichotheliaceae). Nova Hedwigia 66(3-4): 375-417. [worldwide key to Trichothelium, narrowly defined; 26 foliicolous species, 20 treated with descriptive and taxonomic notes, photographs of thalli and drawings of spores; several new species described; only 2 species on N. Am. list because Lücking does not accept Harris’s inclusive delimitation of the genus ( which is followed by the N. Am. checklist)]

Santesson, R. 1952. Foliicolous lichens I. A revision of the taxonomy of the obligately foliicolous, lichenized fungi. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 12: 1-590. [key, 6 species, T. epiphyllum and T. horridulum on N. Am. list, descriptions; narrow generic delimitation, broad species circumscriptions]

Swinscow, T.D.V. 1962. Pyrenocarpous lichens: 3. The genus Porina in the British Isles. Lichenologist 2: 6-56. [2 in key, T. chloroticum, T. guentheri as Porina; descriptions, illustrations]

Trimmatothele (1)

Herre, A.W.C.T. 1912. New or rare California lichens. Bryologist 15: 81-87. [T. umbellulariae, original description]

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [description of T. umbellulariae]

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W. and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [modern description of genus, no N. Am. species treated; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Trypethelium (9)

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 9 species, notes; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1990. Some Florida Lichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, New York. 109 pp. [key, 8 species; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Harris, R.C. 1975b. A taxonomic revision of the genus Arthopyrenia Massal. s. lat. (Ascomycetes) in North America. Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, 288 pp. [key, 7 named species, 6 still on N. Am. list, notes; available from UMI Dissertation Services at http://www.umi.com/hp/Support/DExplorer/ dissertation number 7605564]

Harris, R. 1986 ("1984"). The family Trypetheliaceae (Loculoascomycetes: lichenized Melanommatales) in Amazonian Brazil. Supplement Acta Amazonica 14(1/2): 55-80. [key, 10 named species, 5 on N. Am. list; key to genera in family]

Johnson, G.T. 1940. Contributions to the study of the Trypetheliaceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 27:1-50. [detailed discussion of anatomy; excellent drawings of T. floridanum (as T. annulare), T. eluteriae, and T. tropicum]

Johnson, G.T. 1959. The Trypetheliaceae of Mississippi. Mycologia 51(6): 741-750. [key, 2 species still on N.Am. list as Trypethelium; good descriptions and photos]

Makhija, U. and Patwardhan, P.G. 1993. A contribution to our knowledge of the lichen genus Trypethelium (family Trypetheliaceae). Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 73: 183-219. [key, 30 species, 3 on N. Am. list, drawings of spores and anatomy, photographs of thalli; included for its illustrations]

 

Tuckermannopsis (10)

[see also keys to Cetraria]

Esslinger, T.L. 1973. Chemical and taxonomic studies on some corticolous members of the lichen genus Cetraria in western North America. Mycologia 65: 602-613. [key to 14 species of western Cetraria in the broad sense, 8 in Tuckermannopsis in the strict sense]

Kärnefelt, I. 1979. The brown fruticose species of Cetraria. Opera Botanica 46: 1-150. [T. inermis, T. subalpina as Cetraria, key to 14 species of Cetraria in the broad sense]

Kärnefelt, I., Mattsson, J.-E. and Thell, A. 1993. The lichen genera Arctocetraria, Cetraria, and Cetrariella (Parmeliaceae) and their presumed evolutionary affinities. Bryologist 96: 394-404. [generic comparisons]

Culberson, W.L. and Culberson, C.F. 1967. A new taxonomy for the Cetraria ciliaris group in North America. Bryologist 70: 158-166. [key, 4 species, 3 on N. Am. list, as Cetraria, chemistry]

[Turgidosculum] (see Kohlmeyera)

Tylophoron (2)

Tibell, L. 1996. Flora Neotropica Monograph 69: Caliciales. New York Botanical Garden. 78 pp. [key, 3 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs of habitus, good description of genus]

Tibell, l. 1982. Caliciales of Costa Rica. Lichenologist 14: 219-254. [key, 3 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions and comparisons]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 2 species, note on sporodochia, which are often present when the ascomata are not; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Tibell, L. 1991. The anamorph of Tylophoron moderatum. Mycological Research 95(3): 290-294. [discusses the form of the lichen without ascocarps, illustrations]

Awasthi, D.D. 1991. A Key to the Microlichens of India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 40. J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 340 pp. [key, 3 species, 2 on N. Am. list]

Tylothallia (1)

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W., and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [1 species, 1 on N. Am. list, T. biformigera; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

 

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z Contents

Umbilicaria (31)

Llano, G.A. 1950. A monograph of the lichen family Umbilicareaceae in the western hemisphere. Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 281 pp. [world key to Umbilicaria (which the author subdivides into the genera Umbilicaria, Actinogyra, Omphalodiscus, and Agyrophora), 61 species, 28 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Wei, J. and Jiang, Y. 1993. The Asian Umbilicariaceae. Mycosystema Monographicum Series No. 1, International Academic Publishers, Beijing. 217 pp. [key, 51 species, 27 on N. Am. list (some under old names); descriptions, illustrations; uses the (not widely accepted) nomenclature of Wei (1993)]

Wei, J. 1993. The lectotypification of some species in the Umbilicareaceae described by Linnaeus or Hoffmann. Mycosystema, Supplement 5: 1-17. [if accepted, changes the use of the names U. deusta, U. proboscidea, U. hyperborea, and U. cylindrica]

Poelt, J. and Nash, T.H., III. 1993. Studies in the Umbilicaria vellea group (Umbilicariaceae) in North America. Bryologist 96: 422-430. [world key, 9 species, 6 on N. Am. list, characterizations of various lengths, U. americana (newly described) versus U. vellea]

Hakulinen, R. 1962. Die Flechtengattung Umbilicaria in Östfennoskandien und angrenzenden Teilen Norwegens. Annales Botanici Societatis Zoologicae Botanicae Fennicae "Vanamo" 32(6): 1-87. [key, 20 species, 16 in N. Am, notes]

Frey, E. 1933. Cladoniaceae (unter Ausschluss der Gattung Cladonia), Umbilicariaceae. In Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 9, 4(1): 1-426. [key, 23 species, 16 on N. Am. list, extensive descriptions, illustrations]

Lisicka, E. 1980. Flechtenfamilie Umbilicariaceae Fée in der Tschechslowakei. Biologické Práce, Slovenskej Akademie Vied 26: 1-154. [key, 17 Czech species, 15 on N. Am. list, chemistry and variation but no descriptions; in German, English summary]

Wei, J. and Jiang, Y. 1988. A conspectus of the lichenized Ascomycetes Umbilicariaceae in China. Mycosystema 1: 73-106. [key, 31 species, 15 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Crespo, A. and Sancho, L.G. 1980 ("1978"). Umbilicariaceae (Lichenes) de la Sierra de Guadarrama (España). Anales del Instituto Botanico A. J. Cavanilles 35: 79-101. [key, 19 species, 13 on N. Am. list, notes, illustrations of rhizine and apothecia types]

Kershaw, K.A. 1961. The genus Umbilicaria in the British Isles. Lichenologist 1: 251-265. [detailed key, 12 species, 10 on N. Am. list, drawings of thalli]

Bird, C.D. and Marsh, A.H. 1973. Phytogeography and ecology of the lichen family Umbilicariaceae in southwestern Alberta. Canadian Journal of Botany 51: 2169-2175. [key, 11 N. Am. species (some as Omphalodiscus)]

[Urceolaria]               (= Aspicilia; for North America see Diploschistes)

Usnea (84)

[keys covering many species]

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [key, most N. Am. species plus another several not on the list; descriptions for most species; the key dates from 1995 and is therefore somewhat out of date; however, it is the best available for large portions of the continent; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Halonen, P., Clerc, P, Goward, T., Brodo, I.M., and Wulff, K. 1998. Synopsis of the genus Usnea (lichenized Ascomycetes) in British Columbia, Canada. Bryologist 101: 36-60. [key, 23 N. Am. species, descriptive notes, table of chemistry, about half of species illustrated]

Tavares, I.I. 1997. A preliminary key to Usnea in California. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society 4(2): 19-23. Availale online at http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/rlmoe/cals4_2.html {accessed 2001 September 13} [key, about 17 species or species complexes on N. Am. list, notes]

Clerc, P. and Herrera-Campos, M.A. 1997. Saxicolous species of Usnea subgenus Usnea (lichenized Ascomycetes) in North America. Bryologist 100: 281-301. [key, 12 N. Am. species, descriptions or brief characterizations, illustrations]

Ohmura, Y. 2001. Taxonomic study of the genus Usnea (lichenized Ascomycetes) in Japan and Taiwan. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 90: 1-96. [key, 43 species, 18 on N. Am. list; detailed descriptions plus characterizations, chemistry; illustrations of characters]

Golubkova, N.S., Dombrovskaja, A.V., Zhurbenko, M.P., Kotlov, Y.V. and Krusanova, Z.G. 1996. Handbook of the Lichens of Russia. 6. Alectoriaceae, Parmeliaceae, Stereocaulaceae. Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg. 204 pp. [key, 45 species, about 20 on N. Am. list, descriptions; some drawings of morphology (in Russian)]

Clerc, P. 1992. Some new or interesting species of the genus Usnea (lichenised Ascomycetes) in the British Isles {Quelques espèces nouvelles ou intéressantes du genre Usnea (ascomycète lichénisé) des Iles britanniques}. Candollea 47: 513-526. [key to 19 British species, 16 on N. Am. list; descriptions for U. subscabrosa, U. esperantiana, and U. wasmuthii, photographs for 2 ]

Herrera-Campos, M.A., Clerc, P. and Nash, T.H., III. 1998. Pendulous species of Usnea from the temperate forests in Mexico. Bryologist 101: 303-329. [key, 17 species, 8 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Wright, D. 2001. Some species of the genus Usnea (lichenized Ascomycetes) in California. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society 8: 1-21. [brief characterizations for 17 species; many photographs]

[see also, major European flora, especially:]

Dahl, E. and Krog, H. 1973. Macrolichens of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Scandinavian University Books, Universitetsforlaget, Oslo. 185 pp. [key to 15 species or species groups, 15 species on N. Am. list; few species illustrated]

Keissler, K. von. 1958-60. Usneaceae. In Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 9,5(4): 1-755. [key, 45 species, 19 on N. Am. list, detailed descriptions, in German]

[keys to small groups:]

Halonen, P. 2000. Usnea pacificana, sp. nov. and U. wasmuthii (lichenized Ascomycetes) in Pacific North America. Bryologist 103: 38-43. [key to 6 N. Am. isidiate species including U. subfloridana, U. ceratina, U. maderiensis, and U. diplotypus; description and photographs of U. pacificana, table of comparison.]

Tavares, I.I. and Sanders, W.B. 1998. Preliminary report on the short, apotheciate taxa of Usnea in the southwestern United States. In: Glenn, M.G., Harris, R.C., Dirig, R. and Cole, M.S. (eds.). Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson. Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, New York pp. 171-185. [key to 5 species with short, apotheciate thalli, 5 in N. Am, illustrations; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/]

Tavares, I.I. 1987. The taxa of Usnea (Lichenes) described by Michaux from eastern North America. Mycotaxon 30: 39-68. [key to 6 apotheciate species, photographs]

Halonen, P., Myllys, L., Ahti, T. and Petrova, O.V. 1999. The lichen genus Usnea in East Fennoscandia. III. The shrubby species. Annales Botanici Fennici 36: 235-256. [key to 9 species, 8 on N. Am. list; detailed descriptions; 8 species illustrated; table of chemistry]

Herrera-Campos, M.A., Nash, T.H., III, and Zambrano Garcia, A. 2001. Preliminary study of the Usnea fragilescens aggregate in Mexico. Bryologist 104: 235-259. [key to 9 erect, shrubby species with irregularly thickened branches, 7 on N. Am. list; descriptions; discussion and photographs of variation of morphological characters]

Clerc, P. 1987. Systematics of the Usnea fragilescens aggregate and its distribution in Scandinavia. Nordic Journal of Botany 7: 479-495. [key to sorediate, bushy to subpendulant Usnea in Scandinavia; 5 species (4 on N. Am. list) and 4 species aggregates (all in N. Am.); descriptions and photographs of thalli for U. fragilescens and U. cornuta]

[Discussions of character states:]

Clerc, P. 1998. Species concepts in the genus Usnea (lichenized Ascomycetes). Lichenologist 30(4-5): 321-340. [valuable discussion of characters used in genus]

Ohmura, Y. 2001. Taxonomic study of the genus Usnea (lichenized Ascomycetes) in Japan and Taiwan. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 90: 1-96. [superb discussion and remarkable illustrations of characters and their states; includes both photographs and interpretive drawings of the photographs]

Clerc, P. 1987. On the morphology of soralia in the genus Usnea. In: E. Peveling (ed.). Progress and Problems in Lichenology in the Eighties. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 25. J. Cramer, Berlin-Stuttgart pp. 99-102. [discussion of the character states of soredia; photographs of soredia of 9 species--all on N. Am. list]

[World monograph:]

Motyka, J. 1936-1938. Lichenum generis Usnea studium monographicum, pars systematica. Leopoli, 651 pp. [world key, 451 species, descriptions; the species concepts (and therefore the keys) are notoriously difficult to use; the whole genus is slowly being revised by Clerc and his colleagues in Europe and I. Tavares in California]

[Studies of one species or species complex:]

Tavares, I. I., Baltzo, D.E. and Wright, D. 1998. Usnea wirthii in western North America. In: Glenn, M.G., Harris, R.C., Dirig, R. and Cole, M.S. (eds.). Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson. Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, New York, pp. 187-199. [detailed descriptive treatment of 1 species; available from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society at http://www.unomaha.edu/~abls/]

Clerc, P. 1984. Usnea wirthii--a new species of lichen from Europe and North Africa. Saussurea 15: 33-36. [description only of one species]

Clerc, P. 1984. Contribution à la révision de la systématique des usnées (Ascomycotina, Usnea) d'Europe I.--Usnea florida (L.) Wigg. emend. Clerc. Cryptogamie, Bryologie et Lichénologie 5: 333-360. [description of one species, on N. Am. list]

Clerc, P. 1991. Usnea madeirensis Mot. (ascomycète lichénisé): un espèce méconnue de l'Europe et de l'Amérique du Nord. Candollea 46: 427-438. [1 species, on N. Am list, description, photographs of thalli and soralia]

Halonen, P. and Puolasmaa, A. 1995. The lichen genus Usnea in eastern Fennoscandia. I. Usnea hirta. Annales Botanici Fennici 32: 127-135. [description of 1 N. Am. species, photographs of thalli]]

Imshaug, H. 1954. A new species of Neuropogon from the United States. Rhodora 56: 154-157. [U. sphacelata as N. lambii, description]

Hale, M.E. Jr. 1962. The chemical strains of Usnea strigosa. Bryologist 65: 291-294. [discusses pigment and chemical variation]

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z Contents

Varicellaria (1)

Thomson, J.W. 1997. American Arctic Lichens 2. The Microlichens. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 675 pp. [description, N. Am. map; in key to genera]

Oshio, M. 1968. Taxonomical studies on the family Pertusariaceae of Japan. Journal of Science of the Hiroshima University, Series B, Div. 2 (Botany), 12: 81-163. [1 species, 1 on N. Am. list, description, drawings of thalli, spores, and anatomy; key to genera]

Erichsen, C.F.E. 1935. Pertusariaceae. In Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 9,5(l): 321-728. [key, 3 species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of anatomy]

Tønsberg, T. 1992. The sorediate and isidiate, corticolous, crustose lichens in Norway. Sommerfeltia 14: 1-331. [1 species, 1 on N. Am. list, description; in overall key]

Vermilacinia (18)

Spjut, R.W. 1996. Niebla and Vermilacinia (Ramalinaceae) from California and Baja California. Sida, Botanical Miscellany 14: 1-208. [key, 28 species, 18 on N. Am. list, descriptions, color and non-color photographs]

Spjut, R.W. 1995. Vermilacinia (Ramalinaceae, Lecanorales), a new genus of lichens. In: Daniels, F.J.A., Schulz, M. and Peine, J. (eds.). Flechten Follmann. Contributions to lichenology in Honour of Gerhard Follmann. Geobotanical and Phytotaxonomical Study Group, Botanical Institute, University of Cologne, Cologne pp. 337-351. [Vermilacinia newly described and compared with Niebla]

Bowler, P.A, Riefner, R.E., Rundel, P.W., Marsh, J. and Nash, T.H., III. 1994. New species of Niebla (Ramalinaceae) from western North America. Phytologia 77: 23-37. [8 N. Am. species in key to 14 species of Niebla in the broad sense, descriptions and photographs of new species only]

Verrucaria (77)

[Many species, all substrates and environments:]

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [key, 78 species, including a couple not yet on N. Am. list, descriptions for some; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

Clauzade, G. and Roux, C. 1985. Likenoj de Okcidenta Europo. Ilustrita Determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Botanique du Centre-Ouest, Nouvelle Série, Numéro Spécial 7. Royan, France. 893 pp. [key illustrated by drawings of perithecial anatomy, 162 species, about 30 on N. Am. list; in Esperanto]

Servit M. 1954. Ceskoslovenské lisejníky celedi Verrucariaceae. Nakladatelstvi Ceskoslovenské Akademie ved, Praha, 249 pp. [keys in Latin and Czech, text in Czech; 120 species of Verrucaria treated, plus another 30 treated under Amphoridium; descriptions, drawings of anatomy and spores; several additional European species included in keys; about 30 species on N. Am. list in keys; very narrow species circumscriptions]

Zschacke, H. 1933-1934. Epigloeaceae, Verrucariaceae und Dermatocarpaceae. In Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 9,1(1): 44-695. [key, 200 species, descriptions, drawings of spores perithecial anatomy for about half; (N. Am. species not counted, but probably about 30 based on other European floras)]

Nowak, J. and Tobolewski, Z. 1975. Porosty Polskie {Lichens of Poland}. Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Warszawa. 1177 pp. [keys, 108 species plus 24 more as Amphoridium, about 30 on N. Am. list; descriptions, drawings of anatomy for most; in Polish]

[Calcicolous:]

McCarthy, P.M. and Mitchell, M.E. 1988. Lichens of the Burren Hills and the Aran Islands. Officina Typograhica, Galway, 123 pp. [detailed key to calcicolous lichens, about 25 species of Verrucaria, 11 on N. Am. list, terminal choices of key equivalent to a description, anatomical drawings for 24 species]

Renobales, G. 1996. Contribución al conocimiento de los líquenes calcícolas del occidente de Vizcaya y parte oriental de Cantabria (N-España). GuineanA, 2, Servicio Editorial de la Universidad del País Vasco, Bilbao. 310 pp. [key, 30 species, 14 on N. Am. list, descriptions, 20 species illustrated]

McCarthy, P.M. 1988. New and interesting species of Verrucaria I. Lichenologist 20: 1-10. [detailed key to 10 terrestrial saxicolous species with very small spores, 2 on N. Am. list, V. ossiseda, V. arctica]

Fröberg, L. 1989. The Calcicolous Lichens on the Great Alvar of Öland, Sweden. Institutionen för Systematisk Botanik, Lund. 109 pp. [descriptions of 12 species, 6 on N. Am. list; several photographs of thalli or anatomy; ecological notes]

McCarthy, P.M. 1988. New and interesting species of Verrucaria II. Lichenologist 20: 245-251. [V. papillosa]

[Freshwater:]

Swinscow, T.D.V. 1968. Pyrenocarpous lichens: 13. Fresh-water species of Verrucaria in the British Isles. Lichenologist 4: 34-54. [key, 8 species, 5 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of anatomy]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1989. Notes on aquatic species of Verrucaria in the British Isles. Lichenologist 21: 23-28. [notes on 8 freshwater species, little useful information on 3 N. Am. species, illustration of spores of V. funckii]

[Maritime/marine:]

Fletcher, A. 1975. Key for the identification of British marine and maritime lichens. I. Siliceous rocky shore species. Lichenologist 7: 1-52. [key, 15 species, all on N. Am. list, key termina equivalent to brief descriptions]

Fletcher, A. 1975. Key for the identification of British marine and maritime lichens. II. Calcareous and terricolous species. Lichenologist 7: 73-115. [key, 9 species, 5 on N. Am. list, key termina equivalent to brief descriptions]

Taylor, R.M. 1982. Marine flora and fauna of the northeastern United States. Lichens (Ascomycetes) of the intertidal region. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Technical Report NMFS Circular 446: 1-24. [artificial key illustrated with line drawings, 11 species, 11 on N. Am. list, species descriptions]

Brodo, I.M. and Santesson, R. 1997. Lichens of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. 3. Marine species of Verrucaria (Verrucariaceae, Ascomycotina). Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 82: 27-37. [key to 10 named and 3 unnamed N. Am. species; V. epimaura and V. schofieldii newly described and illustrated, but not yet on N. Am. list]

Santesson, R. 1939. Amphibious pyrenolichens I. Arkiv för Botanik 29A(10): 1-67. [key, 8 marine species, 6 on N. Am. list, descriptions]

Lamb, I.M. 1948. Antarctic pyrenocarp lichens. Discovery Reports 25: 1-30. [key, 12 species, 3 on N. Am. list, notes, drawings of anatomy]

Moe, R. 1997. Verrucaria tavaresiae sp. nov., a marine lichen with a brown algal photobiont. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society 4: 7-11. [description and drawings]

[Descriptions of one or a few species:]

Breuss, O. 2002. Four Verrucaria species new to America. Evansia 19: 26-28. [characterizations and comparisons of four non-saxicolous species: V. bryoctona, V. phloeophila, V. viridigrana, V. xyloxena]

Harada, H. 1996. Taxonomic notes on the lichen family Verrucariaceae in Japan (IX). Verrucaria rheitrophila Zsch., new to Japan. Journal of Japanese Botany 71: 317-322. [description and several illustrations for 1 species]

Harada, H. 1996. Taxonomic notes on the lichen family Verrucariaceae in Japan (VI). Verrucaria maura Wahlenb. Hikobia 12: 55-59. [description and several illustrations for 1 species]

Harada, H. 1996. Taxonomic notes on the lichen family Verrucariaceae in Japan (VII). Verrucaria muralis Ach. Natural History Research 4(1): 11-15. [description and several illustrations of 1 species]

Breuss, O. 2001 ("2000"). New taxa of pyrenocarpous lichens from the Sonoran region. Bryologist 103: 705-709. [V. rubrocinta newly described; drawing]

Thomson, J.W. and Scotter, G.W. 1992. Lichens of the Cape Parry and Melville Hills Regions, Northwest Territories. Canadian Field-Naturalist 106: 105-111. [V. ossiseda, description and drawing of anatomy]

[Lichenicolous:]

Zehetleitner, G. 1978. Über einige parasitische Arten der Flechtengattung Verrucaria. Nova Hedwigia 29: 683-734. [key to 5 species parasitic on Caloplaca, descriptions of these plus 3 others, none on N. Am. list]

Breuss, O. 1998. On the taxonomy of "Catapyrenium" plumbeum (lichenized Ascomycetes, Verrucariaceae). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 100B: 671-676. [key to 3 species parasitic on Staurothele, 2 of which in Verrucaria; 1 described as new, one transferred from Catapyrenium; descriptions in Latin, comparisons in English; photograph]

Vestergrenopsis (2)

Henssen, A. 1963. A study of the genus Vestergrenopsis. Canadian Journal of Botany 41: 1359-1366. [key, 2 species, 2 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations of thalli and anatomy]

Thomson, J.W. 1984. America Arctic Lichens 1. The Macrolichens. Columbia University Press, New York, 504 pp. [key, 2 species on N. Am. list, descriptions, fine drawings of thalli]

Dahl, E. 1950. Studies in the macrolichen flora of southwest Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland 150(2): 1-176. [detailed description of anatomy of V. elaeina; brief comparison with V. isidiata]

McCullough, H.A. 1964. Vestergrenopsis elaeina (Wahlenb.) Gyeln. in North America. Bryologist 67: 372-374. [briefest description and comparison of 2 species, photographs of thalli]

Henssen, A. 1963. The North American species of Massalongia and generic relationships. Canadian Journal of Botany 41: 1331-1346. [keys to similar genera in the sterile and fertile states]

Vezdaea (1) [3]

Coppins, B.J. 1987. The genus Vezdaea in the British Isles. Lichenologist 19: 167-176. [key to 6 European species, 3 species on N. Am. list, descriptions, a few illustrations]

Giralt, M., Poelt, J. and Suanjak, M. 1993. Die Flechtengattung Vezdaea mit V. cobria spec. nov. Herzogia 9: 715-724. [world key, 10 species, 3 species on N. Am. list]

Poelt, J. and Dobbeler, P. 1975. Über moosparasitische Arten der Flechtengattung Micarea und Vezdaea. Botanische Jahrbücher für systematik Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 96: 328-352. [key, 5 species of Vezdaea on moss, V. stipitata, description]

Vouauxiella (1)

Hawksworth, D.L. 1981. The lichenicolous Coelomycetes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 9: 1-98. [key, 4 species, 1 on N. Am. list generic description, notes]

Morgan-Jones, G. 1971. Conidium ontogeny in Coelomycetes. III. Meristem thalloconidia. Canadian Journal of Botany 49: 1939-40. [detailed description and drawings of V. lichenicola]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1976. New and interesting microfungi from Slapton, South Devonshire: Deuteromycotina III. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 67: 51-59. [illustration only of conidia of V. lichenicola, comparison with V. verrucosa]

Vouauxiomyces (1)

Hawksworth, D.L. and Dyko, B.J. 1979. Lichenodiplis and Vouauxiomyces: two genera of lichenicolous Coelomycetes. Lichenologist 11: 51-61. [description of the new genus Vouauxiomyces; description and illustrations of V. truncatus]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1981. The lichenicolous Coelomycetes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany Series 9: 1-98. [key, 3 species, 1 on N. Am. list, notes, illustrations]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1983. A key to the lichen-forming, parasitic, parasymbiotic and saprophytic fungi occurring on lichens in the British Isles. Lichenologist 15: 1-44. [3 species in overall key, V. truncatus on N. Am. list, spore drawings]

Vulpicida (4)

[see also keys to Tuckermannopsis and/or Cetraria written before 1993]

Mattson, J.-E. 1993. A monograph of the genus Vulpicida (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycetes). Opera Botanica 119: 1-61. [key, 6 species, 4 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Mattson, J.-E. and Lai, Ming-J. 1993. Vulpicida, a new genus in Parmeliaceae (Lichenized Ascomycetes). Mycotaxon 46: 425-428. [generic description and comparisons]

 

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z Contents

Waynea (1)

Moberg, R. 1990. Waynea, a new lichen genus in the Bacidiaceae from California. Lichenologist 22: 249-252. [description of genus and W. californica, illustrations]

Roux, C., Clerc, P., Clauzade, G. and Bricaud, O. 1995. La genero Waynea Moberg (Ascomycetes, Lecanorales, Bacidiaceae). In: Farkas, E.E., Lücking, R. and Wirth, V. (eds.). Scripta Lichenologica--Lichenological Papers Dedicated to Antonín Vezda. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, no. 58, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart pp. 383-404. [world key, 3 species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions, drawings of spores and anatomy; in Esperanto]

Bricaud, O. and Roux, C. 1993. Waynea adscendens Rico (Lichenes, Lecanorales, Bacidiaceae) en France. Cryptogamie, Bryologie-Lichénologie 14(2): 189-200. [table compares 3 species, W. californica on N. Am. list]

Wentiomyces (1)

Hawksworth, D.L. 1980. Notes on some fungi occurring on Peltigera, with a key to accepted species. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 74: 363-386. [W. peltigericola newly described and illustrated]

Clauzade, G., Diederich, P. and Roux, C. 1989. Nelikenigintaj Fungoj likenlogaj. Illustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence, Numéro Spécial 1: 1-141. [key, 2 species, 1 on N. Am. list, illustrations]

Roux, C., Bricaud, O., Sérusiaux, E. and Coste, C. 1994. Wentiomyces lichenicola subsp. nov. bouteillei champignon lichénicole non lichénisé (Dothideales, Dimeriaceae). Mycotaxon 50: 459-474. [copious descriptions and anatomical drawings of a new subspecies, which, however, is quite similar to the original]

Hawksworth, D.L. 1983. A key to the lichen-forming, parasitic, parasymbiotic and saprophytic fungi occurring on lichens in the British Isles. Lichenologist 15: 1-44. Hawksworth British [W. peltigericola in overall key, spore drawings]

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Z Contents

Xanthoparmelia (55)

[see also Parmelia in European references]

Thomson, J.W. 1993. A key to Xanthoparmelia in North America, extracted from the world keys of Hale 1990. Bryologist 96: 342-344. [key only, about 55 N. Am species, includes Mexico]

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1990. A synopsis of the lichen genus Xanthoparmelia (Vainio) Hale (Ascomycotina, Parmeliaceae). Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 74: 1-250. [worldwide key, 406 species, about 55 on N. Am. list, descriptions, photographs of thalli of most species, ]

Nash, T.H. 1974. Chemotaxonomy of Arizonan lichens of the genus Parmelia subgen. Xanthoparmelia. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 101: 317-325. [key, 24 species, 21 on N. Am. list, notes include brief characterizations or comparisons]

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1964. The Parmelia conspersa group in North America and Europe. Bryologist 67: 462-473. [key, 7 species of Xanthoparmelia , 6 in N. Am., notes include some descriptive material]

Rosentreter, R. 1993. Vagrant lichens in North America. Bryologist 96: 333-338. [field key to 8 western vagrant species]

Elix, J.A. 1999. Two new species of Xanthoparmelia (Ascomycotina, Parmeliaceae) from North America. Mycotaxon 71: 417-422. [X. eganii, newly described (not yet on N. Am. list), photograph of thallus]

[Xanthopsora]                  (see Xanthopsorella)

Xanthopsorella (1)

Schneider, G. 1979. Die Flechtengattung Psora sensu Zahlbruckner. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 13. J. Cramer, Vaduz. 291 pp. [X. texana in key to Psora in the broad sense as Xanthopsora; description, anatomical drawings]

Hafellner, J. 1984. Studien in Richtung einer naturlicheren Gliederung der Sammelfamilien Lecanoraceae und Lecideaceae. In: Hertel, H. and Oberwinkler, F. (eds.) Beiträge zur Lichenologie. Festschrift J. Poelt. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia 79. J. Cramer, Vaduz pp. 241-371. [genus described, anatomical illustration only of X. texana]

Xanthoria (19)

Lindblom, L. 1997. The genus Xanthoria (Fr.) Th. Fr. in North America. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 83: 75-172. [key, 15 species, descriptions, illustrations, X. montana and X. tenax newly described.]

Hinds, J.W. and Hinds, P.L. 1993. The lichen genus Xanthoria in Maine. Maine Naturalist 1: 1-16. [key, 6 species, descriptions, color photographs of thalli; "X. fallax" is actually X. ulophyllodes]

Hinds, J.W. and Hinds, P.L. 1994 ("1993"). An update on the lichen genus Xanthoria in Maine. Maine Naturalist 1: 225-226. [comparison of X. ulophyllodes and X. fallax; color photograph of X. fallax]

Poelt, J. and Petutschnig, W. 1992. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Flechtenflora des Himalaya IV. Die Gattungen Xanthoria und Teloschistes zugleich Versuch einer Revision der Xanthoria candelaria-Gruppe. Nova Hedwigia 54(1-2): 1-36. [X. candelaria group and general] [key, 8 species, 8 on N. Am. list, some described, illustrations of anatomy and aspect of sorediate species]

Poelt, J. and Petutschnig, W. 1992. Xanthoria candelaria und ähnliche Arten in Europa. Herzogia 9: 103-114. [X. candelaria group] [key, 5 species, all on N. Am. list, good illustration of X. fallax soralia development]

Kondratyuk, S. 1997. Notes on Xanthoria Th. Fr. III. Two new species of the Xanthoria candelaria group. Lichenologist 29: 431-440. [X. candelaria group] [table compares 7 species, of which 4 are on N. Am. list; the new species postdate Lindblom’s work]

Xerotrema (1)

Sherwood, M.A. and Coppins, B.J. 1980. Xerotrema, a new genus of ondontotremoid fungus from Scotland. Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh 38: 367-371. [X. megalospora, a new genus and species, description and illustration]

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W., and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [genus in overall key, 1 species, description; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Xylographa (6)

Ryan, Bruce. (1994-1999) Working keys for the identification of North American lichens. {diskettes} Available: from the author at brucryan@mail.dancris.com [key, 7 species, 6 on N. Am. list, descriptions; for details and problems see annotation under "Twenty most useful"]

[Fink (1935) and Purvis et al. (1992) together cover all 6 N. Am. species]

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 426 pp. [key, 4 N. Am. species, descriptions]

Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L, James, P.W. and Moore, D.M. 1992. The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum, London, 710 pp. [key, 3 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions; available from the British Lichen Society at http://www.theBLS.org.uk/public.htm]

Brodo, I.M. 1992. Bryoria trichodes, Ochrolechia oregonensis and Xylographa opegraphella new to Europe. Graphis Scripta 4: 61-65. [comparison of X opegraphella with similar species; observations on other species]

 

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Zahlbrucknerella (3)

Henssen, A. 1977. The genus Zahlbrucknerella. Lichenologist 9: 17-46. [separate keys for fertile and sterile species, 7 species, 3 on N. Am. list, descriptions, copious illustrations]

Henssen, A. 1963. Eine Revision der Flechtenfamilien Lichinaceae und Ephebaceae. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 18(l): 1-123. [key, 2 species, 1 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Thomson, J.W. 1984. America Arctic Lichens 1. The Macrolichens. Columbia University Press, New York, 504 pp. [description of genus and Z. calcarea, fine drawing of thallus]

Galloway, D.J. 1985. Flora of New Zealand Lichens. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer, Wellington. lxxiii + 662 pp. [detailed description of genus and Z. calcarea]

[Zamenhofia]                    (see Porina)

Zwackhiomyces (6)

Grube, M. and Hafellner, J. 1990. Studien an flechtenbewohnenden Pilzen der Sammelgattung Didymella (Ascomycetes, Dothideales). Nova Hedwigia 51(3-4): 283-360. [Zwackhiomyces newly described., key, 9 species, 4 on N. Am. list, descriptions, illustrations]

Harris, R.C. 1995. More Florida Lichens. Including the 10 Cent Tour of the Pyrenolichens. Published by the author, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 192 pp. [key, 1 named and 1 unnamed species: Z. arenicola newly described; available from Elisabeth Lay at Lay239@aol.com or may be copied from anyone who own a copy]

Aptroot, A., Diederich, P., Sérusiaux, E. and Sipman, H.J.M. 1997. Lichens and Lichenicolous Fungi from New Guinea. Bibliotheca Lichenologica, 64, J. Cramer, Berlin, Stuttgart. 220 pp. [Z. cladoniae, description, illustrations of habitus, ascus, and spores]

Alstrup, V. and Cole, M.S. 1998. Lichenicolous fungi of British Columbia. Bryologist 101: 221-229. [Z. cladoniae, slightly larger spores than as described; (new combination by Diederich, original description by Dodge)]

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Acknowledgements

The work of several lichenologists served as sources of citations for this bibliography. We would particularly like to thank Dr. Bruce Ryan, for permission to use genus citations from his unpublished Working keys for the identification of North American lichens, and Dr. Theodore Esslinger, Dr. Robert Egan, and Dr. William Culberson, the authors of Recent Literature on Lichens. All citations were checked and reviewed by us; any errors are our responsibility.

We would like to thank the staff of the Harvard University Botany Libraries for their hospitality, kindness, and assistance to the first author during many months of library research. They are Judith Warnement, Lisa DeCesare, Gretchen Wade, Winifred Wilkins, Cathleen Pfister, Jill Thomas, Devin McMahon, Barbara Whitlock, Kristin Peterson, Chris Robson, and Steven Riel. We thank Dr. Scott LaGreca for his suggestions for the references of Ramalina and Drs. William Buck and Richard Harris for hospitality and assistance at the New York Botanical Garden. Anne-Marie Countie manages the computer system of the Harvard Herbaria. She provided much-needed help and advice. Especially we thank Dr. Donald Pfister for his sponsorship of the project and for encouraging our use of the Farlow Herbarium website.

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